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AB-2295 Restitution for crimes.(2015-2016)

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AB2295:v95#DOCUMENT

Assembly Bill No. 2295
CHAPTER 37

An act to amend Sections 186.11, 186.12, 1202.4, and 1202.46 of the Penal Code, relating to restitution.

[ Approved by Governor  June 27, 2016. Filed with Secretary of State  June 27, 2016. ]

LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST


AB 2295, Baker. Restitution for crimes.
Existing law requires the court to order a person who is convicted of a crime to pay restitution to the victim or victims for the full amount of economic loss, unless the court finds compelling and extraordinary reasons for not doing so and states them on the record. Existing law specifically requires a defendant subject to the aggravated white collar crime enhancement, and a person convicted of a felony involving theft, embezzlement, forgery, or fraud, with respect to the property or personal identifying information of an elder or a dependent adult, to be ordered to make full restitution to the victim or to make restitution to the victim based on his or her ability to pay.
This bill would require the court to order full restitution and would make technical, nonsubstantive changes. The bill would state the finding of the Legislature that these changes are declaratory of existing law.
Vote: MAJORITY   Appropriation: NO   Fiscal Committee: NO   Local Program: NO  

The people of the State of California do enact as follows:


SECTION 1.

 Section 186.11 of the Penal Code is amended to read:

