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AB-663 Corporations: electronic transmissions: bylaws: emergency powers.(2021-2022)

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Date Published: 07/01/2021 09:00 PM
AB663:v96#DOCUMENT

Amended  IN  Senate  July 01, 2021
Amended  IN  Senate  June 10, 2021
Amended  IN  Assembly  April 07, 2021

CALIFORNIA LEGISLATURE— 2021–2022 REGULAR SESSION

Assembly Bill
No. 663


Introduced by Assembly Member Chen

February 12, 2021


An act to amend Sections 20, 207, 212, 600, 601, 5140, 5151, 5152, 5510, 5511, 7140, 7151, 7152, 7510, 7511, 9140, 9151, 9152, 9411, 12320, 12331, 12332, 12460, and 12461 of the Corporations Code, relating to business.


LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST


AB 663, as amended, Chen. Corporations: electronic transmissions: bylaws: emergency powers.

Existing law provides requirements for an authorized electronic transmission by a corporation, including, among others, that the recipient has provided an unrevoked consent to the use of those means of transmission for communications made pursuant to the Corporations Code. Existing law also requires the consent to the electronic transmission to be preceded by or include a clear written statement to the recipient as to, among other things, whether the consent applies only to that transmission, to specified categories of communications, or to all communications from the corporation.

This bill would eliminate the above-described requirement that the recipient consent to those forms of communication, and would instead require that the recipient not object to those forms of communication, as specified. The bill would also eliminate the requirement that the statement include whether the consent applies only to that transmission, to specified categories of communications, or to all communications from the corporation. The bill would make related and conforming changes.

Existing law authorizes and regulates the formation and operation of a corporation, nonprofit public benefit corporation, nonprofit mutual benefit corporation, nonprofit religious corporation, or cooperative corporation.
Existing law authorizes these types of corporations, in anticipation of or during an emergency, to take specified actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s ordinary business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise. Existing law, however, prohibits the boards of these corporations, in anticipation of or during an emergency, from taking any action that requires the vote of the shareholders or members or that is not in the corporation’s ordinary course of business.
This bill would recast those provisions to authorize the board, in anticipation of or during an emergency, to take any action that it determines to be necessary or appropriate to respond to the emergency, mitigate the effects of the emergency, or comply with lawful federal and state government orders, but would prohibit action that requires the vote of the shareholders or members, unless the required shareholder or member approval was obtained prior to the emergency, and would make conforming changes regarding corporate bylaws.
Existing law defines “emergency,” for these purposes, to mean any of specified events or circumstances, as a result of which, and only so long as, a quorum of the corporation’s board of directors cannot be readily convened for action. Under existing law, “emergency” includes an attack on this state or nation by an enemy of the United States of America, as specified. Existing law also defines “emergency” to include a natural catastrophe, including, among others, a drought, fire, or explosion.
This bill would revise the above provision to specifically refer to an attack on or within this state or on the public security of its residents by an enemy of this state or on the nation by an enemy of the United States. The bill would specify that “emergency” includes an epidemic, pandemic, or disease outbreak. The bill would remove references to the corporation’s “ordinary” business operations and affairs to instead refer to the corporation’s business operations and affairs.
Existing law, with respect to the above-described corporations, authorizes meetings of shareholders or members to be held at any place as stated or fixed in the bylaws, as specified. Existing law provides that unless prohibited by the bylaws of the corporation, if authorized by the board of directors, and subject to certain consent requirements and procedures, shareholders or members not physically present may, by electronic transmission or electronic video screen communication, participate in a meeting of the shareholders or members, be deemed present, and vote, as specified.
This bill would authorize shareholders or members, if specified conditions are met, to also participate, be deemed present, and vote in shareholder or member meetings by conference telephone or other remote communications, in accordance with certain procedures.
Existing law generally requires notice of a shareholders’ or members’ meeting or any report, with respect to the above-described corporations, to be given personally, by electronic transmission by the corporation, by first-class mail, or, in various other circumstances, by other specified means. Existing law permits notice of a shareholders’ or members’ meeting or any report to be sent by electronic communication or other means of remote communication of the board determines it is necessary because of an emergency, as specified. Existing law further specifies that the notice or report is deemed to have been given at the time when delivered personally, sent by electronic transmission by the corporation, deposited in the mail, or sent by other means of written communication.
This bill, notwithstanding the foregoing provision, would authorize notice of a shareholders’ or members’ meeting or any report to be sent by electronic communication or other means of remote communication if the board determines it is necessary or appropriate because of an emergency, as defined. The bill would make related, conforming changes to these provisions.
Vote: MAJORITY   Appropriation: NO   Fiscal Committee: YES   Local Program: NO  

The people of the State of California do enact as follows:


SECTION 1.Section 20 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:
20.

“Electronic transmission by the corporation” means a communication (a) delivered by (1) facsimile telecommunication or electronic mail when directed to the facsimile number or electronic mail address, respectively, for that recipient on record with the corporation, (2) posting on an electronic message board or network which the corporation has designated for those communications, together with a separate notice to the recipient of the posting, which transmission shall be validly delivered upon the later of the posting or delivery of the separate notice thereof, or (3) other means of electronic communication, (b) to a recipient who has not provided a written objection to the use of those means of transmission for communications under or pursuant to this code, and (c) that creates a record that is capable of retention, retrieval, and review, and that may thereafter be rendered into clearly legible tangible form. However, an electronic transmission under this code by a corporation to an individual shareholder or member of the corporation who is a natural person, and if an officer or director of the corporation, only if communicated to the recipient in that person’s capacity as a shareholder or member, is not authorized unless, in addition to satisfying the requirements of this section, the transmission has been preceded by or includes a clear written statement to the recipient as to (a) any right of the recipient to have the record provided or made available on paper or in nonelectronic form, and (b) the procedures the recipient must use to provide a written objection.

SEC. 2.SECTION 1.

 Section 207 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

207.
 Subject to any limitations contained in the articles and to compliance with other provisions of this division and any other applicable laws, a corporation shall have all of the powers of a natural person in carrying out its business activities, including, without limitation, the power to:
(a) Adopt, use, and at will alter a corporate seal, but failure to affix a seal does not affect the validity of any instrument.
(b) Adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws.
(c) Qualify to do business in any other state, territory, dependency, or foreign country.
(d) Subject to the provisions of Section 510, issue, purchase, redeem, receive, take or otherwise acquire, own, hold, sell, lend, exchange, transfer or otherwise dispose of, pledge, use, and otherwise deal in and with its own shares, bonds, debentures, and other securities.
(e) Make donations, regardless of specific corporate benefit, for the public welfare or for community fund, hospital, charitable, educational, scientific, civic, or similar purposes.
(f) Pay pensions, and establish and carry out pension, profit-sharing, share bonus, share purchase, share option, savings, thrift, and other retirement, incentive, and benefit plans, trusts, and provisions for any or all of the directors, officers, and employees of the corporation or any of its subsidiary or affiliated corporations, and to indemnify and purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any fiduciary of such plans, trusts, or provisions.
(g) Subject to the provisions of Section 315, assume obligations, enter into contracts, including contracts of guaranty or suretyship, incur liabilities, borrow and lend money, and otherwise use its credit, and secure any of its obligations, contracts, or liabilities by mortgage, pledge, or other encumbrance of all or any part of its property, franchises, and income.
(h) Participate with others in any partnership, joint venture, or other association, transaction, or arrangement of any kind, whether or not such participation involves sharing or delegation of control with or to others.
(i) (1) In anticipation of or during an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 212:
(A) Modify lines of succession to accommodate the incapacity of any director, officer, employee, or agent resulting from the emergency.
(B) Relocate the principal office, designate alternative principal offices or regional offices, or authorize the officers to do so.
(2) During an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 212:
(A) Give notice to a director or directors in any practicable manner under the circumstances, including, but not limited to, by publication and radio, when notice of a meeting of the board cannot be given to that director or directors in the manner prescribed by the bylaws or Section 307.
(B) Deem that one or more officers of the corporation present at a board meeting is a director, in order of rank and within the same rank in order of seniority, as necessary to achieve a quorum for that meeting.
(3) In anticipation of or during an emergency, the board may take any action that it determines to be necessary or appropriate to respond to the emergency, mitigate the effects of the emergency, or comply with lawful federal and state government orders, but shall not take any action that requires the vote of the shareholders, unless the required vote of the shareholders was obtained prior to the emergency.
(4) Any actions taken in good faith in anticipation of or during an emergency under this subdivision bind the corporation and shall not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.
(5) For purposes of this subdivision, “emergency” means any of the following events or circumstances as a result of which, and only so long as, a quorum of the corporation’s board of directors cannot be readily convened for action:
(A) A natural catastrophe, including, but not limited to, a hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought, epidemic, pandemic, or disease outbreak, or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion.
(B) An attack on or within this state or on the public security of its residents by an enemy of this state or on the nation by an enemy of the United States of America, or upon receipt by this state of a warning from the federal government indicating that any such enemy attack is probable or imminent.
(C) An act of terrorism or other manmade disaster that results in extraordinary levels of casualties or damage or disruption severely affecting the infrastructure, environment, economy, government functions, or population, including, but not limited to, mass evacuations.
(D) A state of emergency proclaimed by the Governor of this state, including any person serving as Governor in accordance with Section 10 of Article V of the California Constitution and Section 12058 of the Government Code, or by the President of the United States of America.

SEC. 3.SEC. 2.

