Code Section Group

Water Code - WAT

DIVISION 7. WATER QUALITY [13000 - 16104]

  ( Division 7 repealed and added by Stats. 1969, Ch. 482. )

CHAPTER 5. Enforcement and Implementation [13300 - 13365]

  ( Chapter 5 added by Stats. 1969, Ch. 482. )

ARTICLE 1. Administrative Enforcement and Remedies [13300 - 13308]
  ( Heading of Article 1 amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 288, Sec. 27. )

13300.
  

Whenever a regional board finds that a discharge of waste is taking place or threatening to take place that violates or will violate requirements prescribed by the regional board, or the state board, or that the waste collection, treatment, or disposal facilities of a discharger are approaching capacity, the board may require the discharger to submit for approval of the board, with such modifications as it may deem necessary, a detailed time schedule of specific actions the discharger shall take in order to correct or prevent a violation of requirements.

(Amended by Stats. 1971, Ch. 1288.)

13301.
  

When a regional board finds that a discharge of waste is taking place, or threatening to take place, in violation of requirements or discharge prohibitions prescribed by the regional board or the state board, the board may issue an order to cease and desist and direct that those persons not complying with the requirements or discharge prohibitions (a) comply forthwith, (b) comply in accordance with a time schedule set by the board, or (c) in the event of a threatened violation, take appropriate remedial or preventive action. In the event of an existing or threatened violation of waste discharge requirements in the operation of a community sewer system, cease and desist orders may restrict or prohibit the volume, type, or concentration of waste that might be added to that system by dischargers who did not discharge into the system prior to the issuance of the cease and desist order. Cease and desist orders may be issued directly by a board, after notice and hearing.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 420, Sec. 5. Effective January 1, 2003.)

13301.1.
  

The regional board shall render to persons against whom a cease and desist order is issued pursuant to Section 13301 all possible assistance in making available current information on successful and economical water quality control programs, as such information is developed by the state board pursuant to Section 13167, and information and assistance in applying for federal and state funds necessary to comply with the cease and desist order.

(Added by Stats. 1970, Ch. 1464.)

13303.
  

Cease and desist orders of the board shall become effective and final upon issuance thereof. Copies shall be served forthwith by personal service or by registered mail upon the person being charged with the violation of the requirements and upon other affected persons who appeared at the hearing and requested a copy.

(Amended by Stats. 1972, Ch. 813.)

13304.
  

(a) A person who has discharged or discharges waste into the waters of this state in violation of any waste discharge requirement or other order or prohibition issued by a regional board or the state board, or who has caused or permitted, causes or permits, or threatens to cause or permit any waste to be discharged or deposited where it is, or probably will be, discharged into the waters of the state and creates, or threatens to create, a condition of pollution or nuisance, shall, upon order of the regional board, clean up the waste or abate the effects of the waste, or, in the case of threatened pollution or nuisance, take other necessary remedial action, including, but not limited to, overseeing cleanup and abatement efforts. A cleanup and abatement order issued by the state board or a regional board may require the provision of, or payment for, uninterrupted replacement water service, which may include wellhead treatment, to each affected public water supplier or private well owner. Upon failure of a person to comply with the cleanup or abatement order, the Attorney General, at the request of the board, shall petition the superior court for that county for the issuance of an injunction requiring the person to comply with the order. In the suit, the court shall have jurisdiction to grant a prohibitory or mandatory injunction, either preliminary or permanent, as the facts may warrant.

(b) (1) The regional board may expend available moneys to perform any cleanup, abatement, or remedial work required under the circumstances set forth in subdivision (a), including, but not limited to, supervision of cleanup and abatement activities that, in its judgment, is required by the magnitude of the endeavor or the urgency for prompt action to prevent substantial pollution, nuisance, or injury to any waters of the state. The action may be taken in default of, or in addition to, remedial work by the waste discharger or other persons, and regardless of whether injunctive relief is being sought.

(2) The regional board may perform the work itself, or with the cooperation of any other governmental agency, and may use rented tools or equipment, either with operators furnished or unoperated. Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, the regional board may enter into oral contracts for the work, and the contracts, whether written or oral, may include provisions for equipment rental and in addition the furnishing of labor and materials necessary to accomplish the work. The contracts shall not be subject to approval by the Department of General Services.