186.11.
 (a) (1) Any person who commits two or more related felonies, a material element of which is fraud or embezzlement, which involve a pattern of related felony conduct, and the pattern of related felony conduct involves the taking of, or results in the loss by another person or entity of, more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), shall be punished, upon conviction of two or more felonies in a single criminal proceeding, in addition and consecutive to the punishment prescribed for the felony offenses of which he or she has been convicted, by an additional term of imprisonment in the state prison as specified in paragraph (2) or (3). This enhancement shall be known as the aggravated white collar crime enhancement. The aggravated white collar crime enhancement shall only be imposed once in a single criminal proceeding. For purposes of this section, “pattern of related felony conduct” means engaging in at least two felonies that have the same or similar purpose, result, principals, victims, or methods of commission, or are otherwise interrelated by distinguishing characteristics, and that are not isolated events. For purposes of this section, “two or more related felonies” means felonies committed against two or more separate victims, or against the same victim on two or more separate occasions.
(2) If the pattern of related felony conduct involves the taking of, or results in the loss by another person or entity of, more than five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000), the additional term of punishment shall be two, three, or five years in the state prison.
(3) If the pattern of related felony conduct involves the taking of, or results in the loss by another person or entity of, more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), but not more than five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000), the additional term of punishment shall be the term specified in paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 12022.6.
(b) (1) The additional prison term and penalties provided for in subdivisions (a), (c), and (d) shall not be imposed unless the facts set forth in subdivision (a) are charged in the accusatory pleading and admitted or found to be true by the trier of fact.
(2) The additional prison term provided in paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) shall be in addition to any other punishment provided by law, including Section 12022.6, and shall not be limited by any other provision of law.
(c) Any person convicted of two or more felonies, as specified in subdivision (a), shall also be liable for a fine not to exceed five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000) or double the value of the taking, whichever is greater, if the existence of facts that would make the person subject to the aggravated white collar crime enhancement have been admitted or found to be true by the trier of fact. However, if the pattern of related felony conduct involves the taking of more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), but not more than five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000), the fine shall not exceed one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) or double the value of the taking, whichever is greater.
(d) (1) If a person is alleged to have committed two or more felonies, as specified in subdivision (a), and the aggravated white collar crime enhancement is also charged, or a person is charged in an accusatory pleading with a felony, a material element of which is fraud or embezzlement, that involves the taking or loss of more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), and an allegation as to the existence of those facts, any asset or property that is in the control of that person, and any asset or property that has been transferred by that person to a third party, subsequent to the commission of any criminal act alleged pursuant to subdivision (a), other than in a bona fide purchase, whether found within or outside the state, may be preserved by the superior court in order to pay restitution and fines. Upon conviction of two or more felonies, as specified in subdivision (a), or a felony, a material element of which is fraud or embezzlement, that involves the taking or loss of more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), this property may be levied upon by the superior court to pay restitution and fines if the existence of facts that would make the person subject to the aggravated white collar crime enhancement or that demonstrate the taking or loss of more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) in the commission of a felony, a material element of which is fraud or embezzlement, have been charged in the accusatory pleading and admitted or found to be true by the trier of fact.
(2) To prevent dissipation or secreting of assets or property, the prosecuting agency may, at the same time as or subsequent to the filing of a complaint or indictment charging two or more felonies, as specified in subdivision (a), and the enhancement specified in subdivision (a), or a felony, a material element of which is fraud or embezzlement, that involves the taking or loss of more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), and an allegation as to the existence of those facts, file a petition with the criminal division of the superior court of the county in which the accusatory pleading was filed, seeking a temporary restraining order, preliminary injunction, the appointment of a receiver, or any other protective relief necessary to preserve the property or assets. This petition shall commence a proceeding that shall be pendent to the criminal proceeding and maintained solely to affect the criminal remedies provided for in this section. The proceeding shall not be subject to or governed by the provisions of the Civil Discovery Act as set forth in Title 4 (commencing with Section 2016.010) of Part 4 of the Code of Civil Procedure. The petition shall allege that the defendant has been charged with two or more felonies, as specified in subdivision (a), and is subject to the aggravated white collar crime enhancement specified in subdivision (a) or that the defendant has been charged with a felony, a material element of which is fraud or embezzlement, that involves the taking or loss of more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), and an allegation as to the existence of those facts. The petition shall identify that criminal proceeding and the assets and property to be affected by an order issued pursuant to this section.
(3) A notice regarding the petition shall be provided, by personal service or registered mail, to every person who may have an interest in the property specified in the petition. Additionally, the notice shall be published for at least three successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the county where the property affected by an order issued pursuant to this section is located. The notice shall state that any interested person may file a verified claim with the superior court stating the nature and amount of their claimed interest. The notice shall set forth the time within which a claim of interest in the protected property is required to be filed.
(4) If the property to be preserved is real property, the prosecuting agency shall record, at the time of filing the petition, a lis pendens in each county in which the real property is situated which specifically identifies the property by legal description, the name of the owner of record as shown on the latest equalized assessment roll, and the assessor’s parcel number.
(5) If the property to be preserved are assets under the control of a banking or financial institution, the prosecuting agency, at the time of the filing of the petition, may obtain an order from the court directing the banking or financial institution to immediately disclose the account numbers and value of the assets of the accused held by the banking or financial institution. The prosecuting agency shall file a supplemental petition, specifically identifying which banking or financial institution accounts shall be subject to a temporary restraining order, preliminary injunction, or other protective remedy.
(6) Any person claiming an interest in the protected property may, at any time within 30 days from the date of the first publication of the notice of the petition, or within 30 days after receipt of actual notice, file with the superior court of the county in which the action is pending a verified claim stating the nature and amount of his or her interest in the property or assets. A verified copy of the claim shall be served by the claimant on the Attorney General or district attorney, as appropriate.
(7) The imposition of fines and restitution pursuant to this section shall be determined by the superior court in which the underlying criminal offense is sentenced. Any judge who is assigned to the criminal division of the superior court in the county where the petition is filed may issue a temporary restraining order in conjunction with, or subsequent to, the filing of an allegation pursuant to this section. Any subsequent hearing on the petition shall also be heard by a judge assigned to the criminal division of the superior court in the county in which the petition is filed. At the time of the filing of an information or indictment in the underlying criminal case, any subsequent hearing on the petition shall be heard by the superior court judge assigned to the underlying criminal case.
(e) Concurrent with or subsequent to the filing of the petition, the prosecuting agency may move the superior court for, and the superior court may issue, the following pendente lite orders to preserve the status quo of the property alleged in the petition:
(1) An injunction to restrain any person from transferring, encumbering, hypothecating, or otherwise disposing of that property.
(2) Appointment of a receiver to take possession of, care for, manage, and operate the assets and properties so that the property may be maintained and preserved. The court may order that a receiver appointed pursuant to this section shall be compensated for all reasonable expenditures made or incurred by him or her in connection with the possession, care, management, and operation of any property or assets that are subject to the provisions of this section.
(3) A bond or other undertaking, in lieu of other orders, of a value sufficient to ensure the satisfaction of restitution and fines imposed pursuant to this section.
(f) (1) No preliminary injunction may be granted or receiver appointed by the court without notice that meets the requirements of paragraph (3) of subdivision (d) to all known and reasonably ascertainable interested parties and upon a hearing to determine that an order is necessary to preserve the property pending the outcome of the criminal proceedings. A temporary restraining order may be issued by the court, ex parte, pending that hearing in conjunction with or subsequent to the filing of the petition upon the application of the prosecuting attorney. The temporary restraining order may be based upon the sworn declaration of a peace officer with personal knowledge of the criminal investigation that establishes probable cause to believe that aggravated white collar crime or a felony, a material element of which is fraud or embezzlement, that involves the taking or loss of more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) has taken place and that the amount of restitution and fines exceeds or equals the worth of the assets subject to the temporary restraining order. The declaration may include the hearsay statements of witnesses to establish the necessary facts. The temporary restraining order may be issued without notice upon a showing of good cause to the court.
(2) The defendant, or a person who has filed a verified claim as provided in paragraph (6) of subdivision (d), shall have the right to have the court conduct an order to show cause hearing within 10 days of the service of the request for hearing upon the prosecuting agency, in order to determine whether the temporary restraining order should remain in effect, whether relief should be granted from any lis pendens recorded pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (d), or whether any existing order should be modified in the interests of justice. Upon a showing of good cause, the hearing shall be held within two days of the service of the request for hearing upon the prosecuting agency.
