Bill Text

Bill Information

Add To My Favorites | print page

SB-1458 School accountability: Academic Performance Index: graduation rates.(2011-2012)

SHARE THIS:share this bill in Facebookshare this bill in Twitter
SB1458:v93#DOCUMENT

Senate Bill No. 1458
CHAPTER 577

An act to amend Section 52052 of, and to add Section 52052.9 to, the Education Code, relating to school accountability.

[ Approved by Governor  September 26, 2012. Filed with Secretary of State  September 26, 2012. ]

LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST


SB 1458, Steinberg. School accountability: Academic Performance Index: graduation rates.
The Public Schools Accountability Act of 1999 requires the Superintendent of Public Instruction, with the approval of the State Board of Education, to develop an Academic Performance Index (API) that measures the performance of schools and the academic performance of pupils. Under existing law, the API consists of a variety of indicators, including graduation rates for pupils in secondary schools, and is used to measure the progress of specified schools and to rank all public schools for the purpose of the High Achieving/Improving Schools Program. Existing law requires the Superintendent to determine the accuracy of high school graduation rate data before including that data in the API, and to provide an annual report to the Legislature on graduation and dropout rates, as specified.
This bill would authorize the Superintendent to develop and implement a specified program of school quality review to complement the API, if an appropriation for this purpose is made in the annual Budget Act. The bill would require the Superintendent to annually provide to local educational agencies and the public an explanation of the individual components of the API and their relative values, as specified, and would prohibit an additional element from being incorporated into the API until at least one full school year after the state board’s decision to include the element into the API. The bill would also require the Superintendent to annually determine the accuracy of graduation rate data, and would delete the requirement that the Superintendent report annually to the Legislature on graduation and dropout rates. The bill would authorize the Superintendent to incorporate into the API the rates at which pupils successfully promote from one grade to the next in middle school and high school and matriculate from middle school to high school, as well as pupil preparedness for postsecondary education and career. The bill would delete the requirement that the API be used to measure the progress of specified schools and to rank all public schools for the purpose of the High Achieving/Improving Schools Program. To the extent this bill would require school districts to report additional data for purposes of inclusion in the API or other school quality review, the bill would impose a state-mandated local program.
Existing law provides that pupil scores from certain standards-based achievement tests and the high school exit examination be incorporated into the API, as specified. Under existing law, the results of these tests constitute at least 60% of the value of the index.
This bill would instead require that these test results constitute no more than 60% of the value of the index for secondary schools, commencing with the baseline API calculation in 2016, and for each year thereafter.
This bill would require the Superintendent, on or before October 1, 2013, to report to the Legislature a method for increasing emphasis on pupil mastery of standards in science and social science through the system of public school accountability or by other means and an alternative method or methods, in place of decile rank, for determining eligibility, preferences, or priorities for any statutory program that uses decile rank as a determining factor.
This bill would incorporate additional changes in Section 52052 of the Education Code, proposed by AB 1668, to be operative only if AB 1668 and this bill are both chaptered and become effective January 1, 2013, and this bill is chaptered last.
The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse local agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the state. Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that reimbursement.
This bill would provide that, if the Commission on State Mandates determines that the bill contains costs mandated by the state, reimbursement for those costs shall be made pursuant to these statutory provisions.
Vote: MAJORITY   Appropriation: NO   Fiscal Committee: YES   Local Program: YES  

The people of the State of California do enact as follows:


SECTION 1.

 The Legislature finds and declares all of the following:
(a) The state’s primary accountability measure for public schools, the Academic Performance Index (API), has performed an important function and has served as a compass by which schools have directed their efforts to improve.
(b) The API has been limited, however, by an overreliance on the Standardized Testing and Reporting Program as the chief indicator of a school’s performance. Statute requires dropout and graduation rates to be included in a school’s API score, but those rates have not yet been incorporated. The API does not indicate the degree to which a school has prepared its pupils for success in postsecondary education and career.
(c) The transition to new common core academic content standards and the new assessments that will accompany those standards present an opportunity for the state to reexamine its system of public school accountability, the goals for its public schools, and the most appropriate methods to measure progress towards those goals.

