Code Section Group

Water Code - WAT

DIVISION 7. WATER QUALITY [13000 - 16104]

  ( Division 7 repealed and added by Stats. 1969, Ch. 482. )

CHAPTER 5.5. Compliance With the Provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act as Amended in 1972 [13370 - 13389]
  ( Chapter 5.5 added by Stats. 1972, Ch. 1256. )

13370.
  

The Legislature finds and declares as follows:

(a) The Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1251 et seq.), as amended, provides for permit systems to regulate the discharge of pollutants and dredged or fill material to the navigable waters of the United States and to regulate the use and disposal of sewage sludge.

(b) The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, provides that permits may be issued by states which are authorized to implement the provisions of that act.

(c) It is in the interest of the people of the state, in order to avoid direct regulation by the federal government of persons already subject to regulation under state law pursuant to this division, to enact this chapter in order to authorize the state to implement the provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and acts amendatory thereof or supplementary thereto, and federal regulations and guidelines issued pursuant thereto, provided, that the state board shall request federal funding under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act for the purpose of carrying out its responsibilities under this program.

(Amended by Stats. 1987, Ch. 1189, Sec. 1.)

13370.5.
  

(a) The Legislature finds and declares that, since the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1251 et seq.), as amended, and applicable federal regulations (40 C.F.R. 403 et seq.) provide for a pretreatment program to regulate the discharge of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works and provide that states with approved national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) permit programs shall apply for approval of a state pretreatment program, it is in the interest of the people of the state to enact this section in order to avoid direct regulation by the federal government of publicly owned treatment works already subject to regulation under state law pursuant to this division.

(b) The state board shall develop a state pretreatment program and shall, not later than September 1, 1985, apply to the Environmental Protection Agency for approval of the pretreatment program in accordance with federal requirements.

(Added by Stats. 1984, Ch. 1542, Sec. 1.)

13372.
  

(a) This chapter shall be construed to ensure consistency with the requirements for state programs implementing the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and acts amendatory thereof or supplementary thereto. To the extent other provisions of this division are consistent with the provisions of this chapter and with the requirements for state programs implementing the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and acts amendatory thereof or supplementary thereto, those provisions apply to actions and procedures provided for in this chapter. The provisions of this chapter shall prevail over other provisions of this division to the extent of any inconsistency. The provisions of this chapter apply only to actions required under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and acts amendatory thereof or supplementary thereto.

(b) The provisions of Section 13376 requiring the filing of a report for the discharge of dredged or fill material and the provisions of this chapter relating to the issuance of dredged or fill material permits by the state board or a regional board shall be applicable only to discharges for which the state has an approved permit program, in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, for the discharge of dredged or fill material.

(Amended by Stats. 2003, Ch. 683, Sec. 5. Effective January 1, 2004.)

13373.
  

The terms “navigable waters,” “administrator,” “pollutants,” “biological monitoring,” “discharge” and “point sources” as used in this chapter shall have the same meaning as in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and acts amendatory thereof or supplementary thereto.

(Amended by Stats. 1987, Ch. 1189, Sec. 4.)

13374.
  

The term “waste discharge requirements” as referred to in this division is the equivalent of the term “permits” as used in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended.

(Added by Stats. 1972, Ch. 1256.)

13375.
  

The discharge of any radiological, chemical, or biological warfare agent into the waters of the state is hereby prohibited.

(Added by Stats. 1972, Ch. 1256.)

13376.
  

A person who discharges pollutants or proposes to discharge pollutants to the navigable waters of the United States within the jurisdiction of this state or a person who discharges dredged or fill material or proposes to discharge dredged or fill material into the navigable waters of the United States within the jurisdiction of this state shall file a report of the discharge in compliance with the procedures set forth in Section 13260. Unless required by the state board or a regional board, a report need not be filed under this section for discharges that are not subject to the permit application requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended. A person who proposes to discharge pollutants or dredged or fill material or to operate a publicly owned treatment works or other treatment works treating domestic sewage shall file a report at least 180 days in advance of the date on which it is desired to commence the discharge of pollutants or dredged or fill material or the operation of the treatment works. A person who owns or operates a publicly owned treatment works or other treatment works treating domestic sewage, which treatment works commenced operation before January 1, 1988, and does not discharge to navigable waters of the United States, shall file a report within 45 days of a written request by a regional board or the state board, or within 45 days after the state has an approved permit program for the use and disposal of sewage sludge, whichever occurs earlier. The discharge of pollutants or dredged or fill material or the operation of a publicly owned treatment works or other treatment works treating domestic sewage by any person, except as authorized by waste discharge requirements or dredged or fill material permits, is prohibited. This prohibition does not apply to discharges or operations if a state or federal permit is not required under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 288, Sec. 32. (SB 1169) Effective January 1, 2011.)

13377.
  

Notwithstanding any other provision of this division, the state board or the regional boards shall, as required or authorized by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, issue waste discharge requirements and dredged or fill material permits which apply and ensure compliance with all applicable provisions of the act and acts amendatory thereof or supplementary, thereto, together with any more stringent effluent standards or limitations necessary to implement water quality control plans, or for the protection of beneficial uses, or to prevent nuisance.

(Amended by Stats. 1978, Ch. 746.)

