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SB-317 Competence to stand trial.(2021-2022)

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Date Published: 02/04/2021 09:00 PM
SB317:v99#DOCUMENT


CALIFORNIA LEGISLATURE— 2021–2022 REGULAR SESSION

Senate Bill
No. 317


Introduced by Senator Stern

February 04, 2021


An act to repeal and amend Section 4019 of, and to repeal and add Section 1370.01 of the Penal Code, relating to criminal procedure.


LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST


SB 317, as introduced, Stern. Competence to stand trial.
(1) Existing law prohibits a person from being tried or adjudged to punishment while that person is mentally incompetent. Existing law establishes a process by which a defendant’s mental competency is evaluated and by which the defendant receives treatment, including, if applicable, antipsychotic medication, with the goal of returning the defendant to competency. Existing law suspends a criminal action pending restoration to competency.
This bill would repeal existing law providing the process for restoring competency for a person charged with a misdemeanor, or a violation of probation for a misdemeanor, including provisions regarding administration for antipsychotic medication. This bill would replace these provisions and authorize the court to conduct an inquiry into a defendant’s competency, as specified. The bill would permit a court, upon finding the defendant incompetent to stand trial, to suspend the proceedings and take certain actions, including granting diversion not to exceed one year, referring the matter to alternative justice, diversion, or community treatment programs with the goal of improving mental health, evaluate whether to refer the matter for conservatorship proceedings, or to dismiss the charges, as specified.
(2) Existing law provides that a prisoner, who, for specified reasons, is confined in or committed to a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp, or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp, shall, for each 4-day period of custody, have 2 days deducted from the prisoner’s period of confinement, except as specified. Existing law, until January 1, 2023, allows credits earned for a period of flash incarceration to be counted towards the term to be served if the person’s probation or mandatory supervision is revoked.
The bill would permit application of conduct credits for persons confined in a state hospital or other mental health treatment facility pending their return of mental competency. The bill would eliminate application of conduct credits earned during a period of flash incarceration.
Vote: MAJORITY   Appropriation: NO   Fiscal Committee: YES   Local Program: NO  

The people of the State of California do enact as follows:


SECTION 1.

 Section 1370.01 of the Penal Code is repealed.
1370.01.

(a)(1)If the defendant is found mentally competent, the criminal process shall resume, the trial on the offense charged shall proceed, and judgment may be pronounced. If the defendant is found mentally incompetent, the trial, judgment, or hearing on the alleged violation shall be suspended until the person becomes mentally competent, and the court shall order that (A) in the meantime, the defendant be delivered by the sheriff to an available public or private treatment facility approved by the county mental health director that will promote the defendant’s speedy restoration to mental competence, or placed on outpatient status as specified in this section, and (B) upon the filing of a certificate of restoration to competence, the defendant be returned to court in accordance with Section 1372. The court shall transmit a copy of its order to the county mental health director or his or her designee.

(2)If the defendant is found mentally incompetent, the court may make a finding that the defendant is an appropriate candidate for diversion pursuant to Chapter 2.8A (commencing with Section 1001.35) of Title 6, and may, if the defendant is eligible pursuant to Section 1001.36, grant diversion for a period not to exceed that set forth in paragraph (1) of subdivision (c). Upon the dismissal of charges at the conclusion of the period of diversion, pursuant to subdivision (e) of Section 1001.36, a defendant shall no longer be deemed incompetent to stand trial pursuant to this section.

(3)Prior to making the order directing that the defendant be confined in a treatment facility or placed on outpatient status, the court shall proceed as follows:

(A)The court shall order the county mental health director or his or her designee to evaluate the defendant and to submit to the court within 15 judicial days of the order a written recommendation as to whether the defendant should be required to undergo outpatient treatment, or committed to a treatment facility. No person shall be admitted to a treatment facility or placed on outpatient status under this section without having been evaluated by the county mental health director or his or her designee. No person shall be admitted to a state hospital under this section unless the county mental health director finds that there is no less restrictive appropriate placement available and the county mental health director has a contract with the State Department of State Hospitals for these placements.

