Code Section Group

Vehicle Code - VEH

DIVISION 11. RULES OF THE ROAD [21000 - 23336]

  ( Division 11 enacted by Stats. 1959, Ch. 3. )

CHAPTER 9. Stopping, Standing, and Parking [22500 - 22526]
  ( Chapter 9 enacted by Stats. 1959, Ch. 3. )

22500.
  

A person shall not stop, park, or leave standing any vehicle whether attended or unattended, except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with the directions of a peace officer or official traffic control device, in any of the following places:

(a) Within an intersection, except adjacent to curbs as may be permitted by local ordinance.

(b) On a crosswalk, except that a bus engaged as a common carrier or a taxicab may stop in an unmarked crosswalk to load or unload passengers when authorized by the legislative body of a city pursuant to an ordinance.

(c) Between a safety zone and the adjacent right-hand curb or within the area between the zone and the curb as may be indicated by a sign or red paint on the curb, which sign or paint was erected or placed by local authorities pursuant to an ordinance.

(d) Within 15 feet of the driveway entrance to a fire station. This subdivision does not apply to any vehicle owned or operated by a fire department and clearly marked as a fire department vehicle.

(e) (1) In front of a public or private driveway, except that a bus engaged as a common carrier, schoolbus, or a taxicab may stop to load or unload passengers when authorized by local authorities pursuant to an ordinance.

(2) In unincorporated territory, where the entrance of a private road or driveway is not delineated by an opening in a curb or by other curb construction, so much of the surface of the ground as is paved, surfaced, or otherwise plainly marked by vehicle use as a private road or driveway entrance, shall constitute a driveway.

(f) On a portion of a sidewalk, or with the body of the vehicle extending over a portion of a sidewalk, except electric carts when authorized by local ordinance, as specified in Section 21114.5. Lights, mirrors, or devices that are required to be mounted upon a vehicle under this code may extend from the body of the vehicle over the sidewalk to a distance of not more than 10 inches.

(g) Alongside or opposite a street or highway excavation or obstruction when stopping, standing, or parking would obstruct traffic.

(h) On the roadway side of a vehicle stopped, parked, or standing at the curb or edge of a highway, except for a schoolbus when stopped to load or unload pupils in a business or residence district where the speed limit is 25 miles per hour or less.

(i) Except as provided under Section 22500.5, alongside curb space authorized for the loading and unloading of passengers of a bus engaged as a common carrier in local transportation when indicated by a sign or red paint on the curb erected or painted by local authorities pursuant to an ordinance.

(j) In a tube or tunnel, except vehicles of the authorities in charge, being used in the repair, maintenance, or inspection of the facility.

(k) Upon a bridge, except vehicles of the authorities in charge, being used in the repair, maintenance, or inspection of the facility, and except that buses engaged as a common carrier in local transportation may stop to load or unload passengers upon a bridge where sidewalks are provided, when authorized by local authorities pursuant to an ordinance, and except that local authorities pursuant to an ordinance or the Department of Transportation pursuant to an order, within their respective jurisdictions, may permit parking on bridges having sidewalks and shoulders of sufficient width to permit parking without interfering with the normal movement of traffic on the roadway. Local authorities, by ordinance or resolution, may permit parking on these bridges on state highways in their respective jurisdictions if the ordinance or resolution is first approved in writing by the Department of Transportation. Parking shall not be permitted unless there are signs in place, as may be necessary, to indicate the provisions of local ordinances or the order of the Department of Transportation.

(l) In front of or upon that portion of a curb that has been cut down, lowered, or constructed to provide wheelchair accessibility to the sidewalk.

(m) In a portion of a highway that has been designated for the exclusive use of public transit buses.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 716, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2017.)

22500.1.
  

In addition to Section 22500, no person shall stop, park, or leave standing any vehicle, whether attended or unattended, except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with the directions of a peace officer or official traffic control device along the edge of any highway, at any curb, or in any location in a publicly or privately owned or operated off-street parking facility, designated as a fire lane by the fire department or fire district with jurisdiction over the area in which the place is located.

The designation shall be indicated (1) by a sign posted immediately adjacent to, and visible from, the designated place clearly stating in letters not less than one inch in height that the place is a fire lane, (2) by outlining or painting the place in red and, in contrasting color, marking the place with the words “FIRE LANE”, which are clearly visible from a vehicle, or (3) by a red curb or red paint on the edge of the roadway upon which is clearly marked the words “FIRE LANE”.