SEC. 2.

 Section 52052 of the Education Code is amended to read:

52052.
 (a) (1) The Superintendent, with approval of the state board, shall develop an Academic Performance Index (API), to measure the performance of schools, especially the academic performance of pupils.
(2) A school shall demonstrate comparable improvement in academic achievement as measured by the API by all numerically significant pupil subgroups at the school, including:
(A) Ethnic subgroups.
(B) Socioeconomically disadvantaged pupils.
(C) English learners.
(D) Pupils with disabilities.
(3) (A) For purposes of this section, a numerically significant pupil subgroup is one that meets both of the following criteria:
(i) The subgroup consists of at least 50 pupils each of whom has a valid test score.
(ii) The subgroup constitutes at least 15 percent of the total population of pupils at a school who have valid test scores.
(B) If a subgroup does not constitute 15 percent of the total population of pupils at a school who have valid test scores, the subgroup may constitute a numerically significant pupil subgroup if it has at least 100 valid test scores.
(C) For a school with an API score that is based on no fewer than 11 and no more than 99 pupils with valid test scores, numerically significant pupil subgroups shall be defined by the Superintendent, with approval by the state board.
(4) (A) The API shall consist of a variety of indicators currently reported to the department, including, but not limited to, the results of the achievement test administered pursuant to Section 60640, attendance rates for pupils in elementary schools, middle schools, and secondary schools, and the graduation rates for pupils in secondary schools.
(B) The Superintendent, with the approval of the state board, may also incorporate into the API the rates at which pupils successfully promote from one grade to the next in middle school and high school, and successfully matriculate from middle school to high school.
(C) Graduation rates for pupils in secondary schools shall be calculated for the API as follows:
(i) Four-year graduation rates shall be calculated by taking the number of pupils who graduated on time for the current school year, which is considered to be three school years after the pupils entered grade 9 for the first time, and dividing that number by the total calculated in clause (ii).
(ii) The number of pupils entering grade 9 for the first time in the school year three school years before the current school year, plus the number of pupils who transferred into the class graduating at the end of the current school year between the school year that was three school years before the current school year and the date of graduation, less the number of pupils who transferred out of the school between the school year that was three school years before the current school year and the date of graduation who were members of the class that is graduating at the end of the current school year.
(iii) Five-year graduation rates shall be calculated by taking the number of pupils who graduated on time for the current school year, which is considered to be four school years after the pupils entered grade 9 for the first time, and dividing that number by the total calculated in clause (iv).
(iv) The number of pupils entering grade 9 for the first time in the school year four years before the current school year, plus the number of pupils who transferred into the class graduating at the end of the current school year between the school year that was four school years before the current school year and the date of graduation, less the number of pupils who transferred out of the school between the school year that was four years before the current school year and the date of graduation who were members of the class that is graduating at the end of the current school year.
(v) Six-year graduation rates shall be calculated by taking the number of pupils who graduated on time for the current school year, which is considered to be five school years after the pupils entered grade 9 for the first time, and dividing that number by the total calculated in clause (vi).
(vi) The number of pupils entering grade 9 for the first time in the school year five years before the current school year, plus the number of pupils who transferred into the class graduating at the end of the current school year between the school year that was five school years before the current school year and the date of graduation, less the number of pupils who transferred out of the school between the school year that was five years before the current school year and the date of graduation who were members of the class that is graduating at the end of the current school year.
(D) The inclusion of five- and six-year graduation rates for pupils in secondary schools shall meet the following requirements:
(i) Schools shall be granted one-half the credit in their API scores for graduating pupils in five years that they are granted for graduating pupils in four years.
(ii) Schools shall be granted one-quarter the credit in their API scores for graduating pupils in six years that they are granted for graduating pupils in four years.
(iii) Notwithstanding clauses (i) and (ii), schools shall be granted full credit in their API scores for graduating in five or six years a pupil with disabilities who graduates in accordance with his or her individualized education program.
(E) The pupil data collected for the API that comes from the achievement test administered pursuant to Section 60640 and the high school exit examination administered pursuant to Section 60851, when fully implemented, shall be disaggregated by special education status, English learners, socioeconomic status, gender, and ethnic group. Only the test scores of pupils who were counted as part of the enrollment in the annual data collection of the California Basic Educational Data System for the current fiscal year and who were continuously enrolled during that year may be included in the test result reports in the API score of the school.
(F) (i) Commencing with the baseline API calculation in 2016, and for each year thereafter, results of the achievement test and other tests specified in subdivision (b) shall constitute no more than 60 percent of the value of the index for secondary schools.