(B)The court shall hear and determine whether the defendant, with advice of his or her counsel, consents to the administration of antipsychotic medication, and shall proceed as follows:

(i)If the defendant, with advice of his or her counsel, consents, the court order of commitment shall include confirmation that antipsychotic medication may be given to the defendant as prescribed by a treating psychiatrist pursuant to the defendant’s consent. The commitment order shall also indicate that, if the defendant withdraws consent for antipsychotic medication, after the treating psychiatrist complies with the provisions of subparagraph (C), the defendant shall be returned to court for a hearing in accordance with this subdivision regarding whether antipsychotic medication shall be administered involuntarily.

(ii)If the defendant does not consent to the administration of medication, the court shall hear and determine whether any of the following is true:

(I)The defendant lacks capacity to make decisions regarding antipsychotic medication, the defendant’s mental disorder requires medical treatment with antipsychotic medication, and, if the defendant’s mental disorder is not treated with antipsychotic medication, it is probable that serious harm to the physical or mental health of the patient will result. Probability of serious harm to the physical or mental health of the defendant requires evidence that the defendant is presently suffering adverse effects to his or her physical or mental health, or the defendant has previously suffered these effects as a result of a mental disorder and his or her condition is substantially deteriorating. The fact that a defendant has a diagnosis of a mental disorder does not alone establish probability of serious harm to the physical or mental health of the defendant.

(II)The defendant is a danger to others, in that the defendant has inflicted, attempted to inflict, or made a serious threat of inflicting substantial physical harm on another while in custody, or the defendant had inflicted, attempted to inflict, or made a serious threat of inflicting substantial physical harm on another that resulted in his or her being taken into custody, and the defendant presents, as a result of mental disorder or mental defect, a demonstrated danger of inflicting substantial physical harm on others. Demonstrated danger may be based on an assessment of the defendant’s present mental condition, including a consideration of past behavior of the defendant within six years prior to the time the defendant last attempted to inflict, inflicted, or threatened to inflict substantial physical harm on another, and other relevant evidence.

(III)The people have charged the defendant with a serious crime against the person or property; involuntary administration of antipsychotic medication is substantially likely to render the defendant competent to stand trial; the medication is unlikely to have side effects that interfere with the defendant’s ability to understand the nature of the criminal proceedings or to assist counsel in the conduct of a defense in a reasonable manner; less intrusive treatments are unlikely to have substantially the same results; and antipsychotic medication is in the patient’s best medical interest in light of his or her medical condition.

(iii)If the court finds any of the conditions described in clause (ii) to be true, the court shall issue an order authorizing the treatment facility to involuntarily administer antipsychotic medication to the defendant when and as prescribed by the defendant’s treating psychiatrist. The court shall not order involuntary administration of psychotropic medication under subclause (III) of clause (ii) unless the court has first found that the defendant does not meet the criteria for involuntary administration of psychotropic medication under subclause (I) of clause (ii) and does not meet the criteria under subclause (II) of clause (ii).

(iv)In all cases, the treating hospital, facility, or program may administer medically appropriate antipsychotic medication prescribed by a psychiatrist in an emergency as described in subdivision (m) of Section 5008 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(v)Any report made pursuant to subdivision (b) shall include a description of any antipsychotic medication administered to the defendant and its effects and side effects, including effects on the defendant’s appearance or behavior that would affect the defendant’s ability to understand the nature of the criminal proceedings or to assist counsel in the conduct of a defense in a reasonable manner. During the time the defendant is confined in a state hospital or other treatment facility or placed on outpatient status, either the defendant or the people may request that the court review any order made pursuant to this subdivision. The defendant, to the same extent enjoyed by other patients in the state hospital or other treatment facility, shall have the right to contact the patients’ rights advocate regarding his or her rights under this section.