(3) The regional board shall be permitted reasonable access to the affected property as necessary to perform any cleanup, abatement, or other remedial work. The access shall be obtained with the consent of the owner or possessor of the property or, if the consent is withheld, with a warrant duly issued pursuant to the procedure described in Title 13 (commencing with Section 1822.50) of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure. However, in the event of an emergency affecting public health or safety, the regional board may enter the property without consent or the issuance of a warrant.

(4) The regional board may contract with a water agency to perform, under the direction of the regional board, investigations of existing or threatened groundwater pollution or nuisance. The agency’s cost of performing the contracted services shall be reimbursed by the regional board from the first available funds obtained from cost recovery actions for the specific site. The authority of a regional board to contract with a water agency is limited to a water agency that draws groundwater from the affected aquifer, a metropolitan water district, or a local public agency responsible for water supply or water quality in a groundwater basin.

(5) (A) If the state board or regional board, either directly or by contracting for services, undertakes to perform an investigation, cleanup, abatement, or other remedial work, both of the following shall apply:

(i) The state board, regional board, or an employee of the state board or regional board shall not be held liable in a civil proceeding for trespass or any other act that is necessary to carry out an investigation, cleanup, abatement, or other remedial work.

(ii) The state board, regional board, or any authorized person shall not incur any obligation to undertake additional investigation, cleanup, abatement, or other remedial work, solely as a result of having conducted the work.

(B) The following applies for purposes of this paragraph:

(i) “Authorized person” means any of the following:

(I) An employee or independent contractor of the state board or regional board.

(II) A person from whom investigation, cleanup, abatement, or other remedial work is contracted by the state board or regional board.

(III) An employee or independent contractor of a person described in subclause (I) or (II).

(ii) “Investigation, cleanup, abatement, or other remedial work” includes investigation, cleanup, abatement, or other remedial work performed pursuant to this section or Section 13267, or corrective action performed pursuant to Section 25296.10 or 25299.36 of the Health and Safety Code.

(C) It is not the intent of this paragraph to do any of the following:

(i) Impair any cause of action by the state board or regional board against any person, including, but not limited to, a cause of action for breach of contract or indemnity.

(ii) Limit the state board’s or regional board’s authority over any person.

(iii) Limit any other applicable defenses to liability or create a cause of action.

(c) (1) If the waste is cleaned up or the effects of the waste are abated, or, in the case of threatened pollution or nuisance, other necessary remedial action is taken by a governmental agency, the person or persons who discharged the waste, discharges the waste, or threatened to cause or permit the discharge of the waste within the meaning of subdivision (a), are liable to that governmental agency to the extent of the reasonable costs actually incurred in cleaning up the waste, abating the effects of the waste, supervising cleanup or abatement activities, or taking other remedial action. The amount of the costs is recoverable in a civil action by, and paid to, the governmental agency and the state board to the extent of the latter’s contribution to the cleanup costs from the State Water Pollution Cleanup and Abatement Account or other available funds.

(2) The amount of the costs constitutes a lien on the affected property upon service of a copy of the notice of lien on the owner and upon the recordation of a notice of lien, that identifies the property on which the condition was abated, the amount of the lien, and the owner of record of the property, in the office of the county recorder of the county in which the property is located. Upon recordation, the lien has the same force, effect, and priority as a judgment lien, except that it attaches only to the property posted and described in the notice of lien, and shall continue for 10 years from the time of the recording of the notice, unless sooner released or otherwise discharged. No later than 45 days after receiving a notice of lien, the owner may petition the court for an order releasing the property from the lien or reducing the amount of the lien. In this court action, the governmental agency that incurred the cleanup costs shall establish that the costs were reasonable and necessary. The lien may be foreclosed by an action brought by the state board on behalf of the regional board for a money judgment. Moneys recovered by a judgment in favor of the state board shall be deposited in the State Water Pollution Cleanup and Abatement Account.

(d) If, despite reasonable efforts by the regional board to identify the person responsible for the discharge of waste or the condition of pollution or nuisance, the person is not identified at the time cleanup, abatement, or remedial work is required to be performed, the regional board is not required to issue an order under this section.

(e) “Threaten,” for purposes of this section, means a condition creating a substantial probability of harm, when the probability and potential extent of harm make it reasonably necessary to take immediate action to prevent, reduce, or mitigate damages to persons, property, or natural resources.