 Section 212 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

212.
 (a) The bylaws shall set forth (unless such provision is contained in the articles, in which case it may only be changed by an amendment of the articles) the number of directors of the corporation; or that the number of directors shall be not less than a stated minimum nor more than a stated maximum (which in no case shall be greater than two times the stated minimum minus one), with the exact number of directors to be fixed, within the limits specified, by approval of the board or the shareholders (Section 153) in the manner provided in the bylaws, subject to paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 204. The number or minimum number of directors shall not be less than three; provided, however, that (1) before shares are issued, the number may be one, (2) before shares are issued, the number may be two, (3) so long as the corporation has only one shareholder, the number may be one, (4) so long as the corporation has only one shareholder, the number may be two, and (5) so long as the corporation has only two shareholders, the number may be two. After the issuance of shares, a bylaw specifying or changing a fixed number of directors or the maximum or minimum number or changing from a fixed to a variable board or vice versa may only be adopted by approval of the outstanding shares (Section 152); provided, however, that a bylaw or amendment of the articles reducing the fixed number or the minimum number of directors to a number less than five cannot be adopted if the votes cast against its adoption at a meeting or the shares not consenting in the case of action by written consent are equal to more than 162/3 percent of the outstanding shares entitled to vote.
(b) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with law or the articles for the management of the business and for the conduct of the affairs of the corporation, including, but not limited to:
(1) Any provision referred to in subdivision (b), (c), or (d) of Section 204.
(2) The time, place, and manner of calling, conducting, and giving notice of shareholders’, directors’, and committee meetings.
(3) The manner of execution, revocation, and use of proxies.
(4) The qualifications, duties, and compensation of directors; the time of their annual election; and the requirements of a quorum for directors’ and committee meetings.
(5) The appointment and authority of committees of the board.
(6) The appointment, duties, compensation, and tenure of officers.
(7) The mode of determination of holders of record of its shares.
(8) The making of annual reports and financial statements to the shareholders.
(c) (1) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with the articles, to manage and conduct the business affairs of the corporation effective only in an emergency as defined in Section 207, including, but not limited to, procedures for calling a board meeting, quorum requirements for a board meeting, and designation of additional or substitute directors.
(2) During an emergency, the board may take any action that it determines to be necessary or appropriate to respond to the emergency, mitigate the effects of the emergency, or comply with lawful federal and state government orders, but shall not take any action that requires the vote of the shareholders, unless the required vote of the shareholders was obtained prior to the emergency.
(3) All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws shall remain effective during the emergency, and the emergency bylaws shall not be effective after the emergency ends.
(4) Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws binds the corporation, and shall not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.

SEC. 4.SEC. 3.

 Section 600 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

600.
 (a) Meetings of shareholders may be held at any place within or without this state as may be stated in or fixed in accordance with the bylaws. If no other place is stated or so fixed, shareholder meetings shall be held at the principal executive office of the corporation. Subject to any limitations in the articles or bylaws of the corporation, if authorized by the board of directors in its sole discretion, and subject to those guidelines and procedures as the board of directors may adopt, shareholders not physically present in person or by proxy at a meeting of shareholders may, by electronic transmission by and to the corporation (Sections 20 and 21), electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, participate in a meeting of shareholders, be deemed present in person or by proxy, and vote at a meeting of shareholders, subject to subdivision (e).
(b) An annual meeting of shareholders shall be held for the election of directors on a date and at a time stated in or fixed in accordance with the bylaws. However, if the corporation is a regulated management company, a meeting of shareholders shall be held as required by the Federal Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. Sec. 80a-1, et seq.). Any other proper business may be transacted at the annual meeting. For purposes of this subdivision, “regulated management company” means a regulated investment company as defined in Section 851 of the federal Internal Revenue Code.
(c) If there is a failure to hold the annual meeting for a period of 60 days after the date designated therefor or, if no date has been designated, for a period of 15 months after the organization of the corporation or after its last annual meeting, the superior court of the proper county may summarily order a meeting to be held upon the application of any shareholder after notice to the corporation giving it an opportunity to be heard. The shares represented at the meeting, either in person or by proxy, and entitled to vote thereat shall constitute a quorum for the purpose of the meeting, notwithstanding any provision of the articles or bylaws or in this division to the contrary. The court may issue any orders as may be appropriate, including, without limitation, orders designating the time and place of the meeting, the record date for determination of shareholders entitled to vote, and the form of notice of the meeting.
(d) Special meetings of the shareholders may be called by the board, the chairperson of the board, the president, the holders of shares entitled to cast not less than 10 percent of the votes at the meeting, or any additional persons as may be provided in the articles or bylaws.
(e) A meeting of the shareholders may be conducted, in whole or in part, by electronic transmission by and to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication if the corporation implements reasonable measures: (1) to provide shareholders and proxyholders a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the shareholders, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting concurrently with those proceedings, (2) if any shareholder or proxyholder votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of electronic transmission to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, to maintain a record of that vote or action in its books and records, and (3) to verify that each person participating remotely is a shareholder or proxyholder. A corporation shall not conduct a meeting of shareholders solely by electronic transmission by and to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication unless either: (A) all of the shareholders consent; or (B) the board determines it is necessary or appropriate because of an emergency, as defined in paragraph (5) of subdivision (i) of Section 207.

SEC. 5.SEC. 4.

 Section 601 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

601.
 (a) Whenever shareholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting a written notice of the meeting shall be given not less than 10 (or, if sent by third-class mail, 30) nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting to each shareholder entitled to vote thereat. That notice shall state the place, date and hour of the meeting, the means of electronic transmission by and to the corporation (Sections 20 and 21), electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, if any, by which shareholders may participate in that meeting, and (1) in the case of a special meeting, the general nature of the business to be transacted, and no other business may be transacted, or (2) in the case of the annual meeting, those matters that the board, at the time of the mailing of the notice, intends to present for action by the shareholders, but subject to the provisions of subdivision (f) any proper matter may be presented at the meeting for that action. The notice of any meeting at which directors are to be elected shall include the names of nominees intended at the time of the notice to be presented by the board for election.
(b) (1) Notice of a shareholders’ meeting or any report shall be given personally, by electronic transmission by the corporation, or by first-class mail, or, in the case of a corporation with outstanding shares held of record by 500 or more persons (determined as provided in Section 605) on the record date for the shareholders’ meeting, notice may also be sent third-class mail, or other means of written communication, addressed to the shareholder at the address of that shareholder appearing on the books of the corporation or given by the shareholder to the corporation for the purpose of notice, or if no address appears or is given, at the place where the principal executive office of the corporation is located or by publication at least once in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the principal executive office is located. The notice or report shall be deemed to have been given at the time when delivered personally, sent by electronic transmission by the corporation, deposited in the mail, or sent by other means of written communication. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the notice of a shareholder’s meeting or any report may be sent by electronic communication or other means of remote communication if the board determines it is necessary or appropriate because of an emergency, as defined in paragraph (5) of subdivision (i) of Section 207. An affidavit of mailing or electronic transmission by the corporation, or electronic communication or other means of remote communication as permitted because of an emergency, of any notice or report in accordance with the provisions of this division, executed by the secretary, assistant secretary, or any transfer agent, shall be prima facie evidence of the giving of the notice or report.
(2) If any notice or report addressed to the shareholder at the address of that shareholder appearing on the books of the corporation is returned to the corporation by the United States Postal Service marked to indicate that the United States Postal Service is unable to deliver the notice or report to the shareholder at that address, all future notices or reports shall be deemed to have been duly given without further mailing if the same shall be available for the shareholder upon written demand of the shareholder at the principal executive office of the corporation for a period of one year from the date of the giving of the notice or report to all other shareholders.
(3) (A) Notice given by electronic transmission by the corporation under this subdivision shall be valid only if it complies with Section 20. Notwithstanding the foregoing, notice shall not be given by electronic transmission by the corporation under this subdivision after either of the following:
(i) The corporation is unable to deliver two consecutive notices to the shareholder by that means.
(ii) The inability to so deliver the notices to the shareholder becomes known to the secretary, any assistant secretary, the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of the notice.
(B) This paragraph shall not apply if notices are provided by electronic communication or other means of remote communication as permitted because of an emergency.
(c) Upon request in writing to the corporation addressed to the attention of the chairperson of the board, president, vice president or secretary by any person (other than the board) entitled to call a special meeting of shareholders, the officer forthwith shall cause notice to be given to the shareholders entitled to vote that a meeting will be held at a time requested by the person or persons calling the meeting, not less than 35 nor more than 60 days after the receipt of the request. If the notice is not given within 20 days after receipt of the request, the persons entitled to call the meeting may give the notice or the superior court of the proper county shall summarily order the giving of the notice, after notice to the corporation giving it an opportunity to be heard. The procedure provided in subdivision (c) of Section 305 shall apply to that application. The court may issue orders as may be appropriate, including, without limitation, orders designating the time and place of the meeting, the record date for determination of shareholders entitled to vote, and the form of notice.
(d) When a shareholders’ meeting is adjourned to another time or place, unless the bylaws otherwise require and except as provided in this subdivision, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place thereof (or the means of electronic transmission by and to the corporation or, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, if any, by which the shareholders may participate) are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting the corporation may transact any business that might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than 45 days or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each shareholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.
(e) The transactions of any meeting of shareholders, however called and noticed, and wherever held, are as valid as though had at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice, if a quorum is present either in person or by proxy, and if, either before or after the meeting, each of the persons entitled to vote, not present in person or by proxy, provides a waiver of notice or consent to the holding of the meeting or an approval of the minutes thereof in writing. All those waivers, consents, and approvals shall be filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of and presence at the meeting, except when the person objects, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened and except that attendance at a meeting is not a waiver of any right to object to the consideration of matters required by this division to be included in the notice but not so included, if the objection is expressly made at the meeting. Neither the business to be transacted at nor the purpose of any regular or special meeting of shareholders need be specified in any written waiver of notice, consent to the holding of the meeting or approval of the minutes thereof, unless otherwise provided in the articles or bylaws, except as provided in subdivision (f).
(f) Any shareholder approval at a meeting, other than unanimous approval by those entitled to vote, pursuant to Section 310, 902, 1152, 1201, 1900, or 2007 shall be valid only if the general nature of the proposal so approved was stated in the notice of meeting or in any written waiver of notice.