(C)If the defendant consented to antipsychotic medication as described in clause (i) of subparagraph (B), but subsequently withdraws his or her consent, or, if involuntary antipsychotic medication was not ordered pursuant to clause (ii) of subparagraph (B), and the treating psychiatrist determines that antipsychotic medication has become medically necessary and appropriate, the treating psychiatrist shall make efforts to obtain informed consent from the defendant for antipsychotic medication. If informed consent is not obtained from the defendant, and the treating psychiatrist is of the opinion that the defendant lacks capacity to make decisions regarding antipsychotic medication as specified in subclause (I) of clause (ii) of subparagraph (B), or that the defendant is a danger to others as specified in subclause (II) of clause (ii) of subparagraph (B), the committing court shall be notified of this, including an assessment of the current mental status of the defendant and the opinion of the treating psychiatrist that involuntary antipsychotic medication has become medically necessary and appropriate. The court shall provide copies of the report to the prosecuting attorney and to the attorney representing the defendant and shall set a hearing to determine whether involuntary antipsychotic medication should be ordered in the manner described in subparagraph (B).

(4)When the court, after considering the placement recommendation of the county mental health director required in paragraph (3), orders that the defendant be confined in a public or private treatment facility, the court shall provide copies of the following documents which shall be taken with the defendant to the treatment facility where the defendant is to be confined:

(A)The commitment order, including a specification of the charges.

(B)A computation or statement setting forth the maximum term of commitment in accordance with subdivision (c).

(C)A computation or statement setting forth the amount of credit for time served, if any, to be deducted from the maximum term of commitment.

(D)State summary criminal history information.

(E)Any arrest reports prepared by the police department or other law enforcement agency.

(F)Any court-ordered psychiatric examination or evaluation reports.

(G)The county mental health director’s placement recommendation report.

(5)A person subject to commitment under this section may be placed on outpatient status under the supervision of the county mental health director or his or her designee by order of the court in accordance with the procedures contained in Title 15 (commencing with Section 1600) except that where the term “community program director” appears the term “county mental health director” shall be substituted.

(6)If the defendant is committed or transferred to a public or private treatment facility approved by the county mental health director, the court may, upon receiving the written recommendation of the county mental health director, transfer the defendant to another public or private treatment facility approved by the county mental health director. In the event of dismissal of the criminal charges before the defendant recovers competence, the person shall be subject to the applicable provisions of Part 1 (commencing with Section 5000) of Division 5 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. Where either the defendant or the prosecutor chooses to contest the order of transfer, a petition may be filed in the court for a hearing, which shall be held if the court determines that sufficient grounds exist. At the hearing, the prosecuting attorney or the defendant may present evidence bearing on the order of transfer. The court shall use the same standards as are used in conducting probation revocation hearings pursuant to Section 1203.2.

Prior to making an order for transfer under this section, the court shall notify the defendant, the attorney of record for the defendant, the prosecuting attorney, and the county mental health director or his or her designee.

(b)Within 90 days of a commitment made pursuant to subdivision (a), the medical director of the treatment facility to which the defendant is confined shall make a written report to the court and the county mental health director or his or her designee, concerning the defendant’s progress toward recovery of mental competence. Where the defendant is on outpatient status, the outpatient treatment staff shall make a written report to the county mental health director concerning the defendant’s progress toward recovery of mental competence. Within 90 days of placement on outpatient status, the county mental health director shall report to the court on this matter. If the defendant has not recovered mental competence, but the report discloses a substantial likelihood that the defendant will regain mental competence in the foreseeable future, the defendant shall remain in the treatment facility or on outpatient status. Thereafter, at six-month intervals or until the defendant becomes mentally competent, where the defendant is confined in a treatment facility, the medical director of the hospital or person in charge of the facility shall report in writing to the court and the county mental health director or a designee regarding the defendant’s progress toward recovery of mental competence. Where the defendant is on outpatient status, after the initial 90-day report, the outpatient treatment staff shall report to the county mental health director on the defendant’s progress toward recovery, and the county mental health director shall report to the court on this matter at six-month intervals. A copy of these reports shall be provided to the prosecutor and defense counsel by the court. If the report indicates that there is no substantial likelihood that the defendant will regain mental competence in the foreseeable future, the committing court shall order the defendant to be returned to the court for proceedings pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (c). The court shall transmit a copy of its order to the county mental health director or his or her designee.