(f) Replacement water provided pursuant to subdivision (a) shall meet all applicable federal, state, and local drinking water standards, and shall have comparable quality to that pumped by the public water system or private well owner before the discharge of waste.

(g) (1) A public water supplier or private well owner receiving replacement water by reason of an order issued pursuant to subdivision (a), or a person or entity who is ordered to provide replacement water pursuant to subdivision (a), may request nonbinding mediation of all replacement water claims.

(2) If requested, the public water suppliers receiving the replacement water and the persons or entities ordered to provide the replacement water, within 30 days of the submittal of a water replacement plan, shall engage in at least one confidential settlement discussion before a mutually acceptable mediator.

(3) Any agreement between parties regarding replacement water claims resulting from participation in the nonbinding mediation process shall be consistent with the requirements of any cleanup and abatement order.

(4) A regional board or the state board is not required to participate in any nonbinding mediation requested pursuant to paragraph (1).

(5) The party or parties requesting the mediation shall pay for the costs of the mediation.

(h) As part of a cleanup and abatement order that requires the provision of replacement water, a regional board or the state board shall request a water replacement plan from the discharger in cases where replacement water is to be provided for more than 30 days. The water replacement plan is subject to the approval of the regional board or the state board before its implementation.

(i) A “water replacement plan” means a plan pursuant to which the discharger will provide replacement water in accordance with a cleanup and abatement order.

(j) This section does not impose any new liability for acts occurring before January 1, 1981, if the acts were not in violation of existing laws or regulations at the time they occurred.

(k) Nothing in this section limits the authority of a state agency under any other law or regulation to enforce or administer any cleanup or abatement activity.

(l) The Legislature declares that the amendments made to subdivision (a) by Chapter 614 of the Statutes of 2003 do not constitute a change in, but are declaratory of, existing law.

(m) Paragraph (5) of subdivision (b) shall apply to a claim presented pursuant to Part 3 (commencing with Section 900) of Division 3.6 of Title 1 of the Government Code on or after January 1, 2015, or, if no claim is presented pursuant to those provisions, to a cause of action in a civil complaint or writ petition filed on or after January 1, 2015.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 739, Sec. 1. (AB 2442) Effective January 1, 2015.)

13304.1.
  

(a) A groundwater cleanup system that commences operation on or after January 1, 2002, and that is required to obtain a discharge permit from the regional board pursuant to the regional board’s jurisdiction, and that discharges treated groundwater to surface water or groundwater, shall treat the groundwater to standards approved by the regional board, consistent with this division and taking into account the beneficial uses of the receiving water and the location of the discharge and the method by which the discharge takes place.

(b) In making its determination of the applicable water quality standards to be achieved by the operator of a groundwater cleanup system that commences operation on or after January 1, 2002, that draws groundwater from an aquifer that is currently being used, or has been used at any time since 1979 as a source of drinking water supply by the owner or operator of a public water system, and that discharges treated groundwater to surface water or groundwater from which a public water system draws drinking water, the regional board shall consult with the affected groundwater management entity, if any, affected public water systems, and the state board to ensure that the discharge, spreading, or injection of the treated groundwater will not adversely affect the beneficial uses of any groundwater basin or surface water body that is or may be used by a public water system for the provision of drinking water.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 673, Sec. 28. (AB 1531) Effective January 1, 2016.)

13304.2.
  

(a) For purposes of this section, “brownfield site” means a real estate parcel or improvements located on the parcel, or both that parcel and the improvements, that is abandoned, idled, or underused, due to environmental contamination and that is proposed to be redeveloped.

(b) The state board or a regional board may require a person conducting cleanup, abatement, or other remedial action pursuant to Section 13304 for a brownfield site to assess the potential human health or ecological risks caused or created by the discharge, using human health and environmental screening levels or a site-specific assessment of risks.

(c) In conducting a site-specific assessment of human health or ecological risks, the discharger shall address all of the following factors to the extent relevant based on site-specific conditions:

(1) An evaluation of risks posed by acutely toxic hazardous substances.

(2) An evaluation of risks posed by carcinogenic or other hazardous substances that may cause chronic disease.

(3) Consideration of possible synergistic effects resulting from exposure to, or interaction with, two or more hazardous substances.

