Code Section Group

Water Code - WAT

DIVISION 7. WATER QUALITY [13000 - 16104]

  ( Division 7 repealed and added by Stats. 1969, Ch. 482. )

CHAPTER 7. Water Reclamation [13500 - 13558.1]

  ( Chapter 7 added by Stats. 1969, Ch. 482. )

ARTICLE 7. Water Reuse [13550 - 13557]
  ( Heading of Article 7 amended by Stats. 1994, Ch. 724, Sec. 6. )

13550.
  

(a) The Legislature hereby finds and declares that the use of potable domestic water for nonpotable uses, including, but not limited to, cemeteries, golf courses, parks, highway landscaped areas, and industrial and irrigation uses, is a waste or an unreasonable use of the water within the meaning of Section 2 of Article X of the California Constitution if recycled water is available which meets all of the following conditions, as determined by the state board, after notice to any person or entity who may be ordered to use recycled water or to cease using potable water and a hearing held pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 648) of Chapter 1.5 of Division 3 of Title 23 of the California Code of Regulations:

(1) The source of recycled water is of adequate quality for these uses and is available for these uses. In determining adequate quality, the state board shall consider all relevant factors, including, but not limited to, food and employee safety, and level and types of specific constituents in the recycled water affecting these uses, on a user-by-user basis. In addition, the state board shall consider the effect of the use of recycled water in lieu of potable water on the generation of hazardous waste and on the quality of wastewater discharges subject to regional, state, or federal permits.

(2) The recycled water may be furnished for these uses at a reasonable cost to the user. In determining reasonable cost, the state board shall consider all relevant factors, including, but not limited to, the present and projected costs of supplying, delivering, and treating potable domestic water for these uses and the present and projected costs of supplying and delivering recycled water for these uses, and shall find that the cost of supplying the treated recycled water is comparable to, or less than, the cost of supplying potable domestic water.

(3) After concurrence with the State Department of Public Health, the use of recycled water from the proposed source will not be detrimental to public health.

(4) The use of recycled water for these uses will not adversely affect downstream water rights, will not degrade water quality, and is determined not to be injurious to plantlife, fish, and wildlife.

(b) In making the determination pursuant to subdivision (a), the state board shall consider the impact of the cost and quality of the nonpotable water on each individual user.

(c) The state board may require a public agency or person subject to this article to furnish information which the state board determines to be relevant to making the determination required in subdivision (a).

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 544, Sec. 14. (SB 1458) Effective January 1, 2015.)

13551.
  

A person or public agency, including a state agency, city, county, city and county, district, or any other political subdivision of the state, shall not use water from any source of quality suitable for potable domestic use for nonpotable uses, including cemeteries, golf courses, parks, highway landscaped areas, and industrial and irrigation uses if suitable recycled water is available as provided in Section 13550; however, any use of recycled water in lieu of water suitable for potable domestic use shall, to the extent of the recycled water so used, be deemed to constitute a reasonable beneficial use of that water and the use of recycled water shall not cause any loss or diminution of any existing water right.

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 28, Sec. 40. Effective January 1, 1996.)

13552.
  

The amendments to Sections 13550 and 13551 of the Water Code made during the first year of the 1991–92 Regular Session are not intended to alter any rights, remedies, or obligations which may exist prior to January 1, 1992, pursuant to, but not limited to, those sections or Chapter 8.5 (commencing with Section 1501) of Part 1 of Division 1 of the Public Utilities Code.

(Added by Stats. 1991, Ch. 553, Sec. 3.)

13552.2.
  

(a) The Legislature hereby finds and declares that the use of potable domestic water for the irrigation of residential landscaping is a waste or an unreasonable use of water within the meaning of Section 2 of Article X of the California Constitution if recycled water, for this use, is available to the residents and meets the requirements set forth in Section 13550, as determined by the state board after notice and a hearing.

(b) The state board may require a public agency or person subject to this section to submit information that the state board determines may be relevant in making the determination required in subdivision (a).

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 28, Sec. 41. Effective January 1, 1996.)

13552.4.
  

(a) Any public agency, including a state agency, city, county, city and county, district, or any other political subdivision of the state, may require the use of recycled water for irrigation of residential landscaping, if all of the following requirements are met:

(1) Recycled water, for this use, is available to the user and meets the requirements set forth in Section 13550, as determined by the state board after notice and a hearing.