(3) In determining whether to issue a preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order in a proceeding brought by a prosecuting agency in conjunction with or subsequent to the filing of an allegation pursuant to this section, the court has the discretion to consider any matter that it deems reliable and appropriate, including hearsay statements, in order to reach a just and equitable decision. The court shall weigh the relative degree of certainty of the outcome on the merits and the consequences to each of the parties of granting the interim relief. If the prosecution is likely to prevail on the merits and the risk of the dissipation of assets outweighs the potential harm to the defendants and the interested parties, the court shall grant injunctive relief. The court shall give significant weight to the following factors:
(A) The public interest in preserving the property or assets pendente lite.
(B) The difficulty of preserving the property or assets pendente lite where the underlying alleged crimes involve issues of fraud and moral turpitude.
(C) The fact that the requested relief is being sought by a public prosecutor on behalf of alleged victims of white collar crimes.
(D) The likelihood that substantial public harm has occurred where aggravated white collar crime is alleged to have been committed.
(E) The significant public interest involved in compensating the victims of white collar crime and paying court-imposed restitution and fines.
(4) The court, in making its orders, may consider a defendant’s request for the release of a portion of the property affected by this section in order to pay reasonable legal fees in connection with the criminal proceeding, any necessary and appropriate living expenses pending trial and sentencing, and for the purpose of posting bail. The court shall weigh the needs of the public to retain the property against the needs of the defendant to a portion of the property. The court shall consider the factors listed in paragraph (3) prior to making any order releasing property for these purposes.
(5) The court, in making its orders, shall seek to protect the interests of any innocent third persons, including an innocent spouse, who were not involved in the commission of any criminal activity.
(6) Any petition filed pursuant to this section is part of the criminal proceedings for purposes of appointment of counsel and shall be assigned to the criminal division of the superior court of the county in which the accusatory pleading was filed.
(7) Based upon a noticed motion brought by the receiver appointed pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (e), the court may order an interlocutory sale of property named in the petition when the property is liable to perish, to waste, or to be significantly reduced in value, or when the expenses of maintaining the property are disproportionate to the value thereof. The proceeds of the interlocutory sale shall be deposited with the court or as directed by the court pending determination of the proceeding pursuant to this section.
(8) The court may make any orders that are necessary to preserve the continuing viability of any lawful business enterprise that is affected by the issuance of a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction issued pursuant to this action.
(9) In making its orders, the court shall seek to prevent any asset subject to a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction from perishing, spoiling, going to waste, or otherwise being significantly reduced in value. Where the potential for diminution in value exists, the court shall appoint a receiver to dispose of or otherwise protect the value of the property or asset.
(10) A preservation order shall not be issued against any assets of a business that are not likely to be dissipated and that may be subject to levy or attachment to meet the purposes of this section.
(g) If the allegation that the defendant is subject to the aggravated white collar crime enhancement or has committed a felony, a material element of which is fraud or embezzlement, that involves the taking or loss of more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) is dismissed or found by the trier of fact to be untrue, any preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order issued pursuant to this section shall be dissolved. If a jury is the trier of fact, and the jury is unable to reach a unanimous verdict, the court shall have the discretion to continue or dissolve all or a portion of the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order based upon the interests of justice. However, if the prosecuting agency elects not to retry the case, any preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order issued pursuant to this section shall be dissolved.
(h) (1) (A) If the defendant is convicted of two or more felonies, as specified in subdivision (a), and the existence of facts that would make the person subject to the aggravated white collar crime enhancement have been admitted or found to be true by the trier of fact, or the defendant is convicted of a felony, a material element of which is fraud or embezzlement, that involves the taking or loss of more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), and an allegation as to the existence of those facts has been admitted or found to be true by the trier of fact, the trial judge shall continue the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order until the date of the criminal sentencing and shall make a finding at that time as to what portion, if any, of the property or assets subject to the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order shall be levied upon to pay fines and restitution to victims of the crime. The order imposing fines and restitution may exceed the total worth of the property or assets subjected to the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order. The court may order the immediate transfer of the property or assets to satisfy any judgment and sentence made pursuant to this section. Additionally, upon motion of the prosecution, the court may enter an order as part of the judgment and sentence making the order imposing fines and restitution pursuant to this section enforceable pursuant to Title 9 (commencing with Section 680.010) of Part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
(B) Additionally, the court shall order the defendant to make full restitution to the victim. The payment of the restitution ordered by the court pursuant to this section shall be made a condition of any probation granted by the court if the existence of facts that would make the defendant subject to the aggravated white collar crime enhancement or of facts demonstrating the person committed a felony, a material element of which is fraud or embezzlement, that involves the taking or loss of more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) have been admitted or found to be true by the trier of fact. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court may order that the period of probation continue for up to 10 years or until full restitution is made to the victim, whichever is earlier.
(C) The sentencing court shall retain jurisdiction to enforce the order to pay additional fines and restitution and, in appropriate cases, may initiate probation violation proceedings or contempt of court proceedings against a defendant who is found to have willfully failed to comply with any lawful order of the court.
(D) If the execution of judgment is stayed pending an appeal of an order of the superior court pursuant to this section, the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order shall be maintained in full force and effect during the pendency of the appellate period.
(2) The order imposing fines and restitution shall not affect the interest in real property of any third party that was acquired prior to the recording of the lis pendens, unless the property was obtained from the defendant other than as a bona fide purchaser for value. If any assets or property affected by this section are subject to a valid lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract and the amount due to the holder of the lien, mortgage, interest, or contract is less than the appraised value of the property, that person may pay to the state or the local government that initiated the proceeding the amount of the difference between the appraised value of the property and the amount of the lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract. Upon that payment, the state or local entity shall relinquish all claims to the property. If the holder of the interest elects not to make that payment to the state or local governmental entity, the interest in the property shall be deemed transferred to the state or local governmental entity and any indicia of ownership of the property shall be confirmed in the state or local governmental entity. The appraised value shall be determined as of the date judgment is entered either by agreement between the holder of the lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract and the governmental entity involved, or, if they cannot agree, then by a court-appointed appraiser for the county in which the action is brought. A person holding a valid lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract shall be paid the appraised value of his or her interest.
(3) In making its final order, the court shall seek to protect the legitimately acquired interests of any innocent third persons, including an innocent spouse, who were not involved in the commission of any criminal activity.
(i) In all cases where property is to be levied upon pursuant to this section, a receiver appointed by the court shall be empowered to liquidate all property or assets which shall be distributed in the following order of priority:
(1) To the receiver, or court-appointed appraiser, for all reasonable expenditures made or incurred by him or her in connection with the sale of the property or liquidation of assets, including all reasonable expenditures for any necessary repairs, storage, or transportation of any property levied upon under this section.
(2) To any holder of a valid lien, mortgage, or security interest up to the amount of his or her interest in the property or proceeds.
(3) To any victim as restitution for any fraudulent or unlawful acts alleged in the accusatory pleading that were proven by the prosecuting agency as part of the pattern of fraudulent or unlawful acts.
(4) For payment of any fine imposed pursuant to this section. The proceeds obtained in payment of a fine shall be paid to the treasurer of the county in which the judgment was entered, or if the action was undertaken by the Attorney General, to the Treasurer. If the payment of any fine imposed pursuant to this section involved losses resulting from violation of Section 550 of this code or Section 1871.4 of the Insurance Code, one-half of the fine collected shall be paid to the treasurer of the county in which the judgment was entered, and one-half of the fine collected shall be paid to the Department of Insurance for deposit in the appropriate account in the Insurance Fund. The proceeds from the fine first shall be used by a county to reimburse local prosecutors and enforcement agencies for the reasonable costs of investigation and prosecution of cases brought pursuant to this section.
(5) To the Restitution Fund, or in cases involving convictions relating to insurance fraud, to the Insurance Fund as restitution for crimes not specifically pleaded and proven in the accusatory pleading.
(j) If, after distribution pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (i), the value of the property to be levied upon pursuant to this section is insufficient to pay for restitution and fines, the court shall order an equitable sharing of the proceeds of the liquidation of the property, and any other recoveries, which shall specify the percentage of recoveries to be devoted to each purpose. At least 70 percent of the proceeds remaining after distribution pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (i) shall be devoted to restitution.
(k) Unless otherwise expressly provided, the remedies or penalties provided by this section are cumulative to each other and to the remedies or penalties available under all other laws of this state, except that two separate actions against the same defendant and pertaining to the same fraudulent or unlawful acts may not be brought by a district attorney or the Attorney General pursuant to this section and Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 17200) of Part 2 of Division 7 of the Business and Professions Code. If a fine is imposed under this section, it shall be in lieu of all other fines that may be imposed pursuant to any other provision of law for the crimes for which the defendant has been convicted in the action.