(ii) In addition to the elements required by this paragraph, the Superintendent, with approval of the state board, may incorporate into the index for secondary schools valid, reliable, and stable measures of pupil preparedness for postsecondary education and career.
(G) Results of the achievement test and other tests specified in subdivision (b) shall constitute at least 60 percent of the value of the index for primary schools and middle schools.
(H) It is the intent of the Legislature that the state’s system of public school accountability be more closely aligned with both the public’s expectations for public education and the workforce needs of the state’s economy. It is therefore necessary that the accountability system evolve beyond its narrow focus on pupil test scores to encompass other valuable information about school performance, including, but not limited to, pupil preparedness for college and career, as well as the high school graduation rates already required by law.
(I) The Superintendent shall annually determine the accuracy of graduation rate data. Notwithstanding any other law, graduation rates for pupils in dropout recovery high schools shall not be included in the API. For purposes of this subparagraph, “dropout recovery high school” means a high school in which 50 percent or more of its pupils have been designated as dropouts pursuant to the exit/withdrawal codes developed by the department.
(J) To complement the API, the Superintendent, with the approval of the state board, may develop and implement a program of school quality review that features locally convened panels to visit schools, observe teachers, interview pupils, and examine pupil work, if an appropriation for this purpose is made in the annual Budget Act.
(K) The Superintendent shall annually provide to local educational agencies and the public a transparent and understandable explanation of the individual components of the API and their relative values within the API.
(L) An additional element chosen by the Superintendent and the state board for inclusion in the API pursuant to this paragraph shall not be incorporated into the API until at least one full school year after the state board’s decision to include the element into the API.
(b) Pupil scores from the following tests, when available and when found to be valid and reliable for this purpose, shall be incorporated into the API:
(1) The standards-based achievement tests provided for in Section 60642.5.
(2) The high school exit examination.
(c) Based on the API, the Superintendent shall develop, and the state board shall adopt, expected annual percentage growth targets for all schools based on their API baseline score from the previous year. Schools are expected to meet these growth targets through effective allocation of available resources. For schools below the statewide API performance target adopted by the state board pursuant to subdivision (d), the minimum annual percentage growth target shall be 5 percent of the difference between the actual API score of a school and the statewide API performance target, or one API point, whichever is greater. Schools at or above the statewide API performance target shall have, as their growth target, maintenance of their API score above the statewide API performance target. However, the state board may set differential growth targets based on grade level of instruction and may set higher growth targets for the lowest performing schools because they have the greatest room for improvement. To meet its growth target, a school shall demonstrate that the annual growth in its API is equal to or more than its schoolwide annual percentage growth target and that all numerically significant pupil subgroups, as defined in subdivision (a), are making comparable improvement.
(d) Upon adoption of state performance standards by the state board, the Superintendent shall recommend, and the state board shall adopt, a statewide API performance target that includes consideration of performance standards and represents the proficiency level required to meet the state performance target. When the API is fully developed, schools, at a minimum, shall meet their annual API growth targets to be eligible for the Governor’s Performance Award Program as set forth in Section 52057. The state board may establish additional criteria that schools must meet to be eligible for the Governor’s Performance Award Program.
(e) (1) A school with 11 to 99 pupils with valid test scores shall receive an API score with an asterisk that indicates less statistical certainty than API scores based on 100 or more test scores.
(2) A school annually shall receive an API score, unless the Superintendent determines that an API score would be an invalid measure of the performance of the school for one or more of the following reasons:
(A) Irregularities in testing procedures occurred.
(B) The data used to calculate the API score of the school are not representative of the pupil population at the school.
(C) Significant demographic changes in the pupil population render year-to-year comparisons of pupil performance invalid.
(D) The department discovers or receives information indicating that the integrity of the API score has been compromised.
(E) Insufficient pupil participation in the assessments included in the API.
(3) If a school has fewer than 100 pupils with valid test scores, the calculation of the API or adequate yearly progress pursuant to the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (20 U.S.C. Sec. 6301 et seq.) and federal regulations may be calculated over more than one annual administration of the tests administered pursuant to Section 60640 and the high school exit examination administered pursuant to Section 60851, consistent with regulations adopted by the state board.
(f) Only schools with 100 or more test scores contributing to the API may be included in the API rankings.
(g) The Superintendent, with the approval of the state board, shall develop an alternative accountability system for schools under the jurisdiction of a county board of education or a county superintendent of schools, community day schools, nonpublic, nonsectarian schools pursuant to Section 56366, and alternative schools serving high-risk pupils, including continuation high schools and opportunity schools. Schools in the alternative accountability system may receive an API score, but shall not be included in the API rankings.