(2) The use of recycled water does not cause any loss or diminution of any existing water right.

(3) The irrigation systems are constructed in accordance with Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 60301) of Division 4 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations.

(b) This section applies to both of the following:

(1) New subdivisions for which the building permit is issued on or after March 15, 1994, or, if a building permit is not required, new structures for which construction begins on or after March 15, 1994, for which the State Department of Public Health has approved the use of recycled water.

(2) Any residence that is retrofitted to permit the use of recycled water for landscape irrigation and for which the State Department of Public Health has approved the use of recycled water.

(c) (1) Division 13 (commencing with Section 21000) of the Public Resources Code does not apply to any project that only involves the repiping, redesign, or use of recycled water for irrigation of residential landscaping necessary to comply with a requirement prescribed by a public agency under subdivision (a).

(2) The exemption in paragraph (1) does not apply to any project to develop recycled water, to construct conveyance facilities for recycled water, or any other project not specified in this subdivision.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 288, Sec. 45. (SB 1169) Effective January 1, 2011.)

13552.5.
  

(a) (1) On or before July 31, 2009, the state board shall adopt a general permit for landscape irrigation uses of recycled water for which the State Department of Public Health has established uniform statewide recycling criteria pursuant to Section 13521.

(2) The state board shall establish criteria to determine eligibility for coverage under the general permit.

(3) For the purpose of developing the general permit and establishing eligibility criteria to carry out paragraph (1), the state board shall hold at least one workshop and shall consult with and consider comments from the regional boards, groundwater management agencies and water replenishment districts with statutory authority to manage groundwater pursuant to their principal act, and any interested party.

(4) The general permit shall include language that provides for the modification of the terms and conditions of the general permit if a regulatory or statutory change occurs that affects the application of the general permit or as necessary to ensure protection of beneficial uses.

(b) The state board shall establish a reasonable schedule of fees to reimburse the state board for the costs it incurs in implementing, developing, and administering this section.

(c) Following the adoption of the general permit pursuant to this section, an applicant may obtain coverage for a landscape irrigation use of recycled water by filing a notice of intent to be covered under the general permit and submitting the appropriate fee established pursuant to subdivision (b) to the state board.

(d) Coverage under the general permit adopted pursuant to this section is effective if all of the following apply:

(1) The applicant has submitted a completed application.

(2) The state board has determined that the applicant meets the eligibility criteria established pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (a).

(3) The state board has made the application available for public review and comment for 30 days.

(4) The state board has consulted with the appropriate regional board.

(5) The executive officer of the state board approves the application.

(e) (1) Except as provided by modification of the general permit, a person eligible for coverage under the general permit pursuant to subdivision (d) is not required to become or remain subject to individual waste discharge requirements or water reclamation requirements.

(2) For a landscape irrigation use of recycled water, a person who is subject to general or individual waste discharge requirements prescribed pursuant to Section 13263 or 13377, or is subject to individual or master water reclamation requirements prescribed pursuant to Section 13523 or 13523.1, may apply for coverage under the general permit adopted pursuant to this section in lieu of remaining subject to requirements prescribed pursuant to those sections.

(f) (1) The state board shall designate an ombudsperson to coordinate and facilitate communication on recycled water, on the issuance of water reclamation requirements or waste discharge requirements, as applicable, pursuant to Section 13523 or 13523.1 or this section, and on the promotion of water recycling while ensuring reasonable protection of water quality in accordance with applicable provisions of state and federal water quality law.

(2) The person appointed pursuant to paragraph (1) shall facilitate consultations between the state board and the regional boards relating to matters described in that paragraph.

(Added by Stats. 2007, Ch. 535, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2008.)

13552.6.
  

(a) The Legislature hereby finds and declares that the use of potable domestic water for floor trap priming, cooling towers, and air-conditioning devices is a waste or an unreasonable use of water within the meaning of Section 2 of Article X of the California Constitution if recycled water, for these uses, is available to the user, and the water meets the requirements set forth in Section 13550, as determined by the state board after notice and a hearing.

(b) The state board may require a public agency or person subject to this section to submit information that the state board determines may be relevant in making the determination required in subdivision (a).

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 28, Sec. 43. Effective January 1, 1996.)

13552.8.
  