13378.
  

Waste discharge requirements and dredged or fill material permits shall be adopted only after notice and any necessary hearing. Such requirements or permits shall be adopted for a fixed term not to exceed five years for any proposed discharge, existing discharge, or any material change therein.

(Amended by Stats. 1978, Ch. 746.)

13380.
  

Any waste discharge requirements or dredged or fill material permits adopted under this chapter shall be reviewed at least every five years and, if appropriate, revised.

(Amended by Stats. 1978, Ch. 746.)

13381.
  

Waste discharge requirements or dredged or fill material permits may be terminated or modified for cause, including, but not limited to, all of the following:

(a) Violation of any condition contained in the requirements or permits.

(b) Obtaining the requirements by misrepresentation, or failure to disclose fully all relevant facts.

(c) A change in any condition that requires either a temporary or permanent reduction or elimination of the permitted discharge.

(Amended by Stats. 1978, Ch. 746.)

13382.
  

Waste discharge requirements shall be adopted to control the disposal of pollutants into wells or in areas where pollutants may enter into a well from the surrounding groundwater.

(Amended by Stats. 1984, Ch. 1461, Sec. 1.)

13382.5.
  

Waste discharge requirements shall be adopted to permit the discharge of a specific pollutant or pollutants in a controlled manner from a point source to a defined managed aquaculture project if such discharge meets all applicable requirements of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and acts amendatory thereof and supplementary thereto, together with any more stringent effluent standards or limitations necessary to implement water quality control plans.

(Added by Stats. 1978, Ch. 618.)

13383.
  

(a) The state board or a regional board may establish monitoring, inspection, entry, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements, as authorized by Section 13160, 13376, or 13377 or by subdivisions (b) and (c) of this section, for any person who discharges, or proposes to discharge, to navigable waters, any person who introduces pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works, any person who owns or operates, or proposes to own or operate, a publicly owned treatment works or other treatment works treating domestic sewage, or any person who uses or disposes, or proposes to use or dispose, of sewage sludge.

(b) The state board or the regional boards may require any person subject to this section to establish and maintain monitoring equipment or methods, including, where appropriate, biological monitoring methods, sample effluent as prescribed, and provide other information as may be reasonably required.

(c) The state board or a regional board may inspect the facilities of any person subject to this section pursuant to the procedure set forth in subdivision (c) of Section 13267.

(Amended by Stats. 2003, Ch. 683, Sec. 6. Effective January 1, 2004.)

13383.5.
  

(a) As used in this section, “regulated municipalities and industries” means the municipalities and industries required to obtain a storm water permit under Section 402(p) of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1342(p)) and implementing regulations.

(b) This section only applies to regulated municipalities that were subject to a storm water permit on or before December 31, 2001, and to regulated industries that are subject to the General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activities Excluding Construction Activities.

(c) Before January 1, 2003, the state board shall develop minimum monitoring requirements for each regulated municipality and minimum standard monitoring requirements for regulated industries. This program shall include, but is not limited to, all of the following:

(1) Standardized methods for collection of storm water samples.

(2) Standardized methods for analysis of storm water samples.

(3) A requirement that every sample analysis under this program be completed by a state certified laboratory or by the regulated municipality or industry in the field in accordance with the quality assurance and quality control protocols established pursuant to this section.

(4) A standardized reporting format.

(5) Standard sampling and analysis programs for quality assurance and quality control.

(6) Minimum detection limits.

(7) Annual reporting requirements for regulated municipalities and industries.

(8) For the purposes of determining constituents to be sampled for, sampling intervals, and sampling frequencies, to be included in a municipal storm water permit monitoring program, the regional board shall consider the following information, as the regional board determines to be applicable:

(A) Discharge characterization monitoring data.

(B) Water quality data collected through the permit monitoring program.

(C) Applicable water quality data collected, analyzed, and reported by federal, state, and local agencies, and other public and private entities.

(D) Any applicable listing under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1313).

(E) Applicable water quality objectives and criteria established in accordance with the regional board basin plans, statewide plans, and federal regulations.

(F) Reports and studies regarding source contribution of pollutants in runoff not based on direct water quality measurements.

(d) The requirements prescribed pursuant to this section shall be included in all storm water permits for regulated municipalities and industries that are reissued following development of the requirements described in subdivision (c). Those permits shall include these provisions on or before July 1, 2008. In a year in which the Legislature appropriates sufficient funds for that purpose, the state board shall make available to the public via the Internet a summary of the results obtained from storm water monitoring conducted in accordance with this section.

(Added by Stats. 2001, Ch. 492, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2002.)

13383.6.
  

On and after January 1, 2007, if a regional board or the state board issues a municipal stormwater permit pursuant to Section 402(p) of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1342(p)) that includes a requirement to provide elementary and secondary public schools with educational materials on stormwater pollution, the permittee may satisfy the requirement, upon approval by the regional board or state board, by contributing an equivalent amount of funds to the Environmental Education Account established pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 71305 of the Public Resources Code.

(Added by Stats. 2005, Ch. 581, Sec. 7. Effective January 1, 2006.)

13383.7.
  