SEC. 2.

 Section 186.12 of the Penal Code is amended to read:

186.12.
 (a) (1) A felony for purposes of this section means a felony violation of subdivision (d) or (e) of Section 368, or a felony violation of subdivision (c) of Section 15656 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, that involves the taking or loss of more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000).
(2) If a person is charged with a felony as described in paragraph (1) and an allegation as to the existence of those facts has been made, any property that is in the control of that person, and any property that has been transferred by that person to a third party, subsequent to the commission of any criminal act alleged pursuant to this subdivision, other than in a bona fide purchase, whether found within or outside the state, may be preserved by the superior court in order to pay restitution imposed pursuant to this section. Upon conviction of the felony, this property may be levied upon by the superior court to pay restitution imposed pursuant to this section.
(b) (1) To prevent dissipation or secreting of property, the prosecuting agency may, at the same time as or subsequent to the filing of a complaint or indictment charging a felony subject to this section, file a petition with the criminal division of the superior court of the county in which the accusatory pleading was filed, seeking a temporary restraining order, preliminary injunction, the appointment of a receiver, or any other protective relief necessary to preserve the property. The filing of the petition shall commence a proceeding that shall be pendent to the criminal proceeding and maintained solely to affect the criminal remedies provided for in this section. The proceeding shall not be subject to or governed by the provisions of the Civil Discovery Act as set forth in Title 4 (commencing with Section 2016.010) of Part 4 of the Code of Civil Procedure. The petition shall allege that the defendant has been charged with a felony as described in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) and shall identify that criminal proceeding and the property to be affected by an order issued pursuant to this section.
(2) A notice regarding the petition shall be provided, by personal service or registered mail, to every person who may have an interest in the property specified in the petition. Additionally, the notice shall be published for at least three successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the county where the property affected by an order issued pursuant to this section is located. The notice shall state that any interested person may file a verified claim with the superior court stating the nature and amount of their claimed interest. The notice shall set forth the time within which a claim of interest in the protected property is required to be filed.
(3) If the property to be preserved is real property, the prosecuting agency shall record, at the time of filing the petition, a lis pendens in each county in which the real property is situated which specifically identifies the property by legal description, the name of the owner of record as shown on the latest equalized assessment roll, and the assessor’s parcel number.
(4) If the property to be preserved are assets under the control of a banking or financial institution, the prosecuting agency, at the time of the filing of the petition, may obtain an order from the court directing the banking or financial institution to immediately disclose the account numbers and value of the assets of the accused held by the banking or financial institution. The prosecuting agency shall file a supplemental petition, specifically identifying which banking or financial institution accounts shall be subject to a temporary restraining order, preliminary injunction, or other protective remedy.
(5) Any person claiming an interest in the protected property may, at any time within 30 days from the date of the first publication of the notice of the petition, or within 30 days after receipt of actual notice, file with the superior court of the county in which the action is pending a verified claim stating the nature and amount of his or her interest in the property. A verified copy of the claim shall be served by the claimant on the Attorney General or district attorney, as appropriate.
(6) The imposition of restitution pursuant to this section shall be determined by the superior court in which the underlying criminal offense is sentenced. Any judge who is assigned to the criminal division of the superior court in the county where the petition is filed may issue a temporary restraining order in conjunction with, or subsequent to, the filing of an allegation pursuant to this section. Any subsequent hearing on the petition shall also be heard by a judge assigned to the criminal division of the superior court in the county in which the petition is filed. At the time of the filing of an information or indictment in the underlying criminal case, any subsequent hearing on the petition shall be heard by the superior court judge assigned to the underlying criminal case.
(c) Concurrent with or subsequent to the filing of the petition pursuant to this section, the prosecuting agency may move the superior court for, and the superior court may issue, the following pendente lite orders to preserve the status quo of the property identified in the petition:
(1) An injunction to restrain any person from transferring, encumbering, hypothecating, or otherwise disposing of that property.
(2) Appointment of a receiver to take possession of, care for, manage, and operate the properties so that the property may be maintained and preserved. The court may order that a receiver appointed pursuant to this section shall be compensated for all reasonable expenditures made or incurred by him or her in connection with the possession, care, management, and operation of any property that is subject to this section.
(3) A bond or other undertaking, in lieu of other orders, of a value sufficient to ensure the satisfaction of restitution imposed pursuant to this section.
(d) (1) No preliminary injunction may be granted or receiver appointed by the court without notice that meets the requirements of paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) to all known and reasonably ascertainable interested parties and upon a hearing to determine that an order is necessary to preserve the property pending the outcome of the criminal proceedings. A temporary restraining order may be issued by the court, ex parte, pending that hearing in conjunction with or subsequent to the filing of the petition upon the application of the prosecuting attorney. The temporary restraining order may be based upon the sworn declaration of a peace officer with personal knowledge of the criminal investigation that establishes probable cause to believe that a felony has taken place and that the amount of restitution established by this section exceeds or equals the worth of the property subject to the temporary restraining order. The declaration may include the hearsay statements of witnesses to establish the necessary facts. The temporary restraining order may be issued without notice upon a showing of good cause to the court.
(2) The defendant, or a person who has filed a verified claim as provided in paragraph (5) of subdivision (b), shall have the right to have the court conduct an order to show cause hearing within 10 days of the service of the request for hearing upon the prosecuting agency, in order to determine whether the temporary restraining order should remain in effect, whether relief should be granted from any lis pendens recorded pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (b), or whether any existing order should be modified in the interests of justice. Upon a showing of good cause, the hearing shall be held within two days of the service of the request for hearing upon the prosecuting agency.
(3) In determining whether to issue a preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order in a proceeding brought by a prosecuting agency in conjunction with or subsequent to the filing of an allegation pursuant to this section, the court has the discretion to consider any matter that it deems reliable and appropriate, including hearsay statements, in order to reach a just and equitable decision. The court shall weigh the relative degree of certainty of the outcome on the merits and the consequences to each of the parties of granting the interim relief. If the prosecution is likely to prevail on the merits and the risk of dissipation of the property outweighs the potential harm to the defendants and the interested parties, the court shall grant injunctive relief. The court shall give significant weight to the following factors:
(A) The public interest in preserving the property pendente lite.