(a) Any public agency, including a state agency, city, county, city and county, district, or any other political subdivision of the state, may require the use of recycled water in floor trap priming, cooling towers, and air-conditioning devices, if all of the following requirements are met:

(1) Recycled water, for these uses, is available to the user and meets the requirements set forth in Section 13550, as determined by the state board after notice and a hearing.

(2) The use of recycled water does not cause any loss or diminution of any existing water right.

(3) If public exposure to aerosols, mist, or spray may occur, appropriate mist mitigation or mist control is provided, such as the use of mist arrestors or the addition of biocides to the water in accordance with criteria established pursuant to Section 13521.

(4) The person intending to use recycled water has prepared an engineering report pursuant to Section 60323 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations that includes plumbing design, cross-connection control, and monitoring requirements for the public agency, which are in compliance with criteria established pursuant to Section 13521.

(b) This section applies to both of the following:

(1) New industrial facilities and subdivisions for which the building permit is issued on or after March 15, 1994, or, if a building permit is not required, new structures for which construction begins on or after March 15, 1994, for which the State Department of Public Health has approved the use of recycled water.

(2) Any structure that is retrofitted to permit the use of recycled water for floor traps, cooling towers, or air-conditioning devices, for which the State Department of Public Health has approved the use of recycled water.

(c) (1) Division 13 (commencing with Section 21000) of the Public Resources Code does not apply to any project which only involves the repiping, redesign, or use of recycled water for floor trap priming, cooling towers, or air-conditioning devices necessary to comply with a requirement prescribed by a public agency under subdivision (a).

(2) The exemption in paragraph (1) does not apply to any project to develop recycled water, to construct conveyance facilities for recycled water, or any other project not specified in this subdivision.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 544, Sec. 15. (SB 1458) Effective January 1, 2015.)

13553.
  

(a) The Legislature hereby finds and declares that the use of potable domestic water for toilet and urinal flushing in structures is a waste or an unreasonable use of water within the meaning of Section 2 of Article X of the California Constitution if recycled water, for these uses, is available to the user and meets the requirements set forth in Section 13550, as determined by the state board after notice and a hearing.

(b) The state board may require a public agency or person subject to this section to furnish any information that may be relevant to making the determination required in subdivision (a).

(c) For purposes of this section and Section 13554, “structure” or “structures” means commercial, retail, and office buildings, theaters, auditoriums, condominium projects, schools, hotels, apartments, barracks, dormitories, jails, prisons, and reformatories, and other structures as determined by the State Department of Public Health.

(d) Recycled water may be used in condominium projects, as defined in Section 4125 or 6542 of the Civil Code, subject to all of the following conditions:

(1) Prior to the indoor use of recycled water in any condominium project, the agency delivering the recycled water to the condominium project shall file a report with, and receive written approval of the report from, the State Department of Public Health. The report shall be consistent with the provisions of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations generally applicable to dual-plumbed structures and shall include all the following:

(A) That potable water service to each condominium project will be provided with a backflow protection device approved by the State Department of Public Health to protect the agency’s public water system, as defined in Section 116275 of the Health and Safety Code. The backflow protection device approved by the State Department of Public Health shall be inspected and tested annually by a person certified in the inspection of backflow prevention devices.

(B) That any plumbing modifications in the condominium unit or any physical alteration of the structure will be done in compliance with state and local plumbing codes.

(C) That each condominium project will be tested by the recycled water agency or the responsible local agency at least once every four years to ensure that there are no indications of a possible cross connection between the condominium’s potable and nonpotable systems.

(D) That recycled water lines will be color coded consistent with current statutes and regulations.

(2) The recycled water agency or the responsible local agency shall maintain records of all tests and annual inspections conducted.

(3) The condominium’s declaration, as defined in Section 4135 or 6546 of the Civil Code, shall provide that the laws and regulations governing recycled water apply, shall not permit any exceptions to those laws and regulations, shall incorporate the report described in paragraph (1), and shall contain the following statement:


“NOTICE OF USE OF RECYCLED WATER


This property is approved by the State Department of Public Health for the use of recycled water for toilet and urinal flushing. This water is not potable, is not suitable for indoor purposes other than toilet and urinal flushing purposes, and requires dual plumbing. Alterations and modifications to the plumbing system require a permit and are prohibited without first consulting with the appropriate local building code enforcement agency and your property management company or owners’ association to ensure that the recycled water is not mixed with the drinking water.”