SEC. 2.5.

 Section 52052 of the Education Code is amended to read:

52052.
 (a) (1) The Superintendent, with approval of the state board, shall develop an Academic Performance Index (API), to measure the performance of schools, especially the academic performance of pupils.
(2) A school shall demonstrate comparable improvement in academic achievement as measured by the API by all numerically significant pupil subgroups at the school, including:
(A) Ethnic subgroups.
(B) Socioeconomically disadvantaged pupils.
(C) English learners.
(D) Pupils with disabilities.
(3) (A) For purposes of this section, a numerically significant pupil subgroup is one that meets both of the following criteria:
(i) The subgroup consists of at least 50 pupils each of whom has a valid test score.
(ii) The subgroup constitutes at least 15 percent of the total population of pupils at a school who have valid test scores.
(B) If a subgroup does not constitute 15 percent of the total population of pupils at a school who have valid test scores, the subgroup may constitute a numerically significant pupil subgroup if it has at least 100 valid test scores.
(C) For a school with an API score that is based on no fewer than 11 and no more than 99 pupils with valid test scores, numerically significant pupil subgroups shall be defined by the Superintendent, with approval by the state board.
(4) (A) The API shall consist of a variety of indicators currently reported to the department, including, but not limited to, the results of the achievement test administered pursuant to Section 60640, attendance rates for pupils in elementary schools, middle schools, and secondary schools, and the graduation rates for pupils in secondary schools.
(B) The Superintendent, with the approval of the state board, may also incorporate into the API the rates at which pupils successfully promote from one grade to the next in middle school and high school, and successfully matriculate from middle school to high school.
(C) Graduation rates for pupils in secondary schools shall be calculated for the API as follows:
(i) Four-year graduation rates shall be calculated by taking the number of pupils who graduated on time for the current school year, which is considered to be three school years after the pupils entered grade 9 for the first time, and dividing that number by the total calculated in clause (ii).
(ii) The number of pupils entering grade 9 for the first time in the school year three school years before the current school year, plus the number of pupils who transferred into the class graduating at the end of the current school year between the school year that was three school years before the current school year and the date of graduation, less the number of pupils who transferred out of the school between the school year that was three school years before the current school year and the date of graduation who were members of the class that is graduating at the end of the current school year.
(iii) Five-year graduation rates shall be calculated by taking the number of pupils who graduated on time for the current school year, which is considered to be four school years after the pupils entered grade 9 for the first time, and dividing that number by the total calculated in clause (iv).
(iv) The number of pupils entering grade 9 for the first time in the school year four years before the current school year, plus the number of pupils who transferred into the class graduating at the end of the current school year between the school year that was four school years before the current school year and the date of graduation, less the number of pupils who transferred out of the school between the school year that was four years before the current school year and the date of graduation who were members of the class that is graduating at the end of the current school year.
(v) Six-year graduation rates shall be calculated by taking the number of pupils who graduated on time for the current school year, which is considered to be five school years after the pupils entered grade 9 for the first time, and dividing that number by the total calculated in clause (vi).
(vi) The number of pupils entering grade 9 for the first time in the school year five years before the current school year, plus the number of pupils who transferred into the class graduating at the end of the current school year between the school year that was five school years before the current school year and the date of graduation, less the number of pupils who transferred out of the school between the school year that was five years before the current school year and the date of graduation who were members of the class that is graduating at the end of the current school year.