(a) No later than July 1, 2009, and after holding public workshops and soliciting public comments, the state board shall develop a comprehensive guidance document for evaluating and measuring the effectiveness of municipal stormwater management programs undertaken, and permits issued, in accordance with Section 402(p) of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1342(p)) and this division.

(b) For the purpose of implementing subdivision (a), the state board shall promote the use of quantifiable measures for evaluating the effectiveness of municipal stormwater management programs and provide for the evaluation of, at a minimum, all of the following:

(1) Compliance with stormwater permitting requirements, including all of the following:

(A) Inspection programs.

(B) Construction controls.

(C) Elimination of unlawful discharges.

(D) Public education programs.

(E) New development and redevelopment requirements.

(2) Reduction of pollutant loads from pollution sources.

(3) Reduction of pollutants or stream erosion due to stormwater discharge.

(4) Improvements in the quality of receiving water in accordance with water quality standards.

(c) The state board and the regional boards shall refer to the guidance document developed pursuant to subdivision (a) when establishing requirements in municipal stormwater programs and permits.

(Added by Stats. 2007, Ch. 610, Sec. 6. Effective January 1, 2008.)

13383.8.
  

(a) The state board shall appoint a stormwater management task force comprised of public agencies, representatives of the regulated community, and nonprofit organizations with expertise in water quality and stormwater management. The task force shall provide advice to the state board on its stormwater management program that may include, but is not limited to, program priorities, funding criteria, project selection, and interagency coordination of state programs that address stormwater management.

(b) The state board shall submit a report, including, but not limited to, stormwater and other polluted runoff control information, to the Ocean Protection Council no later than January 1, 2009, on the way in which the state board is implementing the priority goals and objectives of the council’s strategic plan.

(Added by Stats. 2007, Ch. 610, Sec. 7. Effective January 1, 2008.)

13383.9.
  

The state board shall establish an online resource center that addresses measures available for municipalities to comply with municipal stormwater permit requirements and may include the following information:

(a) Links to the following:

(1) Relevant state, federal, and local agencies regarding municipal separate storm sewer system national pollutant discharge elimination system permits.

(2) Water quality mitigation measures for watershed management programs or enhanced watershed management programs.

(3) Various regional agencies related to stormwater, including, but not limited to, public works departments and special districts.

(b) A library of scientific studies relevant to stormwater issues confronting our communities.

(Added by Stats. 2016, Ch. 153, Sec. 1. (SB 1260) Effective January 1, 2017.)

13383.10.
  

On or before April 1, 2020, the state board shall post on its internet website, for the purpose of the determinations made by the city pursuant to Section 16000.3 of the Business and Professions Code and a county pursuant to Section 16100.3 of the Business and Professions Code, a list of all Standard Industrial Classification codes applicable to a General Permit for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Industrial Activities Excluding Construction Activities, as referenced in Section 13383.5, and known as the Industrial General Permit. The state board shall update that list on its internet website within 90 days of any final updates by the United States Department of Labor or the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

(Added by Stats. 2019, Ch. 470, Sec. 4. (SB 205) Effective January 1, 2020.)

13384.
  

The state board or the regional boards shall ensure that the public, and that any other state, the waters of which may be affected by any discharge of pollutants or dredged or fill material to navigable waters within this state, shall receive notice of each application for requirements or report of waste discharge or application for a dredged or fill material permit or report of dredged or fill material discharge and are provided an opportunity for public hearing before adoption of such requirements or permit.

(Amended by Stats. 1978, Ch. 746.)

13385.
  

(a) A person who violates any of the following shall be liable civilly in accordance with this section:

(1) Section 13375 or 13376.

(2) A waste discharge requirement or dredged or fill material permit issued pursuant to this chapter or any water quality certification issued pursuant to Section 13160.

(3) A requirement established pursuant to Section 13383.

(4) An order or prohibition issued pursuant to Section 13243 or Article 1 (commencing with Section 13300) of Chapter 5, if the activity subject to the order or prohibition is subject to regulation under this chapter.

(5) A requirement of Section 301, 302, 306, 307, 308, 318, 401, or 405 of the federal Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1311, 1312, 1316, 1317, 1318, 1341, or 1345), as amended.

(6) A requirement imposed in a pretreatment program approved pursuant to waste discharge requirements issued under Section 13377 or approved pursuant to a permit issued by the administrator.

(b) (1) Civil liability may be imposed by the superior court in an amount not to exceed the sum of both of the following:

(A) Twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000) for each day in which the violation occurs.

(B) Where there is a discharge, any portion of which is not susceptible to cleanup or is not cleaned up, and the volume discharged but not cleaned up exceeds 1,000 gallons, an additional liability not to exceed twenty-five dollars ($25) multiplied by the number of gallons by which the volume discharged but not cleaned up exceeds 1,000 gallons.

(2) The Attorney General, upon request of a regional board or the state board, shall petition the superior court to impose the liability.

(c) Civil liability may be imposed administratively by the state board or a regional board pursuant to Article 2.5 (commencing with Section 13323) of Chapter 5 in an amount not to exceed the sum of both of the following:

(1) Ten thousand dollars ($10,000) for each day in which the violation occurs.

(2) Where there is a discharge, any portion of which is not susceptible to cleanup or is not cleaned up, and the volume discharged but not cleaned up exceeds 1,000 gallons, an additional liability not to exceed ten dollars ($10) multiplied by the number of gallons by which the volume discharged but not cleaned up exceeds 1,000 gallons.