SEC. 6.SEC. 5.

 Section 5140 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

5140.
 Subject to any limitations contained in the articles or bylaws and to compliance with other provisions of this division and any other applicable laws, a corporation, in carrying out its activities, shall have all of the powers of a natural person, including, without limitation, the power to:
(a) Adopt, use, and at will alter a corporate seal, but failure to affix a seal does not affect the validity of any instrument.
(b) Adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws.
(c) Qualify to conduct its activities in any other state, territory, dependency, or foreign country.
(d) Issue, purchase, redeem, receive, take or otherwise acquire, own, sell, lend, exchange, transfer or otherwise dispose of, pledge, use, and otherwise deal in and with its own bonds, debentures, notes, and debt securities.
(e) Issue memberships.
(f) Pay pensions, and establish and carry out pension, deferred compensation, saving, thrift, and other retirement, incentive, and benefit plans, trusts, and provisions for any or all of its directors, officers, employees, and persons providing services to it or any of its subsidiary or related or associated corporations, and to indemnify and purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any fiduciary of such plans, trusts, or provisions.
(g) Levy dues, assessments, and admission fees.
(h) Make donations for the public welfare or for community funds, hospital, charitable, educational, scientific, civic, religious, or similar purposes.
(i) Assume obligations, enter into contracts, including contracts of guaranty or suretyship, incur liabilities, borrow or lend money or otherwise use its credit, and secure any of its obligations, contracts, or liabilities by mortgage, pledge, or other encumbrance of all or any part of its property and income.
(j) Participate with others in any partnership, joint venture, or other association, transaction, or arrangement of any kind whether or not such participation involves sharing or delegation of control with or to others.
(k) Act as trustee under any trust incidental to the principal objects of the corporation, and receive, hold, administer, exchange, and expend funds and property subject to such trust.
(l) Carry on a business at a profit and apply any profit that results from the business activity to any activity in which it may lawfully engage.
(m) Pay the reasonable value of services rendered in this state to the corporation before January 1, 1975, and not previously paid, by any person who performed such services on a full-time basis under the direction of a religious organization in connection with the religious tenets of the organization. Such person shall have relied solely on the religious organization for their financial support for a minimum of five years. A payment shall not be made if such person or religious organization waives the payment or receipt of compensation for such services in writing. Payment may be made to such religious organization to reimburse it for maintenance of any person who rendered such services and to assist it in providing future support and maintenance; however, payment shall not be made from any funds or assets acquired with funds donated by or traceable to gifts made to the corporation by any person, organization, or governmental agency other than the members, immediate families of members, and affiliated religious organizations of the religious organization under whose direction the services were performed.
(n) (1) In anticipation of or during an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 5151:
(A) Modify lines of succession to accommodate the incapacity of any director, officer, employee, or agent resulting from the emergency.
(B) Relocate the principal office, designate alternative principal offices or regional offices, or authorize the officers to do so.
(2) During an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 5151:
(A) Give notice to a director or directors in any practicable manner under the circumstances, including, but not limited to, by publication and radio, when notice of a meeting of the board cannot be given to that director or directors in the manner prescribed by the bylaws or Section 5211.
(B) Deem that one or more officers of the corporation present at a board meeting is a director, in order of rank and within the same rank in order of seniority, as necessary to achieve a quorum for that meeting.
(3) In anticipation of or during an emergency, the board may take any action that it determines to be necessary or appropriate to respond to the emergency, mitigate the effects of the emergency, or comply with lawful federal and state government orders, but shall not take any action that requires the vote of the members, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(4) Any actions taken in good faith in anticipation of or during an emergency under this subdivision bind the corporation and shall not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.
(5) For purposes of this subdivision, “emergency” means any of the following events or circumstances as a result of which, and only so long as, a quorum of the corporation’s board of directors cannot be readily convened for action:
(A) A natural catastrophe, including, but not limited to, a hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought, epidemic, pandemic, or disease outbreak, or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion.
(B) An attack on or within this state or on the public security of its residents by an enemy of this state or on the nation by an enemy of the United States of America, or upon receipt by this state of a warning from the federal government indicating that any such enemy attack is probable or imminent.
(C) An act of terrorism or other manmade disaster that results in extraordinary levels of casualties or damage or disruption severely affecting the infrastructure, environment, economy, government functions, or population, including, but not limited to, mass evacuations.
(D) A state of emergency proclaimed by the Governor of this state, including any person serving as Governor in accordance with Section 10 of Article V of the California Constitution and Section 12058 of the Government Code, or by the President of the United States of America.

SEC. 7.SEC. 6.

 Section 5151 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

5151.
 (a) The bylaws shall set forth (unless that provision is contained in the articles, in which case it may only be changed by an amendment of the articles) the number of directors of the corporation, or the method of determining the number of directors of the corporation, or that the number of directors shall be not less than a stated minimum nor more than a stated maximum with the exact number of directors to be fixed, within the limits specified, by approval of the board or the members (Section 5034), in the manner provided in the bylaws, subject to subdivision (e). The number or minimum number of directors may be one or more.
(b) Once members have been admitted, a bylaw specifying or changing a fixed number of directors or the maximum or minimum number or changing from a fixed to a variable board or vice versa may only be adopted by approval of the members (Section 5034).
(c) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with law or the articles, for the management of the activities and for the conduct of the affairs of the corporation, including, but not limited to:
(1) Any provision referred to in subdivision (c) of Section 5132.
(2) The time, place, and manner of calling, conducting, and giving notice of members’, directors’, and committee meetings, or of conducting mail ballots.
(3) The qualifications, duties, and compensation of directors; the time of their election; and the requirements of a quorum for directors’ and committee meetings.
(4) The appointment and authority of committees.
(5) The appointment, duties, compensation, and tenure of officers.
(6) The mode of determination of members of record.
(7) The making of reports and financial statements to members.
(8) Setting, imposing, and collecting dues, assessments, and admission fees.
(d) The bylaws may provide for the manner of admission, withdrawal, suspension, and expulsion of members, consistent with the requirements of Section 5341.
(e) The bylaws may require, for any or all corporate actions (except as provided in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 5222, subdivision (c) of Section 5616, and Section 6610), the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the members or the members of any class, unit, or grouping of members, or the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the directors, than is otherwise required by this part. Such a provision in the bylaws requiring such greater vote shall not be altered, amended, or repealed except by such greater vote, unless otherwise provided in the bylaws.
(f) The bylaws may contain a provision limiting the number of members, in total or of any class, which the corporation is authorized to admit.
(g) (1) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with the articles, to manage and conduct the business affairs of the corporation effective only in an emergency as defined in Section 5140, including, but not limited to, procedures for calling a board meeting, quorum requirements for a board meeting, and designation of additional or substitute directors.
(2) During an emergency, the board may take any action that it determines to be necessary or appropriate to respond to the emergency, mitigate the effects of the emergency, or comply with lawful federal and state government orders, but shall not take any action that requires the vote of the members, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(3) All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws shall remain effective during the emergency, and the emergency bylaws shall not be effective after the emergency ends.
(4) Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws binds the corporation, and shall not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.

SEC. 8.SEC. 7.

 Section 5152 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

5152.
 A corporation may provide in its bylaws for delegates having some or all of the authority of members. Where delegates are provided for, the bylaws shall set forth delegates’ terms of office, any reasonable method for delegates’ selection and removal, and any reasonable method for calling, noticing, and holding meetings of delegates, may set forth the manner in which delegates may act by written ballot similar to Section 5513 for written ballot of members, and may set forth the manner in which delegates may participate in meetings of delegates similar to paragraph (6) of subdivision (a) of Section 5211 for meetings of directors. Each delegate shall have one vote on each matter presented for action. A delegate shall not vote by proxy. Delegates may be given a name other than “delegates.”

SEC. 9.SEC. 8.

 Section 5510 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

5510.
 (a) Meetings of members may be held at a place within or without this state as may be stated in or fixed in accordance with the bylaws. If no other place is stated or so fixed, meetings of members shall be held at the principal executive office of the corporation. Subject to any limitations in the articles or the bylaws of the corporation, if authorized by the board of directors in its sole discretion, and subject to those guidelines and procedures as the board of directors may adopt, members not physically present in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy) at a meeting of members may, by electronic transmission by and to the corporation (Sections 20 and 21), electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, participate in a meeting of members, be deemed present in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy), and vote at a meeting of members, subject to subdivision (f).
(b) A regular meeting of members shall be held on a date, time, and with the frequency stated in or fixed in accordance with the bylaws, but in any event in each year in which directors are to be elected at that meeting for the purpose of conducting such election, and to transact any other proper business which may be brought before the meeting.
(c) If a corporation with members is required by subdivision (b) to hold a regular meeting and fails to hold the regular meeting for a period of 60 days after the date designated therefor or, if no date has been designated, for a period of 15 months after the formation of the corporation, or after its last regular meeting, or if the corporation fails to hold a written ballot for a period of 60 days after the date designated therefor, then the superior court of the proper county may summarily order the meeting to be held or the ballot to be conducted upon the application of a member or the Attorney General, after notice to the corporation giving it an opportunity to be heard.
(d) The votes represented, either in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy), at a meeting called or by written ballot ordered pursuant to subdivision (c), and entitled to be cast on the business to be transacted shall constitute a quorum, notwithstanding any provision of the articles or bylaws or in this part to the contrary. The court may issue such orders as may be appropriate including, without limitation, orders designating the time and place of the meeting, the record date for determination of members entitled to vote, and the form of notice of the meeting.
(e) Special meetings of members for any lawful purpose may be called by the board, the chair of the board, the president, or such other persons, if any, as are specified in the bylaws. In addition, special meetings of members for any lawful purpose may be called by 5 percent or more of the members.
(f) A meeting of the members may be conducted, in whole or in part, by electronic transmission by and to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication if the corporation implements reasonable measures: (1) to provide members and proxyholders, if proxies are allowed, a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the members, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with those proceedings, (2) if any member or proxyholder, if proxies are allowed, votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of electronic transmission to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, to maintain a record of that vote or action in its books and records, and (3) to verify that each person participating remotely is a member or proxyholder, if proxies are allowed. A corporation shall not conduct a meeting of members solely by electronic transmission by and to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication unless: (A) all of the members consent; or (B) the board determines it is necessary or appropriate because of an emergency, as defined in paragraph (5) of subdivision (n) of Section 5140.