(Amended by Stats. 1984, Ch. 129, Sec. 1. Effective May 21, 1984.)

22500.2.
  

(a) A local authority may, by ordinance, prohibit a person from stopping, parking, or leaving standing a vehicle, whether attended or unattended, except if necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with the directions of a peace officer or official traffic control device, within 15 feet of a driveway that is used by an emergency vehicle owned or operated by a police department, ambulance service care provider, or general acute care hospital, to enter or exit a police station, ambulance service provider facility, or general acute care hospital. This section does not apply to any vehicle owned or operated by a fire department, police department, ambulance service provider, or general acute care hospital, if the vehicle is clearly marked as a fire department vehicle, police department vehicle, ambulance, or general acute care hospital vehicle.

(b) A local authority that enacts an ordinance pursuant to subdivision (a) shall provide appropriate curb markings or “KEEP CLEAR” pavement markings and post signs that delineate the area specified in subdivision (a).

(Added by Stats. 2016, Ch. 358, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2017.)

22500.5.
  

Upon agreement between a transit system operating buses engaged as common carriers in local transportation and a public school district or private school, local authorities may, by ordinance, permit schoolbuses owned by, or operated under contract for, that public school district or private school to stop for the loading or unloading of passengers alongside any or all curb spaces designated for the loading or unloading of passengers of the transit system buses.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 769, Sec. 36. Effective January 1, 2013.)

22501.
  

No ordinance enacted by local authorities pursuant to subdivisions (e) and (k) of Section 22500 or Section 22507.2 shall become effective as to any state highway without prior submission to and approval by the Department of Transportation in the same manner as required by Section 21104. Nothing contained in this section and Section 22500 shall be construed as authorizing local authorities to enact legislation which is contrary to the provisions of Sections 22512 and 25301.

(Amended by Stats. 1980, Ch. 158, Sec. 1. Effective June 11, 1980.)

22502.
  

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a vehicle stopped or parked upon a roadway with adjacent curbs or class IV bikeways, as defined in Section 890.4 of the Streets and Highways Code, shall be stopped or parked with the right-hand wheels of the vehicle parallel to, and within 18 inches of, the right-hand curb or the right-hand edge of the class IV bikeway, except that a motorcycle shall be parked with at least one wheel or fender touching the right-hand curb or edge. If no curbs, barriers, or class IV bikeways bound a two-way roadway, right-hand parallel parking is required unless otherwise indicated.

(b) (1) The provisions of subdivision (a) or (e) do not apply to a commercial vehicle if a variation from the requirements of subdivision (a) or (e) is reasonably necessary to accomplish the loading or unloading of merchandise or passengers on, or from, a vehicle and while anything connected with the loading, or unloading, is being executed.

(2) This subdivision does not permit a vehicle to stop or park upon a roadway in a direction opposite to that in which traffic normally moves.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (b), a local authority may, by ordinance, prohibit a commercial vehicle from stopping, parking, or standing on one side of a roadway in a business district with the wheels of the vehicle more than 18 inches from the curb or the edge of a class IV bikeway. The ordinance shall be effective only if signs are placed clearly indicating the prohibition in the areas to which it applies.

(d) This section does not apply to vehicles of a public utility when the vehicles are being used in connection with the operation, maintenance, or repair of facilities of the public utility or are being used in connection with providing public utility service.

(e) (1) Upon a one-way roadway, a vehicle may be stopped or parked as provided in subdivision (a) or with the left-hand wheels parallel to, and within 18 inches of, the left-hand curb or left-hand edge of a class IV bikeway, except that a motorcycle, if parked on the left-hand side, shall have either one wheel or one fender touching the curb or edge. If no curb, barriers, or class IV bikeway bound a one-way roadway, parallel parking on either side is required unless otherwise indicated.

(2) This subdivision does not apply upon a roadway of a divided highway.

(f) (1) The City of Long Beach may, by ordinance or resolution, implement a pilot program to authorize vehicles to park on the left-hand side of the roadway parallel to and within 18 inches of the left-hand curb on two-way local residential streets that dead-end with no cul-de-sac or other designated area in which to turn around, if the City of Long Beach has first made a finding, supported by a professional engineering study, that the ordinance or resolution is justified by the need to facilitate the safe and orderly movement of vehicles on the roadways affected by the resolution or ordinance. The area covered by the ordinance or resolution shall be limited to the streets perpendicular to Ocean Boulevard beginning at Balboa Place and ending at 72nd Place, but shall not cover 62nd Place. The ordinance or resolution permitting that parking shall not apply until signs or markings giving adequate notice have been placed near the designated roadways. The city shall submit to the Legislature, two years from the date of the enactment of the ordinance or resolution that establishes the pilot program, a report that outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the pilot program. The report submitted pursuant to this subdivision shall be submitted in compliance with Section 9795 of the Government Code.