(d) For purposes of subdivisions (b) and (c), “discharge” includes any discharge to navigable waters of the United States, any introduction of pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works, or any use or disposal of sewage sludge.

(e) In determining the amount of any liability imposed under this section, the regional board, the state board, or the superior court, as the case may be, shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation or violations, whether the discharge is susceptible to cleanup or abatement, the degree of toxicity of the discharge, and, with respect to the violator, the ability to pay, the effect on its ability to continue its business, any voluntary cleanup efforts undertaken, any prior history of violations, the degree of culpability, economic benefit or savings, if any, resulting from the violation, and other matters that justice may require. At a minimum, liability shall be assessed at a level that recovers the economic benefits, if any, derived from the acts that constitute the violation.

(f) (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), for the purposes of this section, a single operational upset that leads to simultaneous violations of more than one pollutant parameter shall be treated as a single violation.

(2) (A) For the purposes of subdivisions (h) and (i), a single operational upset in a wastewater treatment unit that treats wastewater using a biological treatment process shall be treated as a single violation, even if the operational upset results in violations of more than one effluent limitation and the violations continue for a period of more than one day, if all of the following apply:

(i) The discharger demonstrates all of the following:

(I) The upset was not caused by wastewater treatment operator error and was not due to discharger negligence.

(II) But for the operational upset of the biological treatment process, the violations would not have occurred nor would they have continued for more than one day.

(III) The discharger carried out all reasonable and immediately feasible actions to reduce noncompliance with the applicable effluent limitations.

(ii) The discharger is implementing an approved pretreatment program, if so required by federal or state law.

(B) Subparagraph (A) only applies to violations that occur during a period for which the regional board has determined that violations are unavoidable, but in no case may that period exceed 30 days.

(g) Remedies under this section are in addition to, and do not supersede or limit, any other remedies, civil or criminal, except that no liability shall be recoverable under Section 13261, 13265, 13268, or 13350 for violations for which liability is recovered under this section.

(h) (1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this division, and except as provided in subdivisions (j), (k), and (l), a mandatory minimum penalty of three thousand dollars ($3,000) shall be assessed for each serious violation.

(2) For the purposes of this section, a “serious violation” means any waste discharge that violates the effluent limitations contained in the applicable waste discharge requirements for a Group II pollutant, as specified in Appendix A to Section 123.45 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, by 20 percent or more or for a Group I pollutant, as specified in Appendix A to Section 123.45 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, by 40 percent or more.

(i) (1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this division, and except as provided in subdivisions (j), (k), and (l), a mandatory minimum penalty of three thousand dollars ($3,000) shall be assessed for each violation whenever the person does any of the following four or more times in any period of six consecutive months, except that the requirement to assess the mandatory minimum penalty shall not be applicable to the first three violations:

(A) Violates a waste discharge requirement effluent limitation.

(B) Fails to file a report pursuant to Section 13260.

(C) Files an incomplete report pursuant to Section 13260.

(D) Violates a toxicity effluent limitation contained in the applicable waste discharge requirements where the waste discharge requirements do not contain pollutant-specific effluent limitations for toxic pollutants.

(2) For the purposes of this section, a “period of six consecutive months” means the period commencing on the date that one of the violations described in this subdivision occurs and ending 180 days after that date.

(j) Subdivisions (h) and (i) do not apply to any of the following:

(1) A violation caused by one or any combination of the following:

(A) An act of war.

(B) An unanticipated, grave natural disaster or other natural phenomenon of an exceptional, inevitable, and irresistible character, the effects of which could not have been prevented or avoided by the exercise of due care or foresight.

(C) An intentional act of a third party, the effects of which could not have been prevented or avoided by the exercise of due care or foresight.

(D) (i) The operation of a new or reconstructed wastewater treatment unit during a defined period of adjusting or testing, not to exceed 90 days for a wastewater treatment unit that relies on a biological treatment process and not to exceed 30 days for any other wastewater treatment unit, if all of the following requirements are met:

(I) The discharger has submitted to the regional board, at least 30 days in advance of the operation, an operations plan that describes the actions the discharger will take during the period of adjusting and testing, including steps to prevent violations and identifies the shortest reasonable time required for the period of adjusting and testing, not to exceed 90 days for a wastewater treatment unit that relies on a biological treatment process and not to exceed 30 days for any other wastewater treatment unit.

(II) The regional board has not objected in writing to the operations plan.

(III) The discharger demonstrates that the violations resulted from the operation of the new or reconstructed wastewater treatment unit and that the violations could not have reasonably been avoided.

(IV) The discharger demonstrates compliance with the operations plan.

(V) In the case of a reconstructed wastewater treatment unit, the unit relies on a biological treatment process that is required to be out of operation for at least 14 days in order to perform the reconstruction, or the unit is required to be out of operation for at least 14 days and, at the time of the reconstruction, the cost of reconstructing the unit exceeds 50 percent of the cost of replacing the wastewater treatment unit.

(ii) For the purposes of this section, “wastewater treatment unit” means a component of a wastewater treatment plant that performs a designated treatment function.