(e) The State Department of Public Health may adopt regulations as necessary to assist in the implementation of this section.

(f) This section shall only apply to condominium projects that are created, within the meaning of Section 4030 or 6580 of the Civil Code, on or after January 1, 2008.

(g) This section and Section 13554 do not apply to a pilot program adopted pursuant to Section 13553.1.

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 181, Sec. 84) by Stats. 2013, Ch. 605, Sec. 53. (SB 752) Effective January 1, 2014.)

13553.1.
  

(a) The Legislature hereby finds and declares that certain coastal areas of the state have been using sea water to flush toilets and urinals as a means of conserving potable water; that this practice precludes the beneficial reuse of treated wastewater and has had a deleterious effect on the proper wastewater treatment process, and has led to corrosion of the sea water distribution pipelines and wastewater collection systems; and that this situation must be changed.

(b) There is a need for a pilot program to demonstrate that conversion to the use of recycled water in residential buildings for toilet and urinal flushing does not pose a threat to public health and safety.

(c) A city that is providing a separate distribution system for sea water for use in flushing toilets and urinals in residential structures may, by ordinance, authorize the use of recycled water for the flushing of toilets and urinals in residential structures if the level of treatment and the use of the recycled water meets the criteria set by the State Department of Public Health.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 544, Sec. 16. (SB 1458) Effective January 1, 2015.)

13554.
  

(a) Any public agency, including a state agency, city, county, city and county, district, or any other political subdivision of the state, may require the use of recycled water for toilet and urinal flushing in structures, except a mental hospital or other facility operated by a public agency for the treatment of persons with mental disorders, if all of the following requirements are met:

(1) Recycled water, for these uses, is available to the user and meets the requirements set forth in Section 13550, as determined by the state board after notice and a hearing.

(2) The use of recycled water does not cause any loss or diminution of any existing water right.

(3) The public agency has prepared an engineering report pursuant to Section 60323 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations that includes plumbing design, cross-connection control, and monitoring requirements for the use site, which are in compliance with criteria established pursuant to Section 13521.

(b) This section applies only to either of the following:

(1) New structures for which the building permit is issued on or after March 15, 1992, or, if a building permit is not required, new structures for which construction begins on or after March 15, 1992.

(2) Any construction pursuant to subdivision (a) for which the State Department of Public Health has, prior to January 1, 1992, approved the use of recycled water.

(c) Division 13 (commencing with Section 21000) of the Public Resources Code does not apply to any project which only involves the repiping, redesign, or use of recycled water by a structure necessary to comply with a requirement issued by a public agency under subdivision (a). This exemption does not apply to any project to develop recycled water, to construct conveyance facilities for recycled water, or any other project not specified in this subdivision.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 544, Sec. 17. (SB 1458) Effective January 1, 2015.)

13554.2.
  

(a) Any person or entity proposing the use of recycled water shall reimburse the State Department of Public Health for reasonable costs that department actually incurs in performing duties pursuant to this chapter.

(b) (1) Upon a request from the person or entity proposing the use of recycled water, the State Department of Public Health shall, within a reasonable time after the receipt of the request, provide an estimate of the costs that it will reasonably incur in the performance of its duties pursuant to this chapter.

(2) For purposes of implementing subdivision (a), that department shall maintain a record of its costs. In determining those costs, that department may consider costs that include, but are not limited to, costs relating to personnel requirements, materials, travel, and office overhead. The amount of reimbursement shall be equal to, and may not exceed, that department’s actual costs.

(c) With the consent of the person or entity proposing the use of recycled water, the State Department of Public Health may delegate all or part of the duties that department performs pursuant to this chapter within a county to a local health agency authorized by the board of supervisors to assume these duties, if, in the judgment of that department, the local health agency can perform these duties. Any person or entity proposing the use of recycled water shall reimburse the local health agency for reasonable costs that the local health agency actually incurs in the performance of its duties delegated pursuant to this subdivision.

(d) (1) Upon a request from the person or entity proposing the use of recycled water, the local health agency shall, within a reasonable time after the receipt of the request, provide an estimate of the cost it will reasonably incur in the performance of its duties delegated under subdivision (c).

(2) The local health agency, if delegated duties pursuant to subdivision (c), shall maintain a record of its costs that include, but is not limited to, costs relating to personnel requirements, materials, travel, and office overhead. The amount of reimbursement shall be equal to, and may not exceed, the local health agency’s actual costs.