(2) The pilot program authorized under this subdivision shall terminate, and this subdivision shall become inoperative, three years from the date of enactment of the ordinance or resolution that establishes the pilot program.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 208, Sec. 16. Effective January 1, 2017.)

22503.
  

Local authorities may by ordinance permit angle parking on any roadway, or left-hand parking upon one-way roadways of divided highways, except that no ordinance is effective with respect to any state highway until the proposed ordinance has been submitted to and approved in writing by the Department of Transportation.

(Amended by Stats. 1974, Ch. 545.)

22503.5.
  

Notwithstanding any other provision of this code, any local authority may, by ordinance or resolution, establish special parking regulations for two-wheeled or three-wheeled motor vehicles.

(Amended by Stats. 1972, Ch. 1095.)

22504.
  

(a) Upon any highway in unincorporated areas, a person shall not stop, park, or leave standing any vehicle, whether attended or unattended, upon the roadway when it is practicable to stop, park, or leave the vehicle off such portion of the highway, but in every event an unobstructed width of the highway opposite a standing vehicle shall be left for the free passage of other vehicles and a clear view of the stopped vehicle shall be available from a distance of 200 feet in each direction upon the highway. This section shall not apply upon a highway where the roadway is bounded by adjacent curbs.

(b) This section does not apply to the driver of any vehicle which is disabled in such a manner and to such extent that it is impossible to avoid stopping and temporarily leaving the disabled vehicle on the roadway.

(c) (1) A schoolbus stop shall not be designated where there is not a clear view of a proposed or existing schoolbus stop from a distance of 200 feet in each direction along a highway, or upon the main traveled portion of a highway where there is not a clear view of the stop from 500 feet in each direction along the highway and the speed limit is more than 25 miles per hour, unless approved by the Department of the California Highway Patrol upon the request of the school district superintendent or the head or principal of a private school. If the schoolbus stop is approved by the Department of the California Highway Patrol, the Department of Transportation, in respect to state highways, and local authorities, in respect to highways under their jurisdiction, shall place sufficient signs along the highway to give adequate notice to motorists that they are approaching such bus stops.

(2) A school bus stop shall not be designated on any divided or multiple-lane highway where pupils must cross the highway to board or after exiting the bus, unless traffic is controlled by a traffic officer or official traffic control signal. For purposes of this section, a multiple-lane highway is defined as any highway having two or more lanes of travel in each direction.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 769, Sec. 37. Effective January 1, 2013.)

22505.
  

(a) The Department of Transportation with respect to highways under its jurisdiction may place signs or markings prohibiting or restricting the stopping, standing, or parking of vehicles, including, but not limited to, vehicles which are six feet or more in height (including any load thereon), in any of the following areas and under the following conditions:

(1) In areas where, in its opinion, stopping, standing, or parking is dangerous to those using the highway or where the stopping, standing, or parking of vehicles would unduly interfere with the free movement of traffic thereon.

(2) In areas within one-half mile of the boundary of any unit of the state park system which the Director of Conservation has determined are unusually high fire hazard areas, upon notification of the Department of Transportation of such determination by the Director of Conservation.

(3) In areas within one-half mile of the boundary of any unit of the state park system which the county health officer has determined are areas where a substantial public health hazard would result if camping were allowed, upon notification of the Department of Transportation of such determination by the county health officer.

(b) No person shall stop, park, or leave standing any vehicle in violation of the restrictions stated on the signs or markings.

(c) This section does not apply to any of the following:

(1) Public utility vehicles while performing a work operation.

(2) The driver of any vehicle which is disabled in such a manner and to such an extent that it is impossible to avoid stopping, parking, or leaving the disabled vehicle standing on the roadway.

(Amended by Stats. 1987, Ch. 455, Sec. 2.)

22506.
  

Local authorities may by ordinance or resolution prohibit or restrict the stopping, standing, or parking of vehicles on a state highway, in their respective jurisdictions, if the ordinance or resolution is first submitted to and approved in writing by the Department of Transportation, except that where maintenance of any state highway is delegated by the Department of Transportation to a city, the department may also delegate to the city the powers conferred on the department.