(2) (A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a violation of an effluent limitation where the waste discharge is in compliance with either a cease and desist order issued pursuant to Section 13301 or a time schedule order issued pursuant to Section 13300, if all of the following requirements are met:

(i) The cease and desist order or time schedule order is issued after January 1, 1995, but not later than July 1, 2000, specifies the actions that the discharger is required to take in order to correct the violations that would otherwise be subject to subdivisions (h) and (i), and the date by which compliance is required to be achieved and, if the final date by which compliance is required to be achieved is later than one year from the effective date of the cease and desist order or time schedule order, specifies the interim requirements by which progress towards compliance will be measured and the date by which the discharger will be in compliance with each interim requirement.

(ii) The discharger has prepared and is implementing in a timely and proper manner, or is required by the regional board to prepare and implement, a pollution prevention plan that meets the requirements of Section 13263.3.

(iii) The discharger demonstrates that it has carried out all reasonable and immediately feasible actions to reduce noncompliance with the waste discharge requirements applicable to the waste discharge and the executive officer of the regional board concurs with the demonstration.

(B) Subdivisions (h) and (i) shall become applicable to a waste discharge on the date the waste discharge requirements applicable to the waste discharge are revised and reissued pursuant to Section 13380, unless the regional board does all of the following on or before that date:

(i) Modifies the requirements of the cease and desist order or time schedule order as may be necessary to make it fully consistent with the reissued waste discharge requirements.

(ii) Establishes in the modified cease and desist order or time schedule order a date by which full compliance with the reissued waste discharge requirements shall be achieved. For the purposes of this subdivision, the regional board may not establish this date later than five years from the date the waste discharge requirements were required to be reviewed pursuant to Section 13380. If the reissued waste discharge requirements do not add new effluent limitations or do not include effluent limitations that are more stringent than those in the original waste discharge requirements, the date shall be the same as the final date for compliance in the original cease and desist order or time schedule order or five years from the date that the waste discharge requirements were required to be reviewed pursuant to Section 13380, whichever is earlier.

(iii) Determines that the pollution prevention plan required by clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) is in compliance with the requirements of Section 13263.3 and that the discharger is implementing the pollution prevention plan in a timely and proper manner.

(3) A violation of an effluent limitation where the waste discharge is in compliance with either a cease and desist order issued pursuant to Section 13301 or a time schedule order issued pursuant to Section 13300 or 13308, if all of the following requirements are met:

(A) The cease and desist order or time schedule order is issued on or after July 1, 2000, and specifies the actions that the discharger is required to take in order to correct the violations that would otherwise be subject to subdivisions (h) and (i).

(B) The regional board finds that, for one of the following reasons, the discharger is not able to consistently comply with one or more of the effluent limitations established in the waste discharge requirements applicable to the waste discharge:

(i) The effluent limitation is a new, more stringent, or modified regulatory requirement that has become applicable to the waste discharge after the effective date of the waste discharge requirements and after July 1, 2000, new or modified control measures are necessary in order to comply with the effluent limitation, and the new or modified control measures cannot be designed, installed, and put into operation within 30 calendar days.

(ii) New methods for detecting or measuring a pollutant in the waste discharge demonstrate that new or modified control measures are necessary in order to comply with the effluent limitation and the new or modified control measures cannot be designed, installed, and put into operation within 30 calendar days.

(iii) Unanticipated changes in the quality of the municipal or industrial water supply available to the discharger are the cause of unavoidable changes in the composition of the waste discharge, the changes in the composition of the waste discharge are the cause of the inability to comply with the effluent limitation, no alternative water supply is reasonably available to the discharger, and new or modified measures to control the composition of the waste discharge cannot be designed, installed, and put into operation within 30 calendar days.

(iv) The discharger is a publicly owned treatment works located in Orange County that is unable to meet effluent limitations for biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, or both, because the publicly owned treatment works meets all of the following criteria:

(I) Was previously operating under modified secondary treatment requirements pursuant to Section 301(h) of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1311(h)).

(II) Did vote on July 17, 2002, not to apply for a renewal of the modified secondary treatment requirements.

(III) Is in the process of upgrading its treatment facilities to meet the secondary treatment standards required by Section 301(b)(1)(B) of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1311(b)(1)(B)).

(C) (i) The regional board establishes a time schedule for bringing the waste discharge into compliance with the effluent limitation that is as short as possible, taking into account the technological, operational, and economic factors that affect the design, development, and implementation of the control measures that are necessary to comply with the effluent limitation. Except as provided in clause (ii), for the purposes of this subdivision, the time schedule shall not exceed five years in length.

(ii) (I) For purposes of the upgrade described in subclause (III) of clause (iv) of subparagraph (B), the time schedule shall not exceed 10 years in length.

(II) Following a public hearing, and upon a showing that the discharger is making diligent progress toward bringing the waste discharge into compliance with the effluent limitation, the regional board may extend the time schedule for an additional period not exceeding five years in length, if the discharger demonstrates that the additional time is necessary to comply with the effluent limitation. This subclause does not apply to a time schedule described in subclause (I).

(iii) If the time schedule exceeds one year from the effective date of the order, the schedule shall include interim requirements and the dates for their achievement. The interim requirements shall include both of the following:

(I) Effluent limitations for the pollutant or pollutants of concern.