SEC. 10.SEC. 9.

 Section 5511 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

5511.
 (a) Whenever members are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a written notice of the meeting shall be given not less than 10 nor more than 90 days before the date of the meeting to each member who, on the record date for notice of the meeting, is entitled to vote thereat; provided, however, that if notice is given by mail, and the notice is not mailed by first-class, registered, or certified mail, that notice shall be given not less than 20 days before the meeting. Subject to subdivision (f), and subdivision (b) of Section 5512, that notice shall state the place, date and time of the meeting, the means of electronic transmission by and to the corporation (Sections 20 and 21), electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, if any, by which members may participate in that meeting, and (1) in the case of a special meeting, the general nature of the business to be transacted, and no other business may be transacted, or (2) in the case of the regular meeting, those matters which the board, at the time the notice is given, intends to present for action by the members, but, except as provided in subdivision (b) of Section 5512, any proper matter may be presented at the meeting for such action. The notice of any meeting at which directors are to be elected shall include the names of all those who are nominees at the time the notice is given to members.
(b) (1) Notice of a members’ meeting or any report shall be given personally, by electronic transmission by the corporation, or by mail or other means of written communication, addressed to the member at the address of such member appearing on the books of the corporation or given by the member to the corporation for purpose of notice, or if no such address appears or is given, at the place where the principal office of the corporation is located or by publication at least once in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the principal office is located. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the notice of a members’ meeting or any report may be sent by electronic communication or other means of remote communication if the board determines it is necessary or appropriate because of an emergency, as defined in paragraph (5) of subdivision (n) of Section 5140. An affidavit of giving of any notice or report as permitted because of an emergency or otherwise in accordance with the provisions of this part, executed by the secretary, assistant secretary, or any transfer agent, shall be prima facie evidence of the giving of the notice or report.
(2) If any notice or report addressed to a member at the address of such member appearing on the books of the corporation is returned to the corporation by the United States Postal Service marked to indicate that the United States Postal Service is unable to deliver the notice or report to the member at such address, all future notices or reports shall be deemed to have been duly given without further mailing if the same shall be available for the member upon written demand of the member at the principal office of the corporation for a period of one year from the date of the giving of the notice or report to all other members.
(3) (A) Notice given by electronic transmission by the corporation under this subdivision shall be valid only if it complies with Section 20. Notwithstanding the foregoing, notice shall not be given by electronic transmission by the corporation under this subdivision after either of the following:
(i) The corporation is unable to deliver two consecutive notices to the member by that means.
(ii) The inability to so deliver the notices to the member becomes known to the secretary, any assistant secretary, the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of the notice.
(B) This paragraph shall not apply if notices are provided by electronic communication or other means of remote communication as permitted because of an emergency.
(c) Upon request in writing to the corporation addressed to the attention of the chair of the board, president, vice president, or secretary by any person (other than the board) entitled to call a special meeting of members, the officer forthwith shall cause notice to be given to the members entitled to vote that a meeting will be held at a time fixed by the board, not less than 35 nor more than 90 days after the receipt of the request. If the notice is not given within 20 days after receipt of the request, the persons entitled to call the meeting may give the notice or the superior court of the proper county shall summarily order the giving of the notice, after notice to the corporation giving it an opportunity to be heard. The court may issue such orders as may be appropriate, including, without limitation, orders designating the time and place of the meeting, the record date for determination of members entitled to vote, and the form of notice.
(d) When a members’ meeting is adjourned to another time or place, unless the bylaws otherwise require and except as provided in this subdivision, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place thereof (or the means of electronic transmission by and to the corporation, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, or electronic video screen communication, if any, by which members may participate) are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. No meeting may be adjourned for more than 45 days. At the adjourned meeting the corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for notice or voting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each member who, on the record date for notice of the meeting, is entitled to vote at the meeting.
(e) The transactions of any meeting of members, however called and noticed, and wherever held, are as valid as though had at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice, if a quorum is present either in person or by proxy, and if, either before or after the meeting, each of the persons entitled to vote, not present in person or by proxy, provides a waiver of notice or consent to the holding of the meeting, or an approval of the minutes thereof in writing. All such waivers, consents, and approvals shall be filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of and presence at such meeting, except when the person objects, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened and except that attendance at a meeting is not a waiver of any right to object to the consideration of matters required by this part to be included in the notice but not so included, if such objection is expressly made at the meeting. Neither the business to be transacted at nor the purpose of any regular or special meeting of members need be specified in any written waiver of notice, consent to the holding of the meeting, or approval of the minutes thereof, unless otherwise provided in the articles or bylaws, except as provided in subdivision (f).
(f) Any approval of the members required under Section 5222, 5224, 5812, or 6610, other than unanimous approval by those entitled to vote, shall be valid only if the general nature of the proposal so approved was stated in the notice of meeting, or in any written waiver of notice.
(g) A court may find that notice not given in conformity with this section is still valid, if it was given in a fair and reasonable manner.

SEC. 11.SEC. 10.

 Section 7140 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

7140.
 Subject to any limitations contained in the articles or bylaws and to compliance with other provisions of this division and any other applicable laws, a corporation, in carrying out its activities, shall have all of the powers of a natural person, including, without limitation, the power to:
(a) Adopt, use, and at will alter a corporate seal, but failure to affix a seal does not affect the validity of any instrument.
(b) Adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws.
(c) Qualify to conduct its activities in any other state, territory, dependency, or foreign country.
(d) Issue, purchase, redeem, receive, take or otherwise acquire, own, sell, lend, exchange, transfer or otherwise dispose of, pledge, use, and otherwise deal in and with its own memberships, bonds, debentures, notes, and debt securities.
(e) Pay pensions, and establish and carry out pension, deferred compensation, saving, thrift, and other retirement, incentive, and benefit plans, trusts, and provisions for any or all of its directors, officers, employees, and persons providing services to it or any of its subsidiary or related or associated corporations, and to indemnify and purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any fiduciary of such plans, trusts, or provisions.
(f) Issue certificates evidencing membership in accordance with the provisions of Section 7313 and issue identity cards.
(g) Levy dues, assessments, and admission and transfer fees.
(h) Make donations for the public welfare or for community funds, hospital, charitable, educational, scientific, civic, religious, or similar purposes.
(i) Assume obligations, enter into contracts, including contracts of guarantee or suretyship, incur liabilities, borrow or lend money or otherwise use its credit, and secure any of its obligations, contracts, or liabilities by mortgage, pledge, or other encumbrance of all or any part of its property and income.
(j) Participate with others in any partnership, joint venture, or other association, transaction, or arrangement of any kind whether or not such participation involves sharing or delegation of control with or to others.
(k) Act as trustee under any trust incidental to the principal objects of the corporation, and receive, hold, administer, exchange, and expend funds and property subject to such trust.
(l) Carry on a business at a profit and apply any profit that results from the business activity to any activity in which it may lawfully engage.
(m) (1) In anticipation of or during an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 7151:
(A) Modify lines of succession to accommodate the incapacity of any director, officer, employee, or agent resulting from the emergency.
(B) Relocate the principal office, designate alternative principal offices or regional offices, or authorize the officers to do so.
(2) During an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 7151:
(A) Give notice to a director or directors in any practicable manner under the circumstances, including, but not limited to, by publication and radio, when notice of a meeting of the board cannot be given to that director or directors in the manner prescribed by the bylaws or Section 7211.
(B) Deem that one or more officers of the corporation present at a board meeting is a director, in order of rank and within the same rank in order of seniority, as necessary to achieve a quorum for that meeting.
(3) In anticipation of or during an emergency, the board may take any action that it determines to be necessary or appropriate to respond to the emergency, mitigate the effects of the emergency, or comply with lawful federal and state government orders, but shall not take any action that requires the vote of the members, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(4) Any actions taken in good faith in anticipation of or during an emergency under this subdivision bind the corporation and shall not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.
(5) For purposes of this subdivision, “emergency” means any of the following events or circumstances as a result of which, and only so long as, a quorum of the corporation’s board of directors cannot be readily convened for action:
(A) A natural catastrophe, including, but not limited to, a hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought, epidemic, pandemic, or disease outbreak, or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion.
(B) An attack on or within this state or on the public security of its residents by an enemy of this state or on the nation by an enemy of the United States of America, or upon receipt by this state of a warning from the federal government indicating that any such enemy attack is probable or imminent.
(C) An act of terrorism or other manmade disaster that results in extraordinary levels of casualties or damage or disruption severely affecting the infrastructure, environment, economy, government functions, or population, including, but not limited to, mass evacuations.
(D) A state of emergency proclaimed by the Governor of this state, including any person serving as Governor in accordance with Section 10 of Article V of the California Constitution and Section 12058 of the Government Code, or by the President of the United States of America.