(4) Consideration of the effect of hazardous substances upon subgroups that comprise a meaningful portion of the general population, including, but not limited to, infants, children, pregnant women, or other subpopulations that are identifiable as being at greater risk than the general population of adverse health effects due to exposure to hazardous substances.

(5) Consideration of exposure level and body burden level that alter physiological function or structure in a manner that may significantly increase the risk of illness and of exposure to hazardous substances in all media, including, but not limited to, exposures in drinking water, food, ambient and indoor air, or soil.

(6) The development of reasonable maximum estimates of exposure for both current land use conditions and reasonably foreseeable future land uses at the site.

(7) The development of reasonable maximum estimates of exposure to volatile organic compounds that may enter structures that are on the site or that are proposed to be constructed on the site and that may cause exposure due to accumulation of these volatile organic compounds in the indoor air of those structures.

(d) The state board or a regional board may document its decision to require a site-specific assessment of human health or ecological risks in a letter issued to the discharger pursuant to Section 13267, through amendment of the cleanup and abatement order issued pursuant to Section 13304, or through other written means that the board deems appropriate.

(e) (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), this section applies only to an order issued by the state board or a regional board issued pursuant to Section 13304 on or after January 1, 2008.

(2) The state board or a regional board may require a site-specific assessment of human health or ecological risks at a brownfield site that is subject to an order issued before January 1, 2008, only if the state board or a regional board makes a determination that site-specific circumstances demonstrate the need for that assessment. A site-specific assessment pursuant to this paragraph shall be done in accordance with the authority granted to the state board or a regional board pursuant to this division, as it read on December 31, 2007.

(Added by Stats. 2007, Ch. 597, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2008.)

13305.
  

(a) Upon determining that a condition of pollution or nuisance exists that has resulted from a nonoperating industrial or business location within its region, a regional board may cause notice of the condition to be posted upon the property in question. The notice shall state that the condition constitutes either a condition of pollution or nuisance that is required to be abated by correction of the condition, or a condition that will be corrected by the city, county, other public agency, or regional board at the property owner’s expense. The notice shall further state that all property owners having any objections to the proposed correction of the condition may attend a hearing to be held by the regional board at a time not less than 10 days from the posting of the notice.

(b) Notice of the hearing prescribed in this section shall be given in the county where the property is located pursuant to Section 6061 of the Government Code.

(c) In addition to posting and publication, notice as required in this section shall be mailed to the property owners as their names and addresses appear from the last equalized assessment roll.

(d) At the time stated in the notices, the regional board shall hear and consider all objections or protests, if any, to the proposed correction of the condition, and may continue the hearing from time to time.

(e) (1) After final action is taken by the regional board on the disposition of any protests or objections, or if no protests or objections are received, the regional board shall request the city, county, or other public agency in which the condition of pollution or nuisance exists to abate the condition or nuisance.

(2) If the city, county, or other public agency does not abate the condition within a reasonable time, the regional board shall cause the condition to be abated. The regional board may proceed by force account, contract or other agreement, or any other method deemed most expedient by the regional board, and shall apply to the state board for the necessary funds.

(3) The regional board shall be permitted reasonable access to the affected property as necessary to perform any cleanup, abatement, or other remedial work. Access shall be obtained with the consent of the owner or possessor of the property, or, if the consent is withheld, with a warrant duly issued pursuant to the procedure described in Title 13 (commencing with Section 1822.50) of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure. However, in the event of an emergency affecting public health or safety, the regional board may enter the property without consent or the issuance of a warrant.

(f) The owner of the property on which the condition exists, or is created, is liable for all reasonable costs incurred by the regional board or any city, county, or public agency in abating the condition. The amount of the cost for abating the condition upon the property in question constitutes a lien upon the property so posted upon the recordation of a notice of lien, which identifies the property on which the condition was abated, the amount the lien, and the owner of record of the property, in the office of the county recorder of the county in which the property is located. Upon recordation, the lien has the same force, effect, and priority as a judgment lien, except that it attaches only to the property so posted and described in the notice of lien, and shall continue for 10 years from the time of the recording of the notice unless sooner released or otherwise discharged. The lien may be foreclosed by an action brought by the city, county, other public agency, or state board, on behalf of the regional board, for a money judgment. Money recovered by a judgment in favor of the state board shall be returned to the State Water Pollution Cleanup and Abatement Account.