(II) Actions and milestones leading to compliance with the effluent limitation.

(D) The discharger has prepared and is implementing in a timely and proper manner, or is required by the regional board to prepare and implement, a pollution prevention plan pursuant to Section 13263.3.

(k) (1) In lieu of assessing all or a portion of the mandatory minimum penalties pursuant to subdivisions (h) and (i) against a publicly owned treatment works serving a small community, the state board or the regional board may elect to require the publicly owned treatment works to spend an equivalent amount towards the completion of a compliance project proposed by the publicly owned treatment works, if the state board or the regional board finds all of the following:

(A) The compliance project is designed to correct the violations within five years.

(B) The compliance project is in accordance with the enforcement policy of the state board, excluding any provision in the policy that is inconsistent with this section.

(C) The publicly owned treatment works has prepared a financing plan to complete the compliance project.

(2) For the purposes of this subdivision, “a publicly owned treatment works serving a small community” means a publicly owned treatment works serving a population of 20,000 persons or fewer or a rural county, with a financial hardship as determined by the state board after considering such factors as median income of the residents, rate of unemployment, or low population density in the service area of the publicly owned treatment works.

(l) (1) In lieu of assessing penalties pursuant to subdivision (h) or (i), the state board or the regional board, with the concurrence of the discharger, may direct a portion of the penalty amount to be expended on a supplemental environmental project in accordance with the enforcement policy of the state board. If the penalty amount exceeds fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000), the portion of the penalty amount that may be directed to be expended on a supplemental environmental project may not exceed fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000) plus 50 percent of the penalty amount that exceeds fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000).

(2) For the purposes of this section, a “supplemental environmental project” means an environmentally beneficial project that a person agrees to undertake, with the approval of the regional board, that would not be undertaken in the absence of an enforcement action under this section.

(3) This subdivision applies to the imposition of penalties pursuant to subdivision (h) or (i) on or after January 1, 2003, without regard to the date on which the violation occurs.

(m) The Attorney General, upon request of a regional board or the state board, shall petition the appropriate court to collect any liability or penalty imposed pursuant to this section. Any person who fails to pay on a timely basis any liability or penalty imposed under this section shall be required to pay, in addition to that liability or penalty, interest, attorney’s fees, costs for collection proceedings, and a quarterly nonpayment penalty for each quarter during which the failure to pay persists. The nonpayment penalty shall be in an amount equal to 20 percent of the aggregate amount of the person’s penalty and nonpayment penalties that are unpaid as of the beginning of the quarter.

(n) (1) Subject to paragraph (2), funds collected pursuant to this section shall be deposited in the State Water Pollution Cleanup and Abatement Account.

(2) (A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, moneys collected for a violation of a water quality certification in accordance with paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) or for a violation of Section 401 of the federal Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1341) in accordance with paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) shall be deposited in the Waste Discharge Permit Fund and separately accounted for in that fund.

(B) The funds described in subparagraph (A) shall be expended by the state board, upon appropriation by the Legislature, to assist regional boards, and other public agencies with authority to clean up waste or abate the effects of the waste, in cleaning up or abating the effects of the waste on waters of the state or for the purposes authorized in Section 13443.

(o) The state board shall continuously report and update information on its Internet Web site. The state board shall report annually on or before December 31 regarding its enforcement activities. The information shall include all of the following:

(1) A compilation of the number of violations of waste discharge requirements in the previous calendar year, including stormwater enforcement violations.

(2) A record of the formal and informal compliance and enforcement actions taken for each violation, including stormwater enforcement actions.

(3) An analysis of the effectiveness of current enforcement policies, including mandatory minimum penalties.

(p) The amendments made to subdivisions (f), (h), (i), and (j) during the second year of the 2001–02 Regular Session apply only to violations that occur on or after January 1, 2003.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 524, Sec. 3. (AB 355) Effective January 1, 2018.)

13385.1.
  

(a) (1) For the purposes of subdivision (h) of Section 13385, a “serious violation” also means a failure to file a discharge monitoring report required pursuant to Section 13383 for each complete period of 30 days following the deadline for submitting the report, if the report is designed to ensure compliance with limitations contained in waste discharge requirements that contain effluent limitations. This paragraph applies only to violations that occur on or after January 1, 2004.

(2) (A) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a failure to file a discharge monitoring report is not a serious violation for purposes of subdivision (h) of Section 13385 at any time prior to the date a discharge monitoring report is required to be filed or within 30 days after receiving written notice from the state board or a regional board of the need to file a discharge monitoring report, if the discharger submits a written statement to the state board or the regional board that includes both of the following:

(i) A statement that there were no discharges to waters of the United States reportable under the applicable waste discharge requirements during the relevant monitoring period.

(ii) The reason or reasons the required report was not submitted to the regional board by the deadline for filing that report.

(B) Upon the request of the state board or regional board, the discharger may be required to support the statement with additional explanation or evidence.

(C) If, in a statement submitted pursuant to subparagraph (A), the discharger willfully states as true any material fact that he or she knows to be false, that person shall be subject to a civil penalty not exceeding ten thousand dollars ($10,000). Any public prosecutor may bring an action for a civil penalty under this subparagraph in the name of the people of the State of California, and the penalty imposed shall be enforced as a civil judgment.