(B) The difficulty of preserving the property pendente lite where the underlying alleged crimes involve issues of fraud and moral turpitude.
(C) The fact that the requested relief is being sought by a public prosecutor on behalf of alleged victims of elder or dependent adult financial abuse.
(D) The likelihood that substantial public harm has occurred where a felony is alleged to have been committed.
(E) The significant public interest involved in compensating the elder or dependent adult victim of financial abuse and paying court-imposed restitution.
(4) The court, in making its orders, may consider a defendant’s request for the release of a portion of the property affected by this section in order to pay reasonable legal fees in connection with the criminal proceeding, any necessary and appropriate living expenses pending trial and sentencing, and for the purpose of posting bail. The court shall weigh the needs of the public to retain the property against the needs of the defendant to a portion of the property. The court shall consider the factors listed in paragraph (3) prior to making any order releasing property for these purposes.
(5) The court, in making its orders, shall seek to protect the interests of any innocent third persons, including an innocent spouse, who were not involved in the commission of any criminal activity.
(6) Any petition filed pursuant to this section shall be part of the criminal proceedings for purposes of appointment of counsel and shall be assigned to the criminal division of the superior court of the county in which the accusatory pleading was filed.
(7) Based upon a noticed motion brought by the receiver appointed pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (c), the court may order an interlocutory sale of property identified in the petition when the property is liable to perish, to waste, or to be significantly reduced in value, or when the expenses of maintaining the property are disproportionate to the value thereof. The proceeds of the interlocutory sale shall be deposited with the court or as directed by the court pending determination of the proceeding pursuant to this section.
(8) The court may make any orders that are necessary to preserve the continuing viability of any lawful business enterprise that is affected by the issuance of a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction issued pursuant to this action.
(9) In making its orders, the court shall seek to prevent any property subject to a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction from perishing, spoiling, going to waste, or otherwise being significantly reduced in value. Where the potential for diminution in value exists, the court shall appoint a receiver to dispose of or otherwise protect the value of the property.
(10) A preservation order shall not be issued against any assets of a business that are not likely to be dissipated and that may be subject to levy or attachment to meet the purposes of this section.
(e) If the allegation that the defendant committed a felony subject to this section is dismissed or found by the trier of fact to be untrue, any preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order issued pursuant to this section shall be dissolved. If a jury is the trier of fact, and the jury is unable to reach a unanimous verdict, the court shall have the discretion to continue or dissolve all or a portion of the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order based upon the interests of justice. However, if the prosecuting agency elects not to retry the case, any preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order issued pursuant to this section shall be dissolved.
(f) (1) (A) If the defendant is convicted of a felony subject to this section, the trial judge shall continue the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order until the date of the criminal sentencing and shall make a finding at that time as to what portion, if any, of the property subject to the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order shall be levied upon to pay restitution to victims of the crime. The order imposing restitution may exceed the total worth of the property subjected to the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order. The court may order the immediate transfer of the property to satisfy any judgment and sentence made pursuant to this section. Additionally, upon motion of the prosecution, the court may enter an order as part of the judgment and sentence making the order imposing restitution pursuant to this section enforceable pursuant to Title 9 (commencing with Section 680.010) of Part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure.
(B) Additionally, the court shall order the defendant to make full restitution to the victim. The payment of the restitution ordered by the court pursuant to this section shall be made a condition of any probation granted by the court. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court may order that the period of probation continue for up to 10 years or until full restitution is made to the victim, whichever is earlier.
(C) The sentencing court shall retain jurisdiction to enforce the order to pay additional restitution and, in appropriate cases, may initiate probation violation proceedings or contempt of court proceedings against a defendant who is found to have willfully failed to comply with any lawful order of the court.
(D) If the execution of judgment is stayed pending an appeal of an order of the superior court pursuant to this section, the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order shall be maintained in full force and effect during the pendency of the appellate period.
(2) The order imposing restitution shall not affect the interest in real property of any third party that was acquired prior to the recording of the lis pendens, unless the property was obtained from the defendant other than as a bona fide purchaser for value. If any assets or property affected by this section are subject to a valid lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract and the amount due to the holder of the lien, mortgage, interest, or contract is less than the appraised value of the property, that person may pay to the state or the local government that initiated the proceeding the amount of the difference between the appraised value of the property and the amount of the lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract. Upon that payment, the state or local entity shall relinquish all claims to the property. If the holder of the interest elects not to make that payment to the state or local governmental entity, the interest in the property shall be deemed transferred to the state or local governmental entity and any indicia of ownership of the property shall be confirmed in the state or local governmental entity. The appraised value shall be determined as of the date judgment is entered either by agreement between the holder of the lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract and the governmental entity involved, or if they cannot agree, then by a court-appointed appraiser for the county in which the action is brought. A person holding a valid lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract shall be paid the appraised value of his or her interest.
(3) In making its final order, the court shall seek to protect the legitimately acquired interests of any innocent third persons, including an innocent spouse, who were not involved in the commission of any criminal activity.
(g) In all cases where property is to be levied upon pursuant to this section, a receiver appointed by the court shall be empowered to liquidate all property, the proceeds of which shall be distributed in the following order of priority:
(1) To the receiver, or court-appointed appraiser, for all reasonable expenditures made or incurred by him or her in connection with the sale or liquidation of the property, including all reasonable expenditures for any necessary repairs, storage, or transportation of any property levied upon under this section.
(2) To any holder of a valid lien, mortgage, or security interest up to the amount of his or her interest in the property or proceeds.
(3) To any victim as restitution for any fraudulent or unlawful acts alleged in the accusatory pleading that were proven by the prosecuting agency as part of the pattern of fraudulent or unlawful acts.
(h) Unless otherwise expressly provided, the remedies or penalties provided by this section are cumulative to each other and to the remedies or penalties available under all other laws of this state, except that two separate actions against the same defendant and pertaining to the same fraudulent or unlawful acts may not be brought by a district attorney or the Attorney General pursuant to this section and Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 17200) of Part 2 of Division 7 of the Business and Professions Code.