(D) The inclusion of five- and six-year graduation rates for pupils in secondary schools shall meet the following requirements:
(i) Schools shall be granted one-half the credit in their API scores for graduating pupils in five years that they are granted for graduating pupils in four years.
(ii) Schools shall be granted one-quarter the credit in their API scores for graduating pupils in six years that they are granted for graduating pupils in four years.
(iii) Notwithstanding clauses (i) and (ii), schools shall be granted full credit in their API scores for graduating in five or six years a pupil with disabilities who graduates in accordance with his or her individualized education program.
(E) The pupil data collected for the API that comes from the achievement test administered pursuant to Section 60640 and the high school exit examination administered pursuant to Section 60851, when fully implemented, shall be disaggregated by special education status, English learners, socioeconomic status, gender, and ethnic group. Only the test scores of pupils who were counted as part of the enrollment in the annual data collection of the California Basic Educational Data System for the current fiscal year and who were continuously enrolled during that year may be included in the test result reports in the API score of the school.
(F) (i) Commencing with the baseline API calculation in 2016, and for each year thereafter, results of the achievement test and other tests specified in subdivision (b) shall constitute no more than 60 percent of the value of the index for secondary schools.
(ii)  In addition to the elements required by this paragraph, the Superintendent, with approval of the state board, may incorporate into the index for secondary schools valid, reliable, and stable measures of pupil preparedness for postsecondary education and career.
(G) Results of the achievement test and other tests specified in subdivision (b) shall constitute at least 60 percent of the value of the index for primary schools and middle schools.
(H) It is the intent of the Legislature that the state’s system of public school accountability be more closely aligned with both the public’s expectations for public education and the workforce needs of the state’s economy. It is therefore necessary that the accountability system evolve beyond its narrow focus on pupil test scores to encompass other valuable information about school performance, including, but not limited to, pupil preparedness for college and career, as well as the high school graduation rates already required by law.
(I) The Superintendent shall annually determine the accuracy of the graduation rate data. Notwithstanding any other law, graduation rates for pupils in dropout recovery high schools shall not be included in the API. For purposes of this subparagraph, “dropout recovery high school” means a high school in which 50 percent or more of its pupils have been designated as dropouts pursuant to the exit/withdrawal codes developed by the department or left a school and were not otherwise enrolled in a school for a period of at least 180 days.
(J) To complement the API, the Superintendent, with the approval of the state board, may develop and implement a program of school quality review that features locally convened panels to visit schools, observe teachers, interview pupils, and examine pupil work, if an appropriation for this purpose is made in the annual Budget Act.
(K) The Superintendent shall annually provide to local educational agencies and the public a transparent and understandable explanation of the individual components of the API and their relative values within the API.
(L) An additional element chosen by the Superintendent and the state board for inclusion in the API pursuant to this paragraph shall not be incorporated into the API until at least one full school year after the state board’s decision to include the element into the API.
(b) Pupil scores from the following tests, when available and when found to be valid and reliable for this purpose, shall be incorporated into the API:
(1) The standards-based achievement tests provided for in Section 60642.5.
(2) The high school exit examination.