(g) The city, county, other public agency, or state board on behalf of a regional board, may, at any time, release all, or any portion, of the property subject to a lien imposed pursuant to subdivision (f) from the lien or subordinate the lien to other liens and encumbrances if it determines that the amount owed is sufficiently secured by a lien on other property or that the release or subordination of the lien will not jeopardize the collection of the amount owed. A certificate by the state board, city, county, or other public agency to the effect that any property has been released from the lien or that the lien has been subordinated to other liens and encumbrances is conclusive evidence that the property has been released or that the lien has been subordinated as provided in the certificate.

(h) As used in this section, the words “nonoperating” or “not in operation” mean the business is not conducting routine operations usually associated with that kind of business.

(i) Nothing in this section limits the authority of any state agency under any other law or regulation to enforce or administer any cleanup or abatement activity.

(Amended by Stats. 2005, Ch. 22, Sec. 210. Effective January 1, 2006.)

13306.
  

A majority vote of the entire membership of a regional board shall be required to adopt, rescind, or modify any enforcement action authorized by Section 13301.

(Added by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1165.)

13307.
  

(a) The state board and the Department of Toxic Substances Control shall concurrently establish policies and procedures consistent with this division that the state board’s representatives and the representatives of regional boards shall follow in overseeing and supervising the activities of persons who are carrying out the investigation of, and cleaning up or abating the effects of, a discharge of a hazardous substance which creates, or threatens to create, a condition of contamination, pollution, or nuisance. The policies and procedures shall be consistent with the policies and procedures established pursuant to Section 25355.7 of the Health and Safety Code and shall include, but are not limited to, all of the following:

(1) The procedures the state board and the regional boards will follow in making decisions as to when a person may be required to undertake an investigation to determine if an unauthorized hazardous substance discharge has occurred.

(2) Policies for carrying out a phased, step-by-step investigation to determine the nature and extent of possible soil and groundwater contamination or pollution at a site.

(3) Procedures for identifying and utilizing the most cost-effective methods for detecting contamination or pollution and cleaning up or abating the effects of contamination or pollution.

(4) Policies for determining reasonable schedules for investigation and cleanup, abatement, or other remedial action at a site. The policies shall recognize the dangers to public health and the waters of the state posed by an unauthorized discharge and the need to mitigate those dangers while at the same time taking into account, to the extent possible, the resources, both financial and technical, available to the person responsible for the discharge.

(b) The state board and the Department of Toxic Substances Control shall jointly review the policies and procedures that were established pursuant to this section and Section 25355.7 of the Health and Safety Code prior to the enactment of this subdivision and shall concurrently revise those policies and procedures as necessary to make them as consistent as possible. Where they cannot be made consistent because of the differing requirements of this chapter and Chapter 6.8 (commencing with Section 25300) of Division 20 of the Health and Safety Code, the state board and the Department of Toxic Substances Control shall, by July 1, 1994, jointly develop, and send to the Legislature, recommendations for revising this chapter and Chapter 6.8 (commencing with Section 25300) of Division 20 of the Health and Safety Code in order to make consistent the hazardous substance release cleanup policies and procedures followed by the state board, the Department of Toxic Substances Control, and the regional boards.

(Amended by Stats. 1993, Ch. 523, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1994.)

13307.1.
  

(a) The state board and the regional boards shall not consider cleanup or site closure proposals from the primary or active responsible discharger, issue a closure letter, or make a determination that no further action is required with respect to a site subject to a cleanup or abatement order pursuant to Section 13304, unless all current record owners of fee title to the site of the proposed action have been notified of the proposed action by the state board or regional board.

(b) The state board and regional boards shall take all reasonable steps necessary to accommodate responsible landowner participation in the cleanup or site closure process and shall consider all input and recommendations from any responsible landowner wishing to participate.

(c) In addition to the requirements of subdivision (a), if the state board or the regional board finds that the property is not suitable for unrestricted use and that a land use restriction is necessary for the protection of public health, safety, or the environment, then the state board and the regional boards may not issue a closure letter, or make a determination that no further action is required, with respect to a site that is subject to a cleanup or abatement order pursuant to Section 13304 and that is not an underground storage tank site, unless a land use restriction is recorded or required to be recorded pursuant to Section 1471 of the Civil Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2003, Ch. 62, Sec. 313. Effective January 1, 2004.)