SEC. 3.

 Section 1202.4 of the Penal Code is amended to read:

1202.4.
 (a) (1) It is the intent of the Legislature that a victim of crime who incurs an economic loss as a result of the commission of a crime shall receive restitution directly from a defendant convicted of that crime.
(2) Upon a person being convicted of a crime in the State of California, the court shall order the defendant to pay a fine in the form of a penalty assessment in accordance with Section 1464.
(3) The court, in addition to any other penalty provided or imposed under the law, shall order the defendant to pay both of the following:
(A) A restitution fine in accordance with subdivision (b).
(B) Restitution to the victim or victims, if any, in accordance with subdivision (f), which shall be enforceable as if the order were a civil judgment.
(b) In every case where a person is convicted of a crime, the court shall impose a separate and additional restitution fine, unless it finds compelling and extraordinary reasons for not doing so and states those reasons on the record.
(1) The restitution fine shall be set at the discretion of the court and commensurate with the seriousness of the offense. If the person is convicted of a felony, the fine shall not be less than three hundred dollars ($300) and not more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000). If the person is convicted of a misdemeanor, the fine shall not be less than one hundred fifty dollars ($150) and not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000).
(2) In setting a felony restitution fine, the court may determine the amount of the fine as the product of the minimum fine pursuant to paragraph (1) multiplied by the number of years of imprisonment the defendant is ordered to serve, multiplied by the number of felony counts of which the defendant is convicted.
(c) The court shall impose the restitution fine unless it finds compelling and extraordinary reasons for not doing so and states those reasons on the record. A defendant’s inability to pay shall not be considered a compelling and extraordinary reason not to impose a restitution fine. Inability to pay may be considered only in increasing the amount of the restitution fine in excess of the minimum fine pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (b). The court may specify that funds confiscated at the time of the defendant’s arrest, except for funds confiscated pursuant to Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 11469) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code, be applied to the restitution fine if the funds are not exempt for spousal or child support or subject to any other legal exemption.
(d) In setting the amount of the fine pursuant to subdivision (b) in excess of the minimum fine pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (b), the court shall consider any relevant factors, including, but not limited to, the defendant’s inability to pay, the seriousness and gravity of the offense and the circumstances of its commission, any economic gain derived by the defendant as a result of the crime, the extent to which any other person suffered losses as a result of the crime, and the number of victims involved in the crime. Those losses may include pecuniary losses to the victim or his or her dependents as well as intangible losses, such as psychological harm caused by the crime. Consideration of a defendant’s inability to pay may include his or her future earning capacity. A defendant shall bear the burden of demonstrating his or her inability to pay. Express findings by the court as to the factors bearing on the amount of the fine shall not be required. A separate hearing for the fine shall not be required.
(e) The restitution fine shall not be subject to penalty assessments authorized in Section 1464 or Chapter 12 (commencing with Section 76000) of Title 8 of the Government Code, or the state surcharge authorized in Section 1465.7, and shall be deposited in the Restitution Fund in the State Treasury.
(f) Except as provided in subdivisions (q) and (r), in every case in which a victim has suffered economic loss as a result of the defendant’s conduct, the court shall require that the defendant make restitution to the victim or victims in an amount established by court order, based on the amount of loss claimed by the victim or victims or any other showing to the court. If the amount of loss cannot be ascertained at the time of sentencing, the restitution order shall include a provision that the amount shall be determined at the direction of the court. The court shall order full restitution. The court may specify that funds confiscated at the time of the defendant’s arrest, except for funds confiscated pursuant to Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 11469) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code, be applied to the restitution order if the funds are not exempt for spousal or child support or subject to any other legal exemption.
(1) The defendant has the right to a hearing before a judge to dispute the determination of the amount of restitution. The court may modify the amount, on its own motion or on the motion of the district attorney, the victim or victims, or the defendant. If a motion is made for modification of a restitution order, the victim shall be notified of that motion at least 10 days prior to the proceeding held to decide the motion. A victim at a restitution hearing or modification hearing described in this paragraph may testify by live, two-way audio and video transmission, if testimony by live, two-way audio and video transmission is available at the court.
(2) Determination of the amount of restitution ordered pursuant to this subdivision shall not be affected by the indemnification or subrogation rights of a third party. Restitution ordered pursuant to this subdivision shall be ordered to be deposited in the Restitution Fund to the extent that the victim, as defined in subdivision (k), has received assistance from the California Victim Compensation and Government Claims Board pursuant to Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 13950) of Part 4 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code.
(3) To the extent possible, the restitution order shall be prepared by the sentencing court, shall identify each victim and each loss to which it pertains, and shall be of a dollar amount that is sufficient to fully reimburse the victim or victims for every determined economic loss incurred as the result of the defendant’s criminal conduct, including, but not limited to, all of the following:
(A) Full or partial payment for the value of stolen or damaged property. The value of stolen or damaged property shall be the replacement cost of like property, or the actual cost of repairing the property when repair is possible.
(B) Medical expenses.
(C) Mental health counseling expenses.
(D) Wages or profits lost due to injury incurred by the victim, and if the victim is a minor, wages or profits lost by the minor’s parent, parents, guardian, or guardians, while caring for the injured minor. Lost wages shall include commission income as well as base wages. Commission income shall be established by evidence of commission income during the 12-month period prior to the date of the crime for which restitution is being ordered, unless good cause for a shorter time period is shown.
(E) Wages or profits lost by the victim, and if the victim is a minor, wages or profits lost by the minor’s parent, parents, guardian, or guardians, due to time spent as a witness or in assisting the police or prosecution. Lost wages shall include commission income as well as base wages. Commission income shall be established by evidence of commission income during the 12-month period prior to the date of the crime for which restitution is being ordered, unless good cause for a shorter time period is shown.
(F) Noneconomic losses, including, but not limited to, psychological harm, for felony violations of Section 288.
(G) Interest, at the rate of 10 percent per annum, that accrues as of the date of sentencing or loss, as determined by the court.
(H) Actual and reasonable attorney’s fees and other costs of collection accrued by a private entity on behalf of the victim.
(I) Expenses incurred by an adult victim in relocating away from the defendant, including, but not limited to, deposits for utilities and telephone service, deposits for rental housing, temporary lodging and food expenses, clothing, and personal items. Expenses incurred pursuant to this section shall be verified by law enforcement to be necessary for the personal safety of the victim or by a mental health treatment provider to be necessary for the emotional well-being of the victim.
(J) Expenses to install or increase residential security incurred related to a violent felony, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5, including, but not limited to, a home security device or system, or replacing or increasing the number of locks.
(K) Expenses to retrofit a residence or vehicle, or both, to make the residence accessible to or the vehicle operational by the victim, if the victim is permanently disabled, whether the disability is partial or total, as a direct result of the crime.
(L) Expenses for a period of time reasonably necessary to make the victim whole, for the costs to monitor the credit report of, and for the costs to repair the credit of, a victim of identity theft, as defined in Section 530.5.
(4) (A) If, as a result of the defendant’s conduct, the Restitution Fund has provided assistance to or on behalf of a victim or derivative victim pursuant to Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 13950) of Part 4 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code, the amount of assistance provided shall be presumed to be a direct result of the defendant’s criminal conduct and shall be included in the amount of the restitution ordered.
(B) The amount of assistance provided by the Restitution Fund shall be established by copies of bills submitted to the California Victim Compensation and Government Claims Board reflecting the amount paid by the board and whether the services for which payment was made were for medical or dental expenses, funeral or burial expenses, mental health counseling, wage or support losses, or rehabilitation. Certified copies of these bills provided by the board and redacted to protect the privacy and safety of the victim or any legal privilege, together with a statement made under penalty of perjury by the custodian of records that those bills were submitted to and were paid by the board, shall be sufficient to meet this requirement.
(C) If the defendant offers evidence to rebut the presumption established by this paragraph, the court may release additional information contained in the records of the board to the defendant only after reviewing that information in camera and finding that the information is necessary for the defendant to dispute the amount of the restitution order.
(5) Except as provided in paragraph (6), in any case in which an order may be entered pursuant to this subdivision, the defendant shall prepare and file a disclosure identifying all assets, income, and liabilities in which the defendant held or controlled a present or future interest as of the date of the defendant’s arrest for the crime for which restitution may be ordered. The financial disclosure statements shall be made available to the victim and the board pursuant to Section 1214. The disclosure shall be signed by the defendant upon a form approved or adopted by the Judicial Council for the purpose of facilitating the disclosure. A defendant who willfully states as true a material matter that he or she knows to be false on the disclosure required by this subdivision is guilty of a misdemeanor, unless this conduct is punishable as perjury or another provision of law provides for a greater penalty.