SEC. 12.SEC. 11.

 Section 7151 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

7151.
 (a) The bylaws shall set forth (unless such provision is contained in the articles, in which case it may only be changed by an amendment of the articles) the number of directors of the corporation, or the method of determining the number of directors of the corporation, or that the number of directors shall be not less than a stated minimum nor more than a stated maximum with the exact number of directors to be fixed, within the limits specified, by approval of the board or the members (Section 5034), in the manner provided in the bylaws, subject to subdivision (e). The number or minimum number of directors may be one or more.
(b) Once members have been admitted, a bylaw specifying or changing a fixed number of directors or the maximum or minimum number or changing from a fixed to a variable board or vice versa may only be adopted by approval of the members (Section 5034).
(c) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with law or the articles, for the management of the activities and for the conduct of the affairs of the corporation, including but not limited to:
(1) Any provision referred to in subdivision (c) of Section 7132.
(2) The time, place, and manner of calling, conducting, and giving notice of members’, directors’, and committee meetings, or of conducting mail ballots.
(3) The qualifications, duties, and compensation of directors; the time of their election; and the requirements of a quorum for directors’ and committee meetings.
(4) The appointment of committees, composed of directors or nondirectors, or both, by the board or any officer and the authority of any such committees.
(5) The appointment, duties, compensation, and tenure of officers.
(6) The mode of determination of members of record.
(7) The making of reports and financial statements to members.
(8) Setting, imposing, and collecting dues, assessments, and admission and transfer fees.
(d) The bylaws may provide for the manner of admission, withdrawal, suspension, and expulsion of members, consistent with the requirements of Section 7341.
(e) The bylaws may require, for any or all corporate actions (except as provided in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 7222, subdivision (c) of Section 7615, and Section 8610) the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the members or the members of any class, unit, or grouping of members or the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the directors, than is otherwise required by this part. Such a provision in the bylaws requiring such greater vote shall not be altered, amended, or repealed except by such greater vote, unless otherwise provided in the bylaws.
(f) The bylaws may contain a provision limiting the number of members, in total or of any class, which the corporation is authorized to admit.
(g) (1) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with the articles, to manage and conduct the business affairs of the corporation effective only in an emergency as defined in Section 7140, including, but not limited to, procedures for calling a board meeting, quorum requirements for a board meeting, and designation of additional or substitute directors.
(2) During an emergency, the board may take any action that it determines to be necessary or appropriate to respond to the emergency, mitigate the effects of the emergency, or comply with lawful federal and state government orders, but shall not take any action that requires the vote of the members, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(3) All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws shall remain effective during the emergency, and the emergency bylaws shall not be effective after the emergency ends.
(4) Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws binds the corporation, and shall not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.

SEC. 13.SEC. 12.

 Section 7152 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

7152.
 A corporation may provide in its bylaws for delegates having some or all of the authority of members. Where delegates are provided for, the bylaws shall set forth delegates’ terms of office, any reasonable method for delegates’ selection and removal, and any reasonable method for calling, noticing, and holding meetings of delegates, may set forth the manner in which delegates may act by written ballot similar to Section 7513 for written ballot of members, and may set forth the manner in which delegates may participate in meetings of delegates similar to paragraph (6) of subdivision (a) of Section 7211. Each delegate shall have one vote on each matter presented for action. A delegate shall not vote by proxy. Delegates may be given a name other than “delegates.”

SEC. 14.SEC. 13.

 Section 7510 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

7510.
 (a) Meetings of members may be held at a place within or without this state as may be stated in or fixed in accordance with the bylaws. If no other place is stated or so fixed, meetings of members shall be held at the principal executive office of the corporation. Subject to any limitations in the articles or bylaws of the corporation, if authorized by the board of directors in its sole discretion, and subject to those guidelines and procedures as the board of directors may adopt, members not physically present in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy) at a meeting of members may, by electronic transmission by and to the corporation (Sections 20 and 21), electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, participate in a meeting of members, be deemed present in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy), and vote at a meeting of members, subject to subdivision (f).
(b) A regular meeting of members shall be held on a date and time, and with the frequency stated in or fixed in accordance with the bylaws, but in any event in each year in which directors are to be elected at that meeting for the purpose of conducting such election, and to transact any other proper business which may be brought before the meeting.
(c) If a corporation with members is required by subdivision (b) to hold a regular meeting and fails to hold the regular meeting for a period of 60 days after the date designated therefor or, if no date has been designated, for a period of 15 months after the formation of the corporation or after its last regular meeting, or if the corporation fails to hold a written ballot for a period of 60 days after the date designated therefor, then the superior court of the proper county may summarily order the meeting to be held or the ballot to be conducted upon the application of a member or the Attorney General, after notice to the corporation giving it an opportunity to be heard.
(d) The votes represented, either in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy), at a meeting called or by written ballot ordered pursuant to subdivision (c), and entitled to be cast on the business to be transacted shall constitute a quorum, notwithstanding any provision of the articles or bylaws or in this part to the contrary. The court may issue such orders as may be appropriate including, without limitation, orders designating the time and place of the meeting, the record date for determination of members entitled to vote, and the form of notice of the meeting.
(e) Special meetings of members for any lawful purpose may be called by the board, the chair of the board, the president, or such other persons, if any, as are specified in the bylaws. In addition, special meetings of members for any lawful purpose may be called by 5 percent or more of the members.
(f) A meeting of the members may be conducted, in whole or in part, by electronic transmission by and to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication if the corporation implements reasonable measures: (1) to provide members and proxyholders, if proxies are allowed, a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the members, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with those proceedings, (2) if any member or proxyholder, if proxies are allowed, votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of electronic transmission to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, to maintain a record of that vote or action in its books and records, and (3) to verify that each person participating remotely is a member or proxyholder, if proxies are allowed. A corporation shall not conduct a meeting of members solely by electronic transmission by and to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication unless: (A) all of the members consent; or (B) the board determines it is necessary or appropriate because of an emergency, as defined in paragraph (5) of subdivision (m) of Section 7140.

SEC. 15.SEC. 14.

 Section 7511 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

7511.
 (a) Whenever members are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a written notice of the meeting shall be given not less than 10 nor more than 90 days before the date of the meeting to each member who, on the record date for notice of the meeting, is entitled to vote thereat; provided, however, that if notice is given by mail, and the notice is not mailed by first-class, registered, or certified mail, that notice shall be given not less than 20 days before the meeting. Subject to subdivision (f), and subdivision (b) of Section 7512, the notice shall state the place, date and time of the meeting, the means of electronic transmission by and to the corporation (Sections 20 and 21), electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, if any, by which members may participate in that meeting, and (1) in the case of a special meeting, the general nature of the business to be transacted, and no other business may be transacted, or (2) in the case of the regular meeting, those matters which the board, at the time the notice is given, intends to present for action by the members, but, except as provided in subdivision (b) of Section 7512, any proper matter may be presented at the meeting for the action. The notice of any meeting at which directors are to be elected shall include the names of all those who are nominees at the time the notice is given to members.
(b) (1) Notice of a members’ meeting or any report shall be given personally, by electronic transmission by a corporation, or by mail or other means of written communication, addressed to a member at the address of the member appearing on the books of the corporation or given by the member to the corporation for purpose of notice, or if no such address appears or is given, at the place where the principal office of the corporation is located or by publication at least once in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the principal office is located. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the notice of a members’ meeting or any report may be sent by electronic communication or other means of remote communication if the board determines it is necessary or appropriate because of an emergency, as defined in paragraph (5) of subdivision (m) of Section 7140. An affidavit of giving of any notice or report as permitted because of an emergency or otherwise in accordance with the provisions of this part, executed by the secretary, assistant secretary, or any transfer agent, shall be prima facie evidence of the giving of the notice or report.
(2) If any notice or report addressed to the member at the address of the member appearing on the books of the corporation is returned to the corporation by the United States Postal Service marked to indicate that the United States Postal Service is unable to deliver the notice or report to the member at the address, all future notices or reports shall be deemed to have been duly given without further mailing if the same shall be available for the member upon written demand of the member at the principal office of the corporation for a period of one year from the date of the giving of the notice or report to all other members.
(3) (A) Notice given by electronic transmission by the corporation under this subdivision shall be valid only if it complies with Section 20. Notwithstanding the foregoing, notice shall not be given by electronic transmission by the corporation under this subdivision after either of the following:
(i) The corporation is unable to deliver two consecutive notices to the member by that means.
(ii) The inability to so deliver the notices to the member becomes known to the secretary, any assistant secretary, the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of the notice.
(B) This paragraph shall not apply if notices are provided by electronic communication or other means of remote communication as permitted because of an emergency.
(c) Upon request in writing to the corporation addressed to the attention of the chair of the board, president, vice president, or secretary by any person (other than the board) entitled to call a special meeting of members, the officer forthwith shall cause notice to be given to the members entitled to vote that a meeting will be held at a time fixed by the board not less than 35 nor more than 90 days after the receipt of the request. If the notice is not given within 20 days after receipt of the request, the persons entitled to call the meeting may give the notice or the superior court of the proper county shall summarily order the giving of the notice, after notice to the corporation giving it an opportunity to be heard. The court may issue such orders as may be appropriate, including, without limitation, orders designating the time and place of the meeting, the record date for determination of members entitled to vote, and the form of notice.
(d) When a members’ meeting is adjourned to another time or place, unless the bylaws otherwise require and except as provided in this subdivision, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place thereof (or the means of electronic transmission by and to the corporation or electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, if any, by which members may participate) are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. No meeting may be adjourned for more than 45 days. At the adjourned meeting the corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for notice or voting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each member who, on the record date for notice of the meeting, is entitled to vote at the meeting.
(e) The transactions of any meeting of members however called and noticed, and wherever held, are as valid as though had at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice, if a quorum is present either in person or by proxy, and if, either before or after the meeting, each of the persons entitled to vote, not present in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy), provides a waiver of notice or consent to the holding of the meeting or an approval of the minutes thereof in writing. All such waivers, consents, and approvals shall be filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of and presence at the meeting, except when the person objects, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened and except that attendance at a meeting is not a waiver of any right to object to the consideration of matters required by this part to be included in the notice but not so included, if the objection is expressly made at the meeting. Neither the business to be transacted at nor the purpose of any regular or special meeting of members need be specified in any written waiver of notice, consent to the holding of the meeting or approval of the minutes thereof, unless otherwise provided in the articles or bylaws, except as provided in subdivision (f).
(f) Any approval of the members required under Section 7222, 7224, 7233, 7812, 8610, or 8719, other than unanimous approval by those entitled to vote, shall be valid only if the general nature of the proposal so approved was stated in the notice of meeting or in any written waiver of notice.
(g) A court may find that notice not given in conformity with this section is still valid, if it was given in a fair and reasonable manner.