(c)(1)If, at the end of one year from the date of commitment or a period of commitment equal to the maximum term of imprisonment provided by law for the most serious offense charged in the misdemeanor complaint, whichever is shorter, the defendant has not recovered mental competence, the defendant shall be returned to the committing court. The court shall notify the county mental health director or his or her designee of the return and of any resulting court orders.

(2)Whenever any defendant is returned to the court pursuant to subdivision (b) or paragraph (1) of this subdivision and it appears to the court that the defendant is gravely disabled, as defined in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (h) of Section 5008 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, the court shall order the conservatorship investigator of the county of commitment of the defendant to initiate conservatorship proceedings for the defendant pursuant to Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 5350) of Part 1 of Division 5 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. Any hearings required in the conservatorship proceedings shall be held in the superior court in the county that ordered the commitment. The court shall transmit a copy of the order directing initiation of conservatorship proceedings to the county mental health director or his or her designee and shall notify the county mental health director or his or her designee of the outcome of the proceedings.

(d)The criminal action remains subject to dismissal pursuant to Section 1385. If the criminal action is dismissed, the court shall transmit a copy of the order of dismissal to the county mental health director or his or her designee.

(e)If the criminal charge against the defendant is dismissed, the defendant shall be released from any commitment ordered under this section, but without prejudice to the initiation of any proceedings which may be appropriate under Part 1 (commencing with Section 5000) of Division 5 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

SEC. 2.

 Section 1370.01 is added to the Penal Code, to read:

1370.01.
 (a) If the defendant is found mentally competent, the criminal process shall resume, and the trial on the offense charged shall proceed.
(b) If the defendant is found mentally incompetent, the trial, judgment, or hearing on the alleged violation shall be suspended and the court may do any of the following:
(1) Conduct a hearing, pursuant to Chapter 2.8A (commencing with Section 1001.35) of Title 6, and, if the court deems the defendant eligible, grant diversion pursuant to Section 1001.36 for a period not to exceed one year from the date the individual is accepted into diversion or the maximum term of imprisonment provided by law for the most serious offense charged in the misdemeanor complaint, whichever is shorter.
(2) Refer the matter to any other available collaborative justice, diversion court, or community-based treatment appropriate to the goal of improving the mental health of the defendant. The term on diversion or mandatory treatment pursuant to this section shall not exceed one year from the date the individual is accepted or the maximum term of imprisonment provided by law for the most serious offense charged in the misdemeanor complaint, whichever is shorter. Criminal proceedings shall remain suspended until diversion or mandatory treatment is terminated.
(3) Dismiss the charges pursuant to Section 1385. If the criminal action is dismissed, the court shall transmit a copy of the order of dismissal to the county mental health director or the director’s designee.
(c) If the defendant performs satisfactorily on diversion or mandatory treatment pursuant to this section, at the end of the period of diversion or mandatory treatment, the court shall dismiss the criminal charges that were the subject of the criminal proceedings at the time of the initial diversion or treatment.
(d) If any of the following circumstances exists, the court shall, after notice to the defendant, defense counsel, and the prosecution, hold a hearing to determine whether the mandatory treatment pursuant to subdivision (b) should be modified or whether the defendant should be referred to the county conservatorship investigator for the county of commitment to initiate conservatorship proceedings for the defendant pursuant to Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 5350) of Part 1 of Division 5 of the Welfare and Institutions Code:
(1) The defendant is charged with an additional misdemeanor allegedly committed during diversion that reflects the defendant’s propensity for violence.
(2) The defendant is charged with a felony allegedly committed during diversion.
(3) The defendant engaged in criminal conduct rendering the defendant unsuitable for diversion.
(4) Based on the opinion of a qualified mental health expert whom the court deems appropriate, either of the following circumstances exist:
(A) The defendant is performing unsatisfactorily in the assigned program.
(B) The defendant is gravely disabled, as defined in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (h) of Section 5008 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. A defendant shall only be referred to the conservatorship investigator pursuant to this finding. Any hearings required in the conservatorship proceedings shall be held in the superior court in the county that ordered the commitment. The court shall transmit a copy of the order directing initiation of conservatorship proceedings to the county mental health director or the director’s designee and shall notify the county mental health director or the director’s designee of the outcome of the proceedings to initiate conservatorship proceedings pursuant to Sections 5352 and 5352.5 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. Before establishing a conservatorship, the public guardian shall investigate all available alternatives to conservatorship pursuant to Section 5354 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. If the outcome of the conservatorship proceedings results in the establishment of conservatorship, the charges shall be dismissed pursuant to Section 1385.
(e) If the defendant is found mentally incompetent and is on a grant of probation for a misdemeanor offense, the court shall dismiss the pending revocation matter and may return the defendant to supervision. If the revocation matter is dismissed pursuant to this subdivision, the court may modify the terms and conditions of supervision to include appropriate mental health treatment.