(6) A defendant who fails to file the financial disclosure required in paragraph (5), but who has filed a financial affidavit or financial information pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 987, shall be deemed to have waived the confidentiality of that affidavit or financial information as to a victim in whose favor the order of restitution is entered pursuant to subdivision (f). The affidavit or information shall serve in lieu of the financial disclosure required in paragraph (5), and paragraphs (7) to (10), inclusive, shall not apply.
(7) Except as provided in paragraph (6), the defendant shall file the disclosure with the clerk of the court no later than the date set for the defendant’s sentencing, unless otherwise directed by the court. The disclosure may be inspected or copied as provided by subdivision (b), (c), or (d) of Section 1203.05.
(8) In its discretion, the court may relieve the defendant of the duty under paragraph (7) of filing with the clerk by requiring that the defendant’s disclosure be submitted as an attachment to, and be available to, those authorized to receive the following:
(A) A report submitted pursuant to subparagraph (D) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 1203 or subdivision (g) of Section 1203.
(B) A stipulation submitted pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (b) of Section 1203.
(C) A report by the probation officer, or information submitted by the defendant applying for a conditional sentence pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 1203.
(9) The court may consider a defendant’s unreasonable failure to make a complete disclosure pursuant to paragraph (5) as any of the following:
(A) A circumstance in aggravation of the crime in imposing a term under subdivision (b) of Section 1170.
(B) A factor indicating that the interests of justice would not be served by admitting the defendant to probation under Section 1203.
(C) A factor indicating that the interests of justice would not be served by conditionally sentencing the defendant under Section 1203.
(D) A factor indicating that the interests of justice would not be served by imposing less than the maximum fine and sentence fixed by law for the case.
(10) A defendant’s failure or refusal to make the required disclosure pursuant to paragraph (5) shall not delay entry of an order of restitution or pronouncement of sentence. In appropriate cases, the court may do any of the following:
(A) Require the defendant to be examined by the district attorney pursuant to subdivision (h).
(B) If sentencing the defendant under Section 1170, provide that the victim shall receive a copy of the portion of the probation report filed pursuant to Section 1203.10 concerning the defendant’s employment, occupation, finances, and liabilities.
(C) If sentencing the defendant under Section 1203, set a date and place for submission of the disclosure required by paragraph (5) as a condition of probation or suspended sentence.
(11) If a defendant has any remaining unpaid balance on a restitution order or fine 120 days prior to his or her scheduled release from probation or 120 days prior to his or her completion of a conditional sentence, the defendant shall prepare and file a new and updated financial disclosure identifying all assets, income, and liabilities in which the defendant holds or controls or has held or controlled a present or future interest during the defendant’s period of probation or conditional sentence. The financial disclosure shall be made available to the victim and the board pursuant to Section 1214. The disclosure shall be signed and prepared by the defendant on the same form as described in paragraph (5). A defendant who willfully states as true a material matter that he or she knows to be false on the disclosure required by this subdivision is guilty of a misdemeanor, unless this conduct is punishable as perjury or another provision of law provides for a greater penalty. The financial disclosure required by this paragraph shall be filed with the clerk of the court no later than 90 days prior to the defendant’s scheduled release from probation or completion of the defendant’s conditional sentence.
(12) In cases where an employer is convicted of a crime against an employee, a payment to the employee or the employee’s dependent that is made by the employer’s workers’ compensation insurance carrier shall not be used to offset the amount of the restitution order unless the court finds that the defendant substantially met the obligation to pay premiums for that insurance coverage.
(g) A defendant’s inability to pay shall not be a consideration in determining the amount of a restitution order.
(h) The district attorney may request an order of examination pursuant to the procedures specified in Article 2 (commencing with Section 708.110) of Chapter 6 of Division 2 of Title 9 of Part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure, in order to determine the defendant’s financial assets for purposes of collecting on the restitution order.
(i) A restitution order imposed pursuant to subdivision (f) shall be enforceable as if the order were a civil judgment.
(j) The making of a restitution order pursuant to subdivision (f) shall not affect the right of a victim to recovery from the Restitution Fund as otherwise provided by law, except to the extent that restitution is actually collected pursuant to the order. Restitution collected pursuant to this subdivision shall be credited to any other judgments for the same losses obtained against the defendant arising out of the crime for which the defendant was convicted.
(k) For purposes of this section, “victim” shall include all of the following:
(1) The immediate surviving family of the actual victim.
(2) A corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity when that entity is a direct victim of a crime.
(3) A person who has sustained economic loss as the result of a crime and who satisfies any of the following conditions:
(A) At the time of the crime was the parent, grandparent, sibling, spouse, child, or grandchild of the victim.
(B) At the time of the crime was living in the household of the victim.
(C) At the time of the crime was a person who had previously lived in the household of the victim for a period of not less than two years in a relationship substantially similar to a relationship listed in subparagraph (A).
(D) Is another family member of the victim, including, but not limited to, the victim’s fiancé or fiancée, and who witnessed the crime.
(E) Is the primary caretaker of a minor victim.
(4) A person who is eligible to receive assistance from the Restitution Fund pursuant to Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 13950) of Part 4 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code.
(5) A governmental entity that is responsible for repairing, replacing, or restoring public or privately owned property that has been defaced with graffiti or other inscribed material, as defined in subdivision (e) of Section 594, and that has sustained an economic loss as the result of a violation of Section 594, 594.3, 594.4, 640.5, 640.6, or 640.7.
(l) At its discretion, the board of supervisors of a county may impose a fee to cover the actual administrative cost of collecting the restitution fine, not to exceed 10 percent of the amount ordered to be paid, to be added to the restitution fine and included in the order of the court, the proceeds of which shall be deposited in the general fund of the county.
(m) In every case in which the defendant is granted probation, the court shall make the payment of restitution fines and orders imposed pursuant to this section a condition of probation. Any portion of a restitution order that remains unsatisfied after a defendant is no longer on probation shall continue to be enforceable by a victim pursuant to Section 1214 until the obligation is satisfied.
(n) If the court finds and states on the record compelling and extraordinary reasons why a restitution fine should not be required, the court shall order, as a condition of probation, that the defendant perform specified community service, unless it finds and states on the record compelling and extraordinary reasons not to require community service in addition to the finding that a restitution fine should not be required. Upon revocation of probation, the court shall impose the restitution fine pursuant to this section.
(o) The provisions of Section 13963 of the Government Code shall apply to restitution imposed pursuant to this section.
(p) The court clerk shall notify the California Victim Compensation and Government Claims Board within 90 days of an order of restitution being imposed if the defendant is ordered to pay restitution to the board due to the victim receiving compensation from the Restitution Fund. Notification shall be accomplished by mailing a copy of the court order to the board, which may be done periodically by bulk mail or email.
(q) Upon conviction for a violation of Section 236.1, the court shall, in addition to any other penalty or restitution, order the defendant to pay restitution to the victim in a case in which a victim has suffered economic loss as a result of the defendant’s conduct. The court shall require that the defendant make restitution to the victim or victims in an amount established by court order, based on the amount of loss claimed by the victim or victims or another showing to the court. In determining restitution pursuant to this section, the court shall base its order upon the greater of the following: the gross value of the victim’s labor or services based upon the comparable value of similar services in the labor market in which the offense occurred, or the value of the victim’s labor as guaranteed under California law, or the actual income derived by the defendant from the victim’s labor or services or any other appropriate means to provide reparations to the victim.
(r) (1) In addition to any other penalty or fine, the court shall order a person who has been convicted of a violation of Section 350, 653h, 653s, 653u, 653w, or 653aa that involves a recording or audiovisual work to make restitution to an owner or lawful producer, or trade association acting on behalf of the owner or lawful producer, of a phonograph record, disc, wire, tape, film, or other device or article from which sounds or visual images are derived that suffered economic loss resulting from the violation. The order of restitution shall be based on the aggregate wholesale value of lawfully manufactured and authorized devices or articles from which sounds or visual images are devised corresponding to the number of nonconforming devices or articles involved in the offense, unless a higher value can be proved in the case of (A) an unreleased audio work, or (B) an audiovisual work that, at the time of unauthorized distribution, has not been made available in copies for sale to the general public in the United States on a digital versatile disc. For purposes of this subdivision, possession of nonconforming devices or articles intended for sale constitutes actual economic loss to an owner or lawful producer in the form of displaced legitimate wholesale purchases. The order of restitution shall also include reasonable costs incurred as a result of an investigation of the violation undertaken by the owner, lawful producer, or trade association acting on behalf of the owner or lawful producer. “Aggregate wholesale value” means the average wholesale value of lawfully manufactured and authorized sound or audiovisual recordings. Proof of the specific wholesale value of each nonconforming device or article is not required.
(2) As used in this subdivision, “audiovisual work” and “recording” shall have the same meaning as in Section 653w.