SEC. 16.SEC. 15.

 Section 9140 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

9140.
 Subject to any limitations contained in the articles or bylaws and to compliance with other provisions of this division and any other applicable laws, a corporation, in carrying out its activities, shall have all of the powers of a natural person, including, without limitation, the power to:
(a) Adopt, use, and at will alter a corporate seal, but failure to affix a seal does not affect the validity of any instrument.
(b) Adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws.
(c) Qualify to conduct its activities in any other state, territory, dependency, or foreign country.
(d) Issue, purchase, redeem, receive, take or otherwise acquire, own, sell, lend, exchange, transfer or otherwise dispose of, pledge, use, and otherwise deal in and with its own bonds, debentures, notes, and debt securities.
(e) Issue memberships.
(f) Pay pensions, and establish and carry out pension, deferred compensation, saving, thrift, and other retirement, incentive, and benefit plans, trusts, and provisions for any or all of its directors, officers, employees, and persons providing services to it or any of its subsidiary or related or associated corporations, and to indemnify and purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any fiduciary of such plans, trusts, or provisions.
(g) Levy dues, assessments, and fees.
(h) Make donations for the public welfare or for community funds, hospital, charitable, educational, scientific, civic, religious, or similar purposes.
(i) Assume obligations, enter into contracts, including contracts of guarantee or suretyship, incur liabilities, borrow or lend money or otherwise use its credit, and secure any of its obligations, contracts, or liabilities by mortgage, pledge, or other encumbrance of all or any part of its property and income.
(j) Participate with others in any partnership, joint venture, or other association, transaction, or arrangement of any kind whether or not such participation involves sharing or delegation of control with or to others.
(k) Act as trustee under any trust incidental to the principal objects of the corporation, and receive, hold, administer, exchange, and expend funds and property subject to such trust.
(l) Carry on a business at a profit and apply any profit that results from the business activity to any activity in which it may lawfully engage.
(m) Pay the reasonable value of services rendered in this state to the corporation before January 1, 1975, and not previously paid, by any person who performed such services on a full-time basis under the direction of a religious organization in connection with the religious tenets of the organization. Such person shall have relied solely on the religious organization for their financial support for a minimum of five years. A payment shall not be made if such person or religious organization waives the payment or receipt of compensation for such services in writing. Payment may be made to such religious organization to reimburse it for maintenance of any person who rendered such services and to assist it in providing future support and maintenance; however, payment shall not be made from any funds or assets acquired with funds donated by or traceable to gifts made to the corporation by any person, organization, or governmental agency other than the members, immediate families of members, and affiliated religious organizations of the religious organization under whose direction the services were performed.
(n) (1) In anticipation of or during an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 9151:
(A) Modify lines of succession to accommodate the incapacity of any director, officer, employee, or agent resulting from the emergency.
(B) Relocate the principal office, designate alternative principal offices or regional offices, or authorize the officers to do so.
(2) During an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 9151:
(A) Give notice to a director or directors in any practicable manner under the circumstances, including, but not limited to, by publication and radio, when notice of a meeting of the board cannot be given to that director or directors in the manner prescribed by the bylaws or Section 9211.
(B) Deem that one or more officers of the corporation present at a board meeting is a director, in order of rank and within the same rank in order of seniority, as necessary to achieve a quorum for that meeting.
(3) In anticipation of or during an emergency, the board may take any action that it determines to be necessary or appropriate to respond to the emergency, mitigate the effects of the emergency, or comply with lawful federal and state government orders, but shall not take any action that requires the vote of the members, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(4) Any actions taken in good faith in anticipation of or during an emergency under this subdivision bind the corporation and shall not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.
(5) For purposes of this subdivision, “emergency” means any of the following events or circumstances as a result of which, and only so long as, a quorum of the corporation’s board of directors cannot be readily convened for action:
(A) A natural catastrophe, including, but not limited to, a hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought, epidemic, pandemic, or disease outbreak, or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion.
(B) An attack on or within this state or on the public security of its residents by an enemy of this state or on the nation by an enemy of the United States of America, or upon receipt by this state of a warning from the federal government indicating that any such enemy attack is probable or imminent.
(C) An act of terrorism or other manmade disaster that results in extraordinary levels of casualties or damage or disruption severely affecting the infrastructure, environment, economy, government functions, or population, including, but not limited to, mass evacuations.
(D) A state of emergency proclaimed by the Governor of this state, including any person serving as Governor in accordance with Section 10 of Article V of the California Constitution and Section 12058 of the Government Code or by the President of the United States of America.

SEC. 17.SEC. 16.

 Section 9151 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

9151.
 (a) The bylaws shall set forth (unless such provision is contained in the articles, in which case it may only be changed by an amendment of the articles) the number of directors of the corporation, or the method of determining the number of directors of the corporation, or that the number of directors shall be not less than a stated minimum nor more than a stated maximum with the exact number of directors to be fixed, within the limits specified, by approval of the board or the members (Section 5034), in the manner provided in the bylaws, subject to subdivision (e) of Section 9151. The number or minimum number of directors may be one or more.
(b) Except as otherwise provided in the articles or bylaws, once members have been admitted, a bylaw specifying or changing a fixed number of directors or the maximum or minimum number or changing from a fixed to a variable board or vice versa may only be adopted by approval of the members (Section 5034).
(c) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with law or the articles, for the management of the activities and for the conduct of the affairs of the corporation, including, but not limited to:
(1) Any provision referred to in subdivision (c) of Section 9132.
(2) The time, place, and manner of calling, conducting, and giving notice of members’, directors’, and committee meetings, or of conducting mail ballots.
(3) The qualifications, duties, and compensation of directors; the time of their election; and the requirements of a quorum for directors’ and committee meetings.
(4) The appointment of committees, composed of directors or nondirectors, or both, by the board or any officer and the authority of any such committees.
(5) The appointment, duties, compensation, and tenure of officers.
(6) The mode of determination of members of record.
(7) The making of reports and financial statements to members.
(8) Setting, imposing, and collecting dues, assessments, and admissions and transfer fees.
(d) The bylaws may provide for the manner of admission, withdrawal, suspension, and expulsion of members.
(e) The bylaws may require, for any or all corporate actions (except as provided in Section 9222 and subdivision (b) of Section 9680), the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the members or the members of any class, unit, or grouping of members, or the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the directors than is otherwise required by this part. Such a provision in the bylaws requiring such greater vote shall not be altered, amended, or repealed except by such greater vote, unless otherwise provided in the bylaws.
(f) The bylaws may contain a provision limiting the number of members, in total or of any class, which the corporation is authorized to admit.
(g) (1) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with the articles, to manage and conduct the business affairs of the corporation effective only in an emergency as defined in Section 9140, including, but not limited to, procedures for calling a board meeting, quorum requirements for a board meeting, and designation of additional or substitute directors.
(2) During an emergency, the board may take any action that it determines to be necessary or appropriate to respond to the emergency, mitigate the effects of the emergency, or comply with lawful federal and state government orders, but shall not take any action that requires the vote of the members, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(3) All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws shall remain effective during the emergency, and the emergency bylaws shall not be effective after the emergency ends.
(4) Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws binds the corporation, and shall not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.

SEC. 18.SEC. 17.

 Section 9152 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

9152.
 Any corporation may provide in its bylaws for delegates having some or all of the authority of members. Where delegates are provided for, the bylaws shall set forth delegates’ terms of office, any reasonable method for delegates’ selection and removal, and any reasonable method for calling, noticing, and holding meetings of delegates, may set forth the manner in which delegates may act by written ballot similar to Section 9413 for written ballot of members, and may set forth the manner in which delegates may participate in meetings of delegates similar to paragraph (6) of subdivision (a) of Section 9211. Each delegate shall have one vote on each matter presented for action. A delegate shall not vote by proxy. Delegates may be given a name other than “delegates.”

SEC. 19.SEC. 18.