SEC. 3.

 Section 4019 of the Penal Code, as amended by Section 3 of Chapter 44 of the Statutes of 2019, is repealed.
4019.

(a)This section applies in all of the following cases:

(1)When a prisoner is confined in or committed to a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp, including all days of custody from the date of arrest to the date when the sentence commences, under a judgment of imprisonment or of a fine and imprisonment until the fine is paid in a criminal action or proceeding.

(2)When a prisoner is confined in or committed to a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp as a condition of probation after suspension of imposition of a sentence or suspension of execution of sentence in a criminal action or proceeding.

(3)When a prisoner is confined in or committed to a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp for a definite period of time for contempt pursuant to a proceeding other than a criminal action or proceeding.

(4)When a prisoner is confined in a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp following arrest and prior to the imposition of sentence for a felony conviction.

(5)When a prisoner is confined in a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp as part of custodial sanction imposed following a violation of postrelease community supervision or parole.

(6)When a prisoner is confined in a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp as a result of a sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170.

(7)When a prisoner participates in a program pursuant to Section 1203.016 or Section 4024.2. Except for prisoners who have already been deemed eligible to receive credits for participation in a program pursuant to Section 1203.016 prior to January 1, 2015, this paragraph shall apply prospectively.

(8)When a prisoner is confined in or committed to a county jail treatment facility, as defined in Section 1369.1, in proceedings pursuant to Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 1367) of Title 10 of Part 2.

(b)Subject to subdivision (d), for each four-day period in which a prisoner is confined in or committed to a facility as specified in this section, one day shall be deducted from the prisoner’s period of confinement unless it appears by the record that the prisoner has refused to satisfactorily perform labor as assigned by the sheriff, chief of police, or superintendent of an industrial farm or road camp.

(c)For each four-day period in which a prisoner is confined in or committed to a facility as specified in this section, one day shall be deducted from the prisoner’s period of confinement unless it appears by the record that the prisoner has not satisfactorily complied with the reasonable rules and regulations established by the sheriff, chief of police, or superintendent of an industrial farm or road camp.

(d)This section does not require the sheriff, chief of police, or superintendent of an industrial farm or road camp to assign labor to a prisoner if it appears from the record that the prisoner has refused to satisfactorily perform labor as assigned or that the prisoner has not satisfactorily complied with the reasonable rules and regulations of the sheriff, chief of police, or superintendent of an industrial farm or road camp.

(e)A deduction shall not be made under this section unless the person is committed for a period of four days or longer.

(f)It is the intent of the Legislature that if all days are earned under this section, a term of four days will be deemed to have been served for every two days spent in actual custody.

(g)The changes in this section as enacted by the act that added this subdivision shall apply to prisoners who are confined to a county jail, city jail, industrial farm, or road camp for a crime committed on or after the effective date of that act.