(Amended by Stats. 1987, Ch. 455, Sec. 3.)

22507.
  

(a) Local authorities may, by ordinance or resolution, prohibit or restrict the stopping, parking, or standing of vehicles, including, but not limited to, vehicles that are six feet or more in height (including any load thereon) within 100 feet of any intersection, on certain streets or highways, or portions thereof, during all or certain hours of the day. The ordinance or resolution may include a designation of certain streets upon which preferential parking privileges are given to residents and merchants adjacent to the streets for their use and the use of their guests, under which the residents and merchants may be issued a permit or permits that exempt them from the prohibition or restriction of the ordinance or resolution. With the exception of alleys, the ordinance or resolution shall not apply until signs or markings giving adequate notice thereof have been placed. A local ordinance or resolution adopted pursuant to this section may contain provisions that are reasonable and necessary to ensure the effectiveness of a preferential parking program.

(b) An ordinance or resolution adopted under this section may also authorize preferential parking permits for members of organizations, professions, or other designated groups, including, but not limited to, school personnel, to park on specified streets if the local authority determines that the use of the permits will not adversely affect parking conditions for residents and merchants in the area.

(Amended by Stats. 2001, Ch. 223, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2002.)

22507.1.
  

(a) A local authority may, by ordinance or resolution, designate certain streets or portions of streets for the exclusive or nonexclusive parking privilege of motor vehicles participating in a car share vehicle program or ridesharing program. The ordinance or resolution shall establish the criteria for a public or private company or organization to participate in the program, and may limit the types of motor vehicles that may be included in the program. Under the car share vehicle program, a car share vehicle or ridesharing vehicle shall be assigned a permit, if necessary, by the local authority that allows that vehicle to park in the exclusive or nonexclusive designated parking areas.

(b) If exclusive parking privilege is authorized, the ordinance or resolution described in subdivision (a) does not apply until signs or markings giving adequate notice thereof have been placed.

(c) A local ordinance or resolution adopted pursuant to subdivision (a) may contain provisions that are reasonable and necessary to ensure the effectiveness of a car share vehicle program or ridesharing program.

(d) For purposes of this section, a “car share vehicle” is a motor vehicle that is operated as part of a regional fleet by a public or private car sharing company or organization and provides hourly or daily service.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 86, Sec. 303. Effective January 1, 2017.)

22507.2.
  

Notwithstanding subdivision (e) of Section 22500, a local authority may, by ordinance, authorize the owner or lessee of property to park a vehicle in front of the owner’s or lessee’s private driveway when the vehicle displays a permit issued pursuant to the ordinance authorizing such parking.

The local authority may charge a nonrefundable fee to defray the costs of issuing and administering the permits.

A local ordinance adopted pursuant to this section may not authorize parking on a sidewalk in violation of subdivision (f) of Section 22500.

(Amended by Stats. 1985, Ch. 45, Sec. 1.)

22507.5.
  

(a) Notwithstanding Section 22507, local authorities may, by ordinance or resolution, prohibit or restrict the parking or standing of vehicles on certain streets or highways, or portions thereof, between the hours of 2 a.m. and 6 a.m., and may, by ordinance or resolution, prohibit or restrict the parking or standing, on any street, or portion thereof, in a residential district, of commercial vehicles having a manufacturer’s gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or more. The ordinance or resolution relating to parking between the hours of 2 a.m. and 6 a.m. may provide for a system of permits for the purpose of exempting from the prohibition or restriction of the ordinance or resolution, disabled persons, residents, and guests of residents of residential areas, including, but not limited to, high-density and multiple-family dwelling areas, lacking adequate offstreet parking facilities. The ordinance or resolution relating to the parking or standing of commercial vehicles in a residential district, however, shall not be effective with respect to any commercial vehicle, or trailer component thereof, making pickups or deliveries of goods, wares, and merchandise from or to any building or structure located on the restricted streets or highways or for the purpose of delivering materials to be used in the actual and bona fide repair, alteration, remodeling, or construction of any building or structure upon the restricted streets or highways for which a building permit has previously been obtained.

(b) Subdivision (a) of this section is applicable to vehicles specified in subdivision (a) of Section 31303, except that an ordinance or resolution adopted pursuant to subdivision (a) of this section shall not permit the parking of those vehicles which is otherwise prohibited under this code.