 Section 9411 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

9411.
 (a) Subject to the provisions of this chapter, regular and special meetings of members shall be called, noticed and held as may be ordered by the board. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the notice of a members’ meeting or any report may be sent by electronic communication or other means of remote communication if the board determines it is necessary or appropriate because of an emergency, as defined in paragraph (5) of subdivision (n) of Section 9140. Subject to any limitations in the articles or bylaws of the corporation, if authorized by the board of directors in its sole discretion, and subject to those guidelines and procedures as the board of directors may adopt, members not physically present in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy) at a meeting of members may, by electronic transmission by and to the corporation (Sections 20 and 21), electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, participate in a meeting of members, be deemed present in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy), and vote at a meeting of members, subject to subdivision (f).
(b) Special meetings of members for any lawful purpose may be called by the board or the chair of the board or the president. In addition, special meetings of members for any lawful purpose may be called by 5 percent or more of the members.
(c) Upon request in writing to the chair of the board, president, vice president, or secretary by any person (other than the board) entitled to call a special meeting of members, the board shall expeditiously set a reasonable time and place for the meeting and the officer forthwith shall cause notice to be given to the members entitled to vote of the time and place of the meeting. If the notice is not given within 20 days after receipt of the request, the persons entitled to call the meeting may give the notice or the superior court of the proper county shall summarily order the giving of the notice, after notice to the corporation giving it an opportunity to be heard. The court may issue such orders as may be appropriate, including, without limitation, orders designating the time and place of the meeting, the record date for determination of members entitled to vote, and the form of notice.
(d) The transactions of any meeting of members, however called and noticed, and wherever held, are as valid as though had at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice, if a quorum is present either in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy), and if, either before or after the meeting, each of the persons entitled to vote, not present in person or by proxy, signs a written waiver of notice or a consent to the holding of the meeting or an approval of the minutes thereof. All such waivers, consents, and approvals shall be filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of and presence at such meeting, except when the person objects, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened and except that attendance at a meeting is not a waiver of any right to object to the consideration of matters required by this part to be included in the notice but not so included, if such objection is expressly made at the meeting. Neither the business to be transacted at nor the purpose of any regular or special meeting of members need be specified in any written waiver of notice, consent to the holding of the meeting, or approval of the minutes thereof except as provided in subdivision (e).
(e) Any member approval required under subdivision (b) of Section 9150, Section 9222, Section 5812 (made applicable pursuant to Section 9620), subdivision (a) of Section 9631, subdivision (c) of Section 9640, subdivision (a) of Section 6015 (made applicable pursuant to Section 9640), or subdivision (b) of Section 9680, other than unanimous approval by those entitled to vote, shall be valid only if the general nature of the proposal so approved was stated in the notice of meeting or in any written waiver of notice.
(f) A meeting of the members may be conducted, in whole or in part, by electronic transmission by and to the corporation or by electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication if the corporation implements reasonable measures: (1) to provide members and proxyholders (if proxies are allowed) a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the members, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with those proceedings, (2) if any member or proxyholder (if proxies are allowed) votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of electronic transmission to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, to maintain a record of that vote or action in its books and records, and (3) to verify that each person participating remotely is a member or proxyholder (if proxies are allowed). A corporation shall not conduct a meeting of members solely by electronic transmission by and to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication unless: (A) all of the members consent, or (B) the board determines it is necessary or appropriate because of an emergency, as defined in paragraph (5) of subdivision (n) of Section 9140.

SEC. 20.SEC. 19.

 Section 12320 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

12320.
 Subject to any limitations contained in the articles or bylaws and to compliance with other provisions of this part and any other applicable laws, a corporation, in carrying out its activities, shall have all of the powers of a natural person, including, without limitation, the power to:
(a) Adopt, use, and at will alter a corporate seal, but failure to affix a seal does not affect the validity of any instrument.
(b) Adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws.
(c) Qualify to conduct its activities in any other state, territory, dependency, or foreign country.
(d) Issue, purchase, redeem, receive, take or otherwise acquire, own, sell, lend, exchange, transfer or otherwise dispose of, pledge, use, and otherwise deal in and with its own memberships, bonds, debentures, notes, and debt securities.
(e) Pay pensions, and establish and carry out pension, deferred compensation, saving, thrift, and other retirement, incentive, and benefit plans, trusts, and provisions for any or all of its directors, officers, employees, and persons providing services to it or any of its subsidiary or related or associated corporations, and to indemnify and purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any fiduciary of such plans, trusts, or provisions.
(f) Issue certificates evidencing membership in accordance with the provisions of Section 12401 and issue identity cards to identify those persons eligible to use the corporation’s facilities.
(g) Levy dues, assessments, and membership and transfer fees.
(h) Make donations for the public welfare or for community funds, hospital, charitable, educational, scientific, civic, religious, or similar purposes.
(i) Assume obligations, enter into contracts, including contracts of guarantee or suretyship, incur liabilities, borrow or lend money or otherwise use its credit, and secure any of its obligations, contracts, or liabilities by mortgage, pledge, or other encumbrance of all or any part of its property and income.
(j) Participate with others in any partnership, joint venture, or other association, transaction, or arrangement of any kind whether or not such participation involves sharing or delegation of control with or to others.
(k) Act as trustee under any trust incidental to the principal objects of the corporation, and receive, hold, administer, exchange, and expend funds and property subject to such trust.
(l) Carry on a business at a profit and apply any profit that results from the business activity to any activity in which it may lawfully engage.
(m) (1) In anticipation of or during an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 12331:
(A) Modify lines of succession to accommodate the incapacity of any director, officer, employee, or agent resulting from the emergency.
(B) Relocate the principal office, designate alternative principal offices or regional offices, or authorize the officers to do so.
(2) During an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 12331:
(A) Give notice to a director or directors in any practicable manner under the circumstances, including, but not limited to, by publication and radio, when notice of a meeting of the board cannot be given to that director or directors in the manner prescribed by the bylaws or Section 12351.
(B) Deem that one or more officers of the corporation present at a board meeting is a director, in order of rank and within the same rank in order of seniority, as necessary to achieve a quorum for that meeting.
(3) In anticipation of or during an emergency, the board may take any action that it determines to be necessary or appropriate to respond to the emergency, mitigate the effects of the emergency, or comply with lawful federal and state government orders, but shall not take any action that requires the vote of the members, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(4) Any actions taken in good faith in anticipation of or during an emergency under this subdivision bind the corporation and shall not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.
(5) For purposes of this subdivision, “emergency” means any of the following events or circumstances as a result of which, and only so long as, a quorum of the corporation’s board of directors cannot be readily convened for action:
(A) A natural catastrophe, including, but not limited to, a hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, drought, epidemic, pandemic, or disease outbreak, or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion.
(B) An attack on or within this state or on the public security of its residents by an enemy of this state or on the nation by an enemy of the United States of America, or upon receipt by this state of a warning from the federal government indicating that any such enemy attack is probable or imminent.
(C) An act of terrorism or other manmade disaster that results in extraordinary levels of casualties or damage or disruption severely affecting the infrastructure, environment, economy, government functions, or population, including, but not limited to, mass evacuations.
(D) A state of emergency proclaimed by the Governor of this state, including any person serving as Governor in accordance with Section 10 of Article V of the California Constitution and Section 12058 of the Government Code, or by the President of the United States of America.

SEC. 21.SEC. 20.

 Section 12331 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

12331.
 (a) The bylaws shall set forth (unless such provision is contained in the articles, in which case it may only be changed by an amendment of the articles) the number of directors of the corporation, or the method of determining the number of directors of the corporation, or that the number of directors shall be not less than a stated minimum or more than a stated maximum with the exact number of directors to be fixed, within the limits specified, by approval of the board or the members (Sections 12222 and 12224), in the manner provided in the bylaws, subject to subdivision (e). The number or minimum number of directors shall not be less than three. Alternate directors may be permitted, in which event, the bylaws shall specify the manner and times of their election and the conditions to their service in place of a director.
(b) Once members have been admitted, a bylaw specifying or changing a fixed number of directors or the maximum or minimum number or changing from a fixed to a variable board or vice versa may only be adopted by approval of the members.
(c) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with law or the articles, for the management of the activities and for the conduct of the affairs of the corporation, including, but not limited to:
(1) Any provision referred to in subdivision (c) of Section 12313.
(2) The time, place, and manner of calling, conducting, and giving notice of members’, directors’, and committee meetings, or of conducting mail ballots.
(3) The qualifications, duties, and compensation of directors; the time of their election; and the requirements of a quorum for directors’ and committee meetings.
(4) The appointment of committees, composed of directors or nondirectors or both, by the board or any officer and the authority of these committees.
(5) The appointment, duties, compensation, and tenure of officers.
(6) The mode of determination of members of record.
(7) The making of reports and financial statements to members.
(8) Setting, imposing, and collecting dues, assessments, and membership and transfer fees.
(9) The time and manner of patronage distributions consistent with this part.
(d) The bylaws may provide for eligibility, the manner of admission, withdrawal, suspension, and expulsion of members, and the suspension or termination of memberships consistent with the requirements of Section 12431.
(e) The bylaws may require, for any or all corporate actions, the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the members or the members of any class, unit, or grouping of members or the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the directors, than is otherwise required by this part. A provision in the bylaws requiring a greater vote shall not be altered, amended, or repealed except by the greater vote, unless otherwise provided in the bylaws.
(f) The bylaws may contain a provision limiting the number of members, in total or of any class or series, which the corporation is authorized to admit.
(g) The bylaws may provide for the establishment by the corporation of a program for the education of its members, officers, employees, and the general public in the principles and techniques of cooperation.
(h) (1) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with the articles, to manage and conduct the business affairs of the corporation effective only in an emergency as defined in Section 12320, including, but not limited to, procedures for calling a board meeting, quorum requirements for a board meeting, and designation of additional or substitute directors.
(2) During an emergency, the board may take any action that it determines to be necessary or appropriate to respond to the emergency, mitigate the effects of the emergency, or comply with lawful federal and state government orders, but shall not take any action that requires the vote of the members, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
(3) All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws shall remain effective during the emergency, and the emergency bylaws shall not be effective after the emergency ends.
(4) Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws binds the corporation, and shall not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.