(D) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the failure to file a discharge monitoring report is subject to penalties in accordance with subdivisions (c) and (e) of Section 13385.

(b) (1) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), a mandatory minimum penalty shall continue to apply and shall be assessed pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 13385, but only for each required report that is not timely filed, and shall not be separately assessed for each 30-day period following the deadline for submitting the report, if both of the following conditions are met:

(A) The discharger did not on any occasion previously receive, from the state board or a regional board, a complaint to impose liability pursuant to subdivision (b) or (c) of Section 13385 arising from a failure to timely file a discharge monitoring report, a notice of violation for failure to timely file a discharge monitoring report, or a notice of the obligation to file a discharge monitoring report required pursuant to Section 13383, in connection with its corresponding waste discharge requirements.

(B) The discharges during the period or periods covered by the report do not violate effluent limitations, as defined in subdivision (d), contained in waste discharge requirements.

(2) Paragraph (1) shall only apply to a discharger who does both of the following:

(A) Files a discharge monitoring report that had not previously been timely filed within 30 days after the discharger receives written notice, including notice transmitted by electronic mail, from the state board or regional board concerning the failure to timely file the report.

(B) Pays all penalties assessed by the state board or regional board in accordance with paragraph (1) within 30 days after an order is issued to pay these penalties pursuant to Section 13385.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the failure to file a discharge monitoring report is subject to penalties in accordance with subdivisions (c) and (e) of Section 13385.

(4) This subdivision shall become inoperative on January 1, 2014.

(c) (1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, moneys collected pursuant to this section for a failure to timely file a report, as described in subdivision (a), shall be deposited in the State Water Pollution Cleanup and Abatement Account.

(2) Notwithstanding Section 13340 of the Government Code, the funds described in paragraph (1) are continuously appropriated, without regard to fiscal years, to the state board for expenditure by the state board to assist regional boards, and other public agencies with authority to clean up waste or abate the effects of the waste, in responding to significant water pollution problems.

(d) For the purposes of this section, paragraph (2) of subdivision (f) of Section 13385, and subdivisions (h), (i), and (j) of Section 13385 only, “effluent limitation” means a numeric restriction or a numerically expressed narrative restriction, on the quantity, discharge rate, concentration, or toxicity units of a pollutant or pollutants that may be discharged from an authorized location. An effluent limitation may be final or interim, and may be expressed as a prohibition. An effluent limitation, for those purposes, does not include a receiving water limitation, a compliance schedule, or a best management practice.

(e) The amendments made to this section by Senate Bill 1284 of the 2009–10 Regular Session of the Legislature shall apply to violations for which an administrative civil liability complaint or a judicial complaint has not been filed before July 1, 2010, without regard to the date on which the violations occurred.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 645, Sec. 2. (SB 1284) Effective January 1, 2011.)

13385.2.
  

(a) Prior to the state board or regional board making its findings pursuant to subdivision (k) of Section 13385, the publicly owned treatment works shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the state board or regional board that the financing plan prepared pursuant to subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (k) of that section is designed to generate sufficient funding to complete the compliance project within the time period specified pursuant to subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (k) of that section.

(b) This section shall only become operative if Senate Bill 1733 of the 2005–06 Regular Session is enacted and becomes operative.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 725, Sec. 1. Effective September 29, 2006. Note: Condition in subd. (b) was satisfied by enactment of Stats. 2006, Ch. 404.)

13385.3.
  

(a) The amendments made to subdivision (k) of Section 13385 of the Water Code by Senate Bill 1733 of the 2005–06 Regular Session shall become operative on July 1, 2007.

(b) This section shall only become operative if Senate Bill 1733 of the 2005–06 Regular Session is enacted and becomes operative.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 725, Sec. 2. Effective September 29, 2006. Note: Condition in subd. (b) was satisfied by enactment of Stats. 2006, Ch. 404.)

13386.
  

Upon any threatened or continuing violation of any of the requirements listed in paragraphs (1) to (6), inclusive, of subdivision (a) of Section 13385, or upon the failure of any discharger into a public treatment system to comply with any cost or charge adopted by any public agency under Section 204(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, the Attorney General, upon the request of the state board or regional board shall petition the appropriate court for the issuance of a preliminary or permanent injunction, or both, as appropriate, restraining that person or persons from committing or continuing the violation. Subdivision (b) of Section 13331 shall be applicable to proceedings under this section.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 659, Sec. 27. Effective January 1, 1997.)

13387.
  

(a) Any person who knowingly or negligently does any of the following is subject to criminal penalties as provided in subdivisions (b), (c), and (d):

(1) Violates Section 13375 or 13376.

(2) Violates any waste discharge requirements or dredged or fill material permit issued pursuant to this chapter or any water quality certification issued pursuant to Section 13160.

(3) Violates any order or prohibition issued pursuant to Section 13243 or 13301, if the activity subject to the order or prohibition is subject to regulation under this chapter.

(4) Violates any requirement of Section 301, 302, 306, 307, 308, 318, 401, or 405 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1311, 1312, 1316, 1317, 1318, 1328, 1341, or 1345), as amended.