13307.5.
  

(a) The regional board shall take all of the following actions when reviewing or approving a cleanup proposal from a primary or active responsible discharger with respect to a site issued a cleanup and abatement order pursuant to Section 13304:

(1) Provide to all of the following, notification, in a factsheet format or another appropriate format, in English and any other languages commonly spoken in the area, as appropriate, of the proposed decision to approve the cleanup proposal for the site, including a contact list of appropriate regional board staff:

(A) An affected or potentially affected property owner, resident, or occupant in the area of the site.

(B) An appropriate governmental entity, including a local governmental entity with jurisdiction over the site.

(2) Provide timely access to written material, including reports and plans, addenda, and other supporting documentation, including materials listed as references, at the regional board’s office and at a local repository in the area of the site, and, to the maximum extent possible, by posting on the Internet and acting in accordance with subdivision (a) of Section 13196.

(3) Provide no less than 30 days for an interested person to review and comment on the cleanup proposal regarding the site. The regional board shall consider any comments received before taking final action on a cleanup proposal regarding the site.

(4) Conduct a public meeting in the area of the site during the public comment period pursuant to paragraph (3), if any of the following conditions applies:

(A) A public meeting is requested by an affected or potentially affected property owner, resident, or occupant, in the area of the site.

(B) The level of expressed public interest warrants the conduct of a public meeting.

(C) A public meeting is specifically mandated by statute.

(D) The regional board determines that the existing site contamination poses a significant public health threat.

(b) In undertaking the requirements of this section, a regional board shall, to the extent possible, coordinate and integrate the public participation activities described in this section with those undertaken by the host jurisdiction and other public entities associated with development, investigation, or the response action at the site, in order to avoid unnecessary duplication and to integrate the public participation efforts of local government.

(c) For purposes of this section, “site” has the same meaning as defined in Section 25395.79.2 of the Health and Safety Code.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 562, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2007.)

13307.6.
  

(a) In addition to the requirements of Section 13307.5, the regional board may develop and use any of the following procedures to disseminate information and assist the regional board in gathering community input regarding a site, if the regional board determines there is expressed community interest in the site, or the existing site contamination poses a significant public health threat:

(1) An annual factsheet.

(2) Internet posting or electronic distribution of an electronic copy of a document or report.

(3) An electronic comment or electronic feedback form.

(4) Formation and facilitation of an advisory group.

(5) An additional public meeting or workshop.

(6) Extension of a public comment period.

(7) Preparation of a public participation plan.

(8) Creation of a mailing list for notifying an interested party of a major regional board decision and the regional board’s proposed or planned activity regarding the site.

(b) For purposes of this section, “site” has the same meaning as defined in Section 25395.79.2 of the Health and Safety Code.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 562, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 2007.)

13308.
  

(a) If the regional board determines there is a threatened or continuing violation of any cleanup or abatement order, cease and desist order, or any order issued under Section 13267 or 13383, the regional board may issue an order establishing a time schedule and prescribing a civil penalty which shall become due if compliance is not achieved in accordance with that time schedule.

(b) The amount of the civil penalty shall be based upon the amount reasonably necessary to achieve compliance, and may not include any amount intended to punish or redress previous violations. The amount of the penalty may not exceed ten thousand dollars ($10,000) for each day in which the violation occurs.

(c) Any person who fails to achieve compliance in accordance with the schedule established in an order issued pursuant to subdivision (a) shall be liable civilly in an amount not to exceed the amount prescribed by the order. The regional board may impose the penalty administratively in accordance with Article 2.5 (commencing with Section 13323). If the regional board imposes the penalty in an amount less than the amount prescribed in the order issued pursuant to subdivision (a), the regional board shall make express findings setting forth the reasons for its action based on the specific factors required to be considered pursuant to Section 13327.

(d) The state board may exercise the powers of a regional board under this section if the violation or threatened violation involves requirements prescribed by an order issued by the state board.

(e) Funds collected pursuant to this section shall be deposited in the State Water Pollution Cleanup and Abatement Account.

(f) Civil liability may be imposed pursuant to this section only if civil liability is not imposed pursuant to Section 13261, 13265, 13268, 13350, or 13385.

(Added by Stats. 1994, Ch. 45, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 1995.)

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