(c) For the purpose of implementing this section, each local authority may, by ordinance, define the term “residential district” in accordance with its zoning ordinance. The ordinance is not effective unless the legislative body of the local authority holds a public hearing on the proposed ordinance prior to its adoption, with notice of the public hearing given in accordance with Section 65090 of the Government Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2004, Ch. 518, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2005.)

22507.6.
  

Local authorities may, by ordinance or resolution, prohibit or restrict the parking or standing of vehicles on designated streets or highways, or portions thereof, for the purpose of street sweeping. No ordinance or resolution relating to the parking or standing of commercial vehicles in a residential district shall be effective with respect to any commercial vehicle making pickups or deliveries of goods, wares, or merchandise from or to any building or structure located on the restricted street or highway, or for the purpose of delivering materials to be used in the repair, alteration, remodeling, or reconstruction of any building or structure for which a building permit has previously been obtained. No such ordinance or resolution shall be effective until the street or highway, or portion thereof, has been sign-posted in accordance with the uniform standards and specifications of the Department of Transportation, or local authorities have caused to be posted in a conspicuous place at each entrance to the street a notice not less than 17 inches by 22 inches in size, with lettering not less than one inch in height, setting forth the day or days and hours parking is prohibited. As used in this section, “entrance” means the intersection of any street or streets comprising an area of restricted parking for street-sweeping purposes on the same day or days and hours with another street or highway not subject to such a parking restriction, or subject to parking restrictions on different days and hours.

(Amended by Stats. 1982, Ch. 466, Sec. 115.)

22507.8.
  

(a) It is unlawful for any person to park or leave standing any vehicle in a stall or space designated for disabled persons and disabled veterans pursuant to Section 22511.7 or 22511.8 of this code or Section 14679 of the Government Code, unless the vehicle displays either a special identification license plate issued pursuant to Section 5007 or a distinguishing placard issued pursuant to Section 22511.55 or 22511.59.

(b) It is unlawful for any person to obstruct, block, or otherwise bar access to those parking stalls or spaces except as provided in subdivision (a).

(c) It is unlawful for any person to park or leave standing any vehicle, including a vehicle displaying a special identification license plate issued pursuant to Section 5007 or a distinguishing placard issued pursuant to Section 22511.55 or 22511.59, in either of the following places:

(1) On the lines marking the boundaries of a parking stall or space designated for disabled persons or disabled veterans.

(2) In any area of the pavement adjacent to a parking stall or space designated for disabled persons or disabled veterans that is marked by crosshatched lines and is thereby designated, pursuant to any local ordinance, for the loading and unloading of vehicles parked in the stall or space.

(d) Subdivisions (a), (b), and (c) apply to all offstreet parking facilities owned or operated by the state, and to all offstreet parking facilities owned or operated by a local authority. Subdivisions (a), (b), and (c) also apply to any privately owned and maintained offstreet parking facility.

(Amended by Stats. 2009, Ch. 200, Sec. 12. Effective January 1, 2010.)

22507.9.
  

Local authorities may establish a special enforcement unit for the sole purpose of providing adequate enforcement of Section 22507.8 and local ordinances and resolutions adopted pursuant to Section 22511.7.

Local authorities may establish recruitment and employment guidelines that encourage and enable employment of qualified disabled persons in these special enforcement units.

Members of the special enforcement unit may issue notices of parking violation for violations of Section 22507.8 and local ordinances adopted pursuant to Section 22511.7. Members of the special enforcement unit shall not be peace officers and shall not make arrests in the course of their official duties, but shall wear distinctive uniforms and badges while on duty. A two-way radio unit, which may utilize police frequencies or citizens’ band, may be issued by the local authority to each member of the special enforcement unit for use while on duty.

The local authority may pay the cost of uniforms and badges for the special enforcement unit, and may provide daily cleaning of the uniforms. Additionally, the local authority may provide motorized wheelchairs for use by members of the special unit while on duty, including batteries and necessary recharging thereof. Any motorized wheelchair used by a member of the special enforcement unit while on duty shall be equipped with a single headlamp in the front and a single stoplamp in the rear.

Members of the special enforcement unit may be paid an hourly wage without the compensatory benefits provided other permanent and temporary employees, but shall be entitled to applicable workers’ compensation benefits as provided by law. Insurance provided by the local authority for disability or liability of a member of the special enforcement unit shall be the same as for other employees performing similar duties.