(5) Introduces into a sewer system or into a publicly owned treatment works any pollutant or hazardous substances that the person knew or reasonably should have known could cause personal injury or property damage.

(6) Introduces any pollutant or hazardous substance into a sewer system or into a publicly owned treatment works, except in accordance with any applicable pretreatment requirements, which causes the treatment works to violate waste discharge requirements.

(b) Any person who negligently commits any of the violations set forth in subdivision (a) shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not less than five thousand dollars ($5,000), nor more than twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000), for each day in which the violation occurs, by imprisonment for not more than one year in a county jail, or by both that fine and imprisonment. If a conviction of a person is for a violation committed after a first conviction of the person under this subdivision, subdivision (c), or subdivision (d), punishment shall be by a fine of not more than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) for each day in which the violation occurs, by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code for 16, 20, or 24 months, or by both that fine and imprisonment.

(c) Any person who knowingly commits any of the violations set forth in subdivision (a) shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not less than five thousand dollars ($5,000), nor more than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000), for each day in which the violation occurs, by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code, or by both that fine and imprisonment. If a conviction of a person is for a violation committed after a first conviction of the person under this subdivision or subdivision (d), punishment shall be by a fine of not more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) for each day in which the violation occurs, by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code for two, four, or six years, or by both that fine and imprisonment.

(d) (1) Any person who knowingly commits any of the violations set forth in subdivision (a), and who knows at the time that the person thereby places another person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury, shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($250,000), imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code for 5, 10, or 15 years, or by both that fine and imprisonment. A person that is an organization shall, upon conviction under this subdivision, be subject to a fine of not more than one million dollars ($1,000,000). If a conviction of a person is for a violation committed after a first conviction of the person under this subdivision, the punishment shall be by a fine of not more than five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000), by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code for 10, 20, or 30 years, or by both that fine and imprisonment. A person that is an organization shall, upon conviction for a violation committed after a first conviction of the person under this subdivision, be subject to a fine of not more than two million dollars ($2,000,000). Any fines imposed pursuant to this subdivision shall be in addition to any fines imposed pursuant to subdivision (c).

(2) In determining whether a defendant who is an individual knew that the defendant’s conduct placed another person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury, the defendant is responsible only for actual awareness or actual belief that the defendant possessed, and knowledge possessed by a person other than the defendant, but not by the defendant personally, cannot be attributed to the defendant.

(e) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement, representation, or certification in any record, report, plan, notice to comply, or other document filed with a regional board or the state board, or who knowingly falsifies, tampers with, or renders inaccurate any monitoring device or method required under this division shall be punished by a fine of not more than twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000), by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code for 16, 20, or 24 months, or by both that fine and imprisonment. If a conviction of a person is for a violation committed after a first conviction of the person under this subdivision, punishment shall be by a fine of not more than twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000) per day of violation, by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code for two, three, or four years, or by both that fine and imprisonment.

(f) For purposes of this section, a single operational upset which leads to simultaneous violations of more than one pollutant parameter shall be treated as a single violation.

(g) For purposes of this section, “organization,” “serious bodily injury,” “person,” and “hazardous substance” shall have the same meaning as in Section 309(c) of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1319(c)), as amended.

(h) (1) Subject to paragraph (2), funds collected pursuant to this section shall be deposited in the State Water Pollution Cleanup and Abatement Account.

(2) (A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, fines collected for a violation of a water quality certification in accordance with paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) or for a violation of Section 401 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. Sec. 1341) in accordance with paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) shall be deposited in the Water Discharge Permit Fund and separately accounted for in that fund.

(B) The funds described in subparagraph (A) shall be expended by the state board, upon appropriation by the Legislature, to assist regional boards, and other public agencies with authority to clean up waste or abate the effects of the waste, in cleaning up or abating the effects of the waste on waters of the state, or for the purposes authorized in Section 13443.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 15, Sec. 616. (AB 109) Effective April 4, 2011. Operative October 1, 2011, by Sec. 636 of Ch. 15, as amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 39, Sec. 68.)

13388.
  

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this division or Section 175, and except as provided in subdivision (b), a person shall not be a member of the state board or a regional board if that person receives, or has received during the previous two years, a significant portion of his or her income directly or indirectly from any person subject to waste discharge requirements or applicants for waste discharge requirements pursuant to this chapter.

(b) (1) A person shall not be disqualified from being a member of a regional board because that person receives, or has received during the previous two years, a significant portion of his or her income directly or indirectly from a person subject to waste discharge requirements, or an applicant for waste discharge requirements, that are issued pursuant to this chapter by the state board or regional board other than the regional board of which that person is a member.

(2) Paragraph (1) shall be implemented only if the United States Environmental Protection Agency either determines that no program approval is necessary for that implementation, or approves of a change in California’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program, to allow the state to administer the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit program consistent with paragraph (1).

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 39, Sec. 121. (SB 1018) Effective June 27, 2012.)

13389.
  

Neither the state board nor the regional boards shall be required to comply with the provisions of Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 21100) of Division 13 of the Public Resources Code prior to the adoption of any waste discharge requirement, except requirements for new sources as defined in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or acts amendatory thereof or supplementary thereto.

(Added by Stats. 1972, Ch. 1256.)

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