(h)The changes to this section enacted by the act that added this subdivision shall apply prospectively and shall apply to prisoners who are confined to a county jail, city jail, industrial farm, or road camp for a crime committed on or after October 1, 2011. Any days earned by a prisoner prior to October 1, 2011, shall be calculated at the rate required by the prior law.

(i)(1)This section shall not apply, and no credits may be earned, for periods of flash incarceration imposed pursuant to Section 3000.08 or 3454.

(2)Credits earned pursuant to this section for a period of flash incarceration pursuant to Section 1203.35 shall, if the person’s probation or mandatory supervision is revoked, count towards the term to be served.

(j)This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2023, and as of that date is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that is enacted before January 1, 2023, deletes or extends that date.

SEC. 4.

 Section 4019 of the Penal Code, as amended by Section 4 of Chapter 44 of the Statutes of 2019, is amended to read:

4019.
 (a) This section applies in all of the following cases:
(1) When a prisoner is confined in or committed to a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp, including all days of custody from the date of arrest to the date when the sentence commences, under a judgment of imprisonment or of a fine and imprisonment until the fine is paid in a criminal action or proceeding.
(2) When a prisoner is confined in or committed to a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp as a condition of probation after suspension of imposition of a sentence or suspension of execution of sentence in a criminal action or proceeding.
(3) When a prisoner is confined in or committed to a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp for a definite period of time for contempt pursuant to a proceeding other than a criminal action or proceeding.
(4) When a prisoner is confined in a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp following arrest and prior to the imposition of sentence for a felony conviction.
(5) When a prisoner is confined in a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp as part of custodial sanction imposed following a violation of postrelease community supervision or parole.
(6) When a prisoner is confined in a county jail, industrial farm, or road camp or a city jail, industrial farm, or road camp as a result of a sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170.
(7) When a prisoner participates in a program pursuant to Section 1203.016 or Section 4024.2. Except for prisoners who have already been deemed eligible to receive credits for participation in a program pursuant to Section 1203.016 prior to January 1, 2015, this paragraph shall apply prospectively.
(8) When a prisoner is confined in or committed to a state hospital or other mental health treatment facility, to a county jail treatment facility, as defined in Section 1369.1, in proceedings pursuant to Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 1367) of Title 10 of Part 2.
(b) Subject to subdivision (d), for each four-day period in which a prisoner is confined in or committed to a facility as specified in this section, one day shall be deducted from the prisoner’s period of confinement unless it appears by the record that the prisoner has refused to satisfactorily perform labor as assigned by the sheriff, chief of police, or superintendent of an industrial farm or road camp.
(c) For each four-day period in which a prisoner is confined in or committed to a facility as specified in this section, one day shall be deducted from the prisoner’s period of confinement unless it appears by the record that the prisoner has not satisfactorily complied with the reasonable rules and regulations established by the sheriff, chief of police, or superintendent of an industrial farm or road camp.
(d) This section does not require the sheriff, chief of police, or superintendent of an industrial farm or road camp to assign labor to a prisoner if it appears from the record that the prisoner has refused to satisfactorily perform labor as assigned or that the prisoner has not satisfactorily complied with the reasonable rules and regulations of the sheriff, chief of police, or superintendent of an industrial farm or road camp.
(e) A deduction shall not be made under this section unless the person is committed for a period of four days or longer.
(f) It is the intent of the Legislature that if all days are earned under this section, a term of four days will be deemed to have been served for every two days spent in actual custody.
(g) The changes in this section as enacted by the act that added this subdivision shall apply to prisoners who are confined to a county jail, city jail, industrial farm, or road camp for a crime committed on or after the effective date of that act.
(h) The changes to this section enacted by the act that added this subdivision shall apply prospectively and shall apply to prisoners who are confined to a county jail, city jail, industrial farm, or road camp for a crime committed on or after October 1, 2011. Any days earned by a prisoner prior to October 1, 2011, shall be calculated at the rate required by the prior law.
(i) This section shall not apply, and no credits may be earned, for periods of flash incarceration imposed pursuant to Section 3000.08 or 3454.
(j) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2023. 2022.