SEC. 22.SEC. 21.

 Section 12332 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

12332.
 A corporation may provide in its bylaws for delegates having some or all of the authority of members. Where delegates are provided for, the bylaws shall set forth the delegates’ terms of office, any reasonable method for delegates’ selection and removal, and any reasonable method for calling, noticing, and holding meetings of delegates, may set forth the manner in which delegates may act by written ballot similar to Section 12463 for written ballot of members, and may set forth the manner in which delegates may participate in meetings of delegates similar to paragraph (6) of subdivision (a) of Section 12351. Unless delegates are directly elected by the membership, they shall be elected by a body or bodies directly elected by the membership. Each delegate shall have one vote on each matter presented for action. A delegate shall not vote by proxy. Delegates may be given a name other than “delegates.”

SEC. 23.SEC. 22.

 Section 12460 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

12460.
 (a) Meetings of members may be held at a place within or without this state that is stated in or fixed in accordance with the bylaws. If no other place is so stated or fixed, meetings of members shall be held at the principal executive office of the corporation. Subject to any limitations in the articles or bylaws of the corporation, if authorized by the board of directors in its sole discretion, and subject to those guidelines and procedures as the board of directors may adopt, members not physically present in person at a meeting of members may, by electronic transmission by and to the corporation (Sections 20 and 21), electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, participate in a meeting of members, be deemed present in person, and vote at a meeting of members, subject to subdivision (f).
(b) Except as provided in Section 12460.5, a regular meeting of members shall be held annually. In any year in which directors are elected, the election shall be held at the regular meeting unless the directors are chosen in some other manner authorized by law. Any other proper business may be transacted at the meeting.
(c) If a corporation fails to hold the regular meeting for a period of 60 days after the date designated therefor or, if no date has been designated, for a period of 15 months after the formation of the corporation or after its last regular meeting, or if the corporation fails to hold a written ballot for a period of 60 days after the date designated therefor, then the superior court of the proper county may summarily order the meeting to be held or the ballot to be conducted upon the application of a member, after notice to the corporation giving it an opportunity to be heard.
(d) The votes represented at a meeting called or by written ballot ordered pursuant to subdivision (c) and entitled to be cast on the business to be transacted shall constitute a quorum, notwithstanding any provision of the articles or bylaws or provision in this part to the contrary. The court may issue such orders as may be appropriate including, without limitation, orders designating the time and place of the meeting, the record date for determination of members entitled to vote, and the form of notice of the meeting.
(e) Special meetings of members for any lawful purpose may be called by the board, the chair of the board, the president, or other persons, if any, as are specified in the bylaws. In addition, special meetings of members for any lawful purpose may be called by 5 percent or more of the members, however, in a worker cooperative with more than four worker-members, a special meeting may only be called by the greater of three worker-members or 5 percent of the worker-members. In a worker cooperative with fewer than four worker-members, special meetings may be called by one worker-member.
(f) A meeting of the members may be conducted, in whole or in part, by electronic transmission by and to the corporation, by electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication if the corporation implements reasonable measures: (1) to provide members a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the members, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting concurrently with those proceedings, (2) if any member votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of electronic transmission to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, to maintain a record of that vote or action in its books and records, and (3) to verify that each person participating remotely is a member. A corporation shall not conduct a meeting of members solely by electronic transmission by and to the corporation, electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication unless: (A) all of the members consent; or (B) the board determines it is necessary or appropriate because of an emergency, as defined in paragraph (5) of subdivision (m) of Section 12320.

SEC. 24.SEC. 23.

 Section 12461 of the Corporations Code is amended to read:

12461.
 (a) Whenever members are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a written notice of the meeting shall be given not less than 10 nor more than 90 days before the date of the meeting to each member who, on the record date for notice of the meeting, is entitled to vote thereat; provided, however, that if notice is given by mail, and the notice is not mailed by first-class, registered, or certified mail, that notice shall be given not less than 20 days before the meeting. A worker cooperative shall provide notice of the meeting not less than 48 hours before the meeting if the meeting is a meeting of only worker-members, provided that the notice is delivered personally to every worker-member. Subject to subdivision (f), and subdivision (b) of Section 12462, that notice shall state the place, date, and time of the meeting, the means of electronic transmission by and to the corporation (Sections 20 and 21), electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, if any, by which members may participate in that meeting, and (1) in the case of a special meeting, the general nature of the business to be transacted, and no other business may be transacted, or (2) in the case of the regular meeting, those matters which the board, at the time the notice is given, intends to present for action by the members, but, except as provided in subdivision (b) of Section 12462, any proper matter may be presented at the meeting for such action. The notice of any meeting at which directors are to be elected shall include the names of all those who are nominees at the time the notice is given to members.
(b) (1) Notice of a members’ meeting or any report shall be given personally, by electronic transmission by the corporation, or by mail or other means of written communication, addressed to a member at the address of such member appearing on the books of the corporation or given by the member to the corporation for purpose of notice, or if no such address appears or is given, at the place where the principal office of the corporation is located or by publication at least once in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the principal office is located. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the notice of a members’ meeting or any report may be sent by electronic communication or other means of remote communication if the board determines it is necessary or appropriate because of an emergency, as defined in paragraph (5) of subdivision (m) of Section 12320. An affidavit of giving of any notice or report as permitted because of an emergency or otherwise in accordance with the provisions of this part, executed by the secretary, assistant secretary, or any transfer agent, shall be prima facie evidence of the giving of the notice or report.
(2) If any notice or report addressed to the member at the address of such member appearing on the books of the corporation is returned to the corporation by the United States Postal Service marked to indicate the United States Postal Service is unable to deliver the notice or report to the member at such address, all future notices or reports shall be deemed to have been duly given without further mailing if the same shall be available for the member upon written demand of the member at the principal office of the corporation for a period of one year from the date of the giving of the notice or report to all other members.
(3) (A) Notice given by electronic transmission by the corporation under this subdivision shall be valid only if it complies with Section 20. Notwithstanding the foregoing, notice shall not be given by electronic transmission by the corporation under this subdivision after either of the following:
(i) The corporation is unable to deliver two consecutive notices to the member by that means.
(ii) The inability to so deliver the notices to the member becomes known to the secretary, any assistant secretary, the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of the notice.
(B) This paragraph shall not apply if notices are provided by electronic communication or other means of remote communication as permitted because of an emergency.
(c) Upon request in writing to the corporation addressed to the attention of the chair of the board, president, vice president, or secretary by any person (other than the board) entitled to call a special meeting of members, the officer forthwith shall cause notice to be given to the members entitled to vote that a meeting will be held at a time fixed by the board not less than 35 nor more than 90 days after the receipt of the request. If the notice is not given within 20 days after receipt of the request, the persons entitled to call the meeting may give the notice or the superior court of the proper county shall summarily order the giving of the notice, after notice to the corporation giving it an opportunity to be heard. The court may issue such orders as may be appropriate, including, without limitation, orders designating the time and place of the meeting, the record date for determination of members entitled to vote, and the form of notice.
(d) When a members’ meeting is adjourned to another time or place, unless the bylaws otherwise require and except as provided in this subdivision, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place thereof (or the means of electronic transmission by and to the corporation or electronic video screen communication, conference telephone, or other means of remote communication, if any, by which members may participate) are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting the corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than 45 days or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each member of record entitled to vote at the meeting.
(e) The transactions of any meeting of members however called and noticed, and wherever held, are as valid as though had at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice, if a quorum is present, and if, either before or after the meeting, each of the persons entitled to vote, not present in person, provides a waiver of notice or consent to the holding of the meeting or an approval of the minutes thereof in writing. All such waivers, consents, and approvals shall be filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of and presence at such meeting, except when the person objects, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened and except that attendance at a meeting is not a waiver of any right to object to the consideration of matters required by this part to be included in the notice but not so included, if such objection is expressly made at the meeting. Neither the business to be transacted at nor the purpose of any regular or special meeting of members need be specified in any written waiver of notice, consent to the holding of the meeting, or approval of the minutes thereof, unless otherwise provided in the articles or bylaws, except as provided in subdivision (f).
(f) Any approval of the members required under Section 12362, 12364, 12373, 12502, or 12658 other than unanimous approval by those entitled to vote, shall be valid only if the general nature of the proposal so approved was stated in the notice of meeting or in any written waiver of notice.
(g) A court may find that notice not given in conformity with this section is still valid, if it was given in a fair and reasonable manner.
(h) Subject to the provisions of subdivision (i), and unless prohibited by the articles or bylaws, prior to any regular or special meeting of members, the board may authorize distribution of a written ballot to every member entitled to vote at the meeting. Such ballot shall set forth the action proposed to be taken at the meeting, shall provide an opportunity to specify approval or disapproval of the proposed action, and shall state that unless revoked by the member voting in person at the meeting, the ballot will be counted if received by the corporation on or before the time of the meeting with respect to which it was sent. If ballots are so distributed with respect to a meeting, the number of members voting at the meeting by unrevoked written ballots shall be deemed present at the meeting for purposes of determining the existence of a quorum pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 12462 but only with respect to the proposed action referred to in the ballots. These ballots shall be distributed in a manner consistent with the requirements of subdivision (b) and Section 12464.
(i) Unless prohibited by the articles or bylaws, written ballots may be distributed in a manner contemplated by subdivision (h) with respect to the election of directors, except that no ballots may be so distributed with respect to the election of directors if cumulative voting is permitted pursuant to Section 12484.