(e) The State Department of Public Health or local health agency shall complete its review of a proposed use of recycled water within a reasonable period of time. That department shall submit to the person or entity proposing the use of recycled water a written determination as to whether the proposal submitted is complete for purposes of review within 30 days from the date of receipt of the proposal and shall approve or disapprove the proposed use within 30 days from the date on which that department determines that the proposal is complete.

(f) An invoice for reimbursement of services rendered shall be submitted to the person or entity proposing the use of recycled water subsequent to completion of review of the proposed use, or other services rendered, that specifies the number of hours spent by the State Department of Public Health or local health agency, specific tasks performed, and other costs actually incurred. Supporting documentation, including receipts, logs, timesheets, and other standard accounting documents, shall be maintained by that department or local health agency and copies, upon request, shall be provided to the person or entity proposing the use of recycled water.

(g) For the purposes of this section, “person or entity proposing the use of recycled water” means the producer or distributor of recycled water submitting a proposal to the department.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 544, Sec. 18. (SB 1458) Effective January 1, 2015.)

13554.3.
  

The State Water Resources Control Board may establish a reasonable schedule of fees by which it is reimbursed for the costs it incurs pursuant to Sections 13553 and 13554.

(Added by Stats. 1991, Ch. 723, Sec. 4.)

13555.2.
  

The Legislature hereby finds and declares that many local agencies deliver recycled water for nonpotable uses and that the use of recycled water is an effective means of meeting the demands for new water caused by drought conditions or population increases in the state. It is the intent of the Legislature to encourage the design and construction of water delivery systems on private property that deliver water for both potable and nonpotable uses in separate pipelines.

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 28, Sec. 47. Effective January 1, 1996.)

13555.3.
  

(a) Water delivery systems on private property that could deliver recycled water for nonpotable uses described in Section 13550, that are constructed on and after January 1, 1993, shall be designed to ensure that the water to be used for only potable domestic uses is delivered, from the point of entry to the private property to be served, in a separate pipeline which is not used to deliver the recycled water.

(b) This section applies to water delivery systems on private property constructed within either of the following jurisdictions:

(1) One that has an urban water management plan that includes the intent to develop recycled water use.

(2) One that does not have an urban water management plan that includes recycled water use, but that is within five miles of a jurisdiction that does have an urban water management plan that includes recycled water use, and has indicated a willingness to serve the water delivery system.

(c) This section does not preempt local regulation of the delivery of water for potable and nonpotable uses and any local governing body may adopt requirements which are more restrictive than the requirements of this section.

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 28, Sec. 48. Effective January 1, 1996.)

13555.5.
  

(a) If a recycled water producer determines that within 10 years the recycled water producer proposes to provide recycled water for use for state landscape irrigation that meets all of the conditions set forth in Section 13550, the recycled water producer shall so notify the Department of Transportation and the Department of General Services, and shall identify in the notice the area that is eligible to receive the recycled water, and the necessary infrastructure that the recycled water producer or the retail water supplier proposes to provide, to facilitate delivery of the recycled water.

(b) If notice has been provided pursuant to subdivision (a), all pipe installed by the Department of Transportation or the Department of General Services for landscape irrigation within the identified area shall be of the type necessary to meet the requirements of Section 116815 of the Health and Safety Code and applicable regulations.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 541, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2007.)

13556.
  

In addition to any other authority provided in law, any water supplier described in subdivision (b) of Section 1745 may acquire, store, provide, sell, and deliver recycled water for any beneficial use, including, but not limited to, municipal, industrial, domestic, and irrigation uses, if the water use is in accordance with statewide recycling criteria and regulations established pursuant to this chapter.

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 28, Sec. 49. Effective January 1, 1996.)

13557.
  

(a) On or before December 31, 2009, the department, in consultation with the State Department of Public Health, shall adopt and submit to the California Building Standards Commission regulations to establish a state version of Chapter 16 of the Uniform Plumbing Code adopted by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials to provide design standards to safely plumb buildings with both potable and recycled water systems.

(b) Commencing July 1, 2011, and annually thereafter, the department shall review and update, as necessary, the regulations developed pursuant to subdivision (a).

(c) This section shall be exempt from the provisions of Section 161.

(Amended by Stats. 2009, Ch. 178, Sec. 1. (SB 283) Effective October 11, 2009.)

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