(c) Based on the API, the Superintendent shall develop, and the state board shall adopt, expected annual percentage growth targets for all schools based on their API baseline score from the previous year. Schools are expected to meet these growth targets through effective allocation of available resources. For schools below the statewide API performance target adopted by the state board pursuant to subdivision (d), the minimum annual percentage growth target shall be 5 percent of the difference between the actual API score of a school and the statewide API performance target, or one API point, whichever is greater. Schools at or above the statewide API performance target shall have, as their growth target, maintenance of their API score above the statewide API performance target. However, the state board may set differential growth targets based on grade level of instruction and may set higher growth targets for the lowest performing schools because they have the greatest room for improvement. To meet its growth target, a school shall demonstrate that the annual growth in its API is equal to or more than its schoolwide annual percentage growth target and that all numerically significant pupil subgroups, as defined in subdivision (a), are making comparable improvement.
(d) Upon adoption of state performance standards by the state board, the Superintendent shall recommend, and the state board shall adopt, a statewide API performance target that includes consideration of performance standards and represents the proficiency level required to meet the state performance target. When the API is fully developed, schools, at a minimum, shall meet their annual API growth targets to be eligible for the Governor’s Performance Award Program as set forth in Section 52057. The state board may establish additional criteria that schools must meet to be eligible for the Governor’s Performance Award Program.
(e) (1) A school with 11 to 99 pupils with valid test scores shall receive an API score with an asterisk that indicates less statistical certainty than API scores based on 100 or more test scores.
(2) A school annually shall receive an API score, unless the Superintendent determines that an API score would be an invalid measure of the performance of the school for one or more of the following reasons:
(A) Irregularities in testing procedures occurred.
(B) The data used to calculate the API score of the school are not representative of the pupil population at the school.
(C) Significant demographic changes in the pupil population render year-to-year comparisons of pupil performance invalid.
(D) The department discovers or receives information indicating that the integrity of the API score has been compromised.
(E) Insufficient pupil participation in the assessments included in the API.
(3) If a school has fewer than 100 pupils with valid test scores, the calculation of the API or adequate yearly progress pursuant to the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (20 U.S.C. Sec. 6301 et seq.) and federal regulations may be calculated over more than one annual administration of the tests administered pursuant to Section 60640 and the high school exit examination administered pursuant to Section 60851, consistent with regulations adopted by the state board.
(f) Only schools with 100 or more test scores contributing to the API may be included in the API rankings.
(g) The Superintendent, with the approval of the state board, shall develop an alternative accountability system for schools under the jurisdiction of a county board of education or a county superintendent of schools, community day schools, nonpublic, nonsectarian schools pursuant to Section 56366, and alternative schools serving high-risk pupils, including continuation high schools and opportunity schools. Schools in the alternative accountability system may receive an API score, but shall not be included in the API rankings.

SEC. 3.

 Section 52052.9 is added to the Education Code, to read:

52052.9.
 (a) On or before October 1, 2013, the Superintendent shall report to the Legislature and recommend to the state board for adoption a method or methods for increasing the emphasis on pupil mastery of standards in science and social science through the system of public school accountability or by other means.
(b) On or before October 1, 2013, the Superintendent, in consultation with the advisory committee established pursuant to Section 52052.5, shall report to the Legislature an alternative method or methods, in place of decile rank, for determining eligibility, preferences, or priorities for any statutory program that currently uses decile rank as a determining factor.

SEC. 4.

 Section 2.5 of this bill incorporates amendments to Section 52052 of the Education Code proposed by both this bill and Assembly Bill 1668. It shall only become operative if (1) both bills are enacted and become effective on or before January 1, 2013, (2) each bill amends Section 52052 of the Education Code, and (3) this bill is enacted after Assembly Bill 1668, in which case Section 2 of this bill shall not become operative.

SEC. 5.

 If the Commission on State Mandates determines that this act contains costs mandated by the state, reimbursement to local agencies and school districts for those costs shall be made pursuant to Part 7 (commencing with Section 17500) of Division 4 of Title 2 of the Government Code.