SEC. 4.

 Section 1202.46 of the Penal Code is amended to read:

1202.46.
 Notwithstanding Section 1170, when the economic losses of a victim cannot be ascertained at the time of sentencing pursuant to subdivision (f) of Section 1202.4, the court shall retain jurisdiction over a person subject to a restitution order for purposes of imposing or modifying restitution until such time as the losses may be determined. This section does not prohibit a victim, the district attorney, or a court on its own motion from requesting correction, at any time, of a sentence when the sentence is invalid due to the omission of a restitution order or fine pursuant to Section 1202.4.

SEC. 5.

 The Legislature finds and declares that this measure is declaratory of existing law, as described in footnote 2 of People v. Pierce (2015) 234 Cal.App.4th 1334 (hereafter Pierce). As noted in that case, subdivision (b) of Section 28 of Article I of the California Constitution, as amended by Proposition 9 (Marsy’s Law) at the November 4, 2008, general election, requires that “restitution shall be ordered from the convicted wrongdoer in every case, regardless of the sentence or disposition imposed, in which a crime victim suffers a loss.” By providing that a court has authority to order less than full restitution in situations where a victim suffers a loss, subdivision (f) of Section 1202.4 of the Penal Code is inconsistent with the constitutional requirement. The court in Pierce encouraged the Legislature to conform this requirement to the Constitution. This measure would do so.