Nothing in this section precludes a local authority from using regular full-time employees to enforce this chapter and ordinances adopted pursuant thereto.

This section applies to all counties and cities, including every charter city and city and county.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 124, Sec. 127. Effective January 1, 1997.)

22508.
  

(a) A local authority shall not establish parking meter zones or fix the rate of fees for those zones except by ordinance. The rate of fees may be variable, based upon criteria identified by the local authority in the ordinance. An ordinance establishing a parking meter zone shall describe the area that would be included within the zone.

(b) A local authority may by ordinance cause streets and highways to be marked with white lines designating parking spaces and require vehicles to park within the parking spaces.

(c) An ordinance adopted by a local authority pursuant to this section with respect to any state highway shall not become effective until the proposed ordinance has been submitted to and approved in writing by the Department of Transportation. The proposed ordinance shall be submitted to the department only by action of the local legislative body and the proposed ordinance shall be submitted in complete draft form.

(d) An ordinance adopted pursuant to this section establishing a parking meter zone or fixing rates of fees for that zone shall be subject to local referendum processes in the same manner as if the ordinance dealt with a matter of purely local concern.

(e) A local authority may accept but shall not require payment of parking meter fees by a mobile device.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 70, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2013.)

22508.5.
  

(a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), a vehicle may park, for up to the posted time limit, in any parking space that is regulated by an inoperable parking meter or an inoperable parking payment center.

(b) A local authority may, by ordinance or resolution, prohibit or restrict the parking of vehicles in a parking space regulated by an inoperable parking meter or inoperable parking payment center. An ordinance or resolution adopted by a local authority pursuant to this section shall not become effective until signs or markings giving adequate notice of the restriction or prohibition on parking have been placed at parking locations, parking meters, or parking payment centers.

(c) For purposes of this section:

(1) “Inoperable parking meter” means a meter located next to and designated for an individual parking space, which has become inoperable and cannot accept payment in any form or cannot register that a payment in any form has been made.

(2) “Inoperable parking payment center” means an electronic parking meter or pay station serving one or more parking spaces that is closest to the space where a person has parked and that cannot accept payment in any form, cannot register that a payment in any form has been made, or cannot issue a receipt that is required to be displayed in a conspicuous location on or in the vehicle.

(d) This section shall become inoperative on January 1, 2014, and shall remain inoperative until January 1, 2017.

(Amended (as added by Stats. 2012, Ch. 70) by Stats. 2013, Ch. 71, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2014. This section is inoperative, by its own provisions, from January 1, 2014, until January 1, 2017, during operation of Section 22508.5 as added by Sec. 2 of Ch. 71.)

22509.
  

Local authorities within the reasonable exercise of their police powers may adopt rules and regulations by ordinance or resolution providing that no person driving, or in control of, or in charge of, a motor vehicle shall permit it to stand on any highway unattended when upon any grade exceeding 3 percent within any business or residence district without blocking the wheels of the vehicle by turning them against the curb or by other means.

(Enacted by Stats. 1959, Ch. 3.)

22510.
  

(a) Local authorities may, by ordinance or resolution, prohibit or restrict the parking or standing of vehicles on designated streets or highways within their jurisdiction, or portions thereof, for the purpose of snow removal. The ordinance or resolution shall not be effective until the street or highway, or portion thereof, has been sign-posted in accordance with the uniform standards and specifications of the Department of Transportation, or until the local authorities have caused to be posted in a conspicuous place at each entrance to the street or highway, a notice not less than 17 inches by 22 inches in size, with lettering not less than one inch in height, setting forth the days parking is prohibited. The signs shall, at a minimum, be placed on each affected street or highway, at the boundary of the local authority, and at the beginning and end of each highway or highway segment included in that area. No person shall stop, park, or leave standing any vehicle, whether attended or unattended, within the area marked by signs, except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with the directions of a traffic or peace officer.

(b) No ordinance or resolution authorized by subdivision (a) which affects a state highway shall be effective until it is submitted to, and approved by, the Department of Transportation.

(c) The Department of Transportation, with respect to state highways, may restrict the parking or standing of vehicles for purposes of snow removal. The restrictions shall not be effective until the highway, or portion thereof, has been posted with signs in accordance with the uniform standards and specifications of the department. No person shall stop, park, or leave standing any vehicle, whether attended or unattended, within the area marked by parking restriction signs, except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with the directions of a traffic or peace officer.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1990, Ch. 692, Sec. 3.)

22511.
  

(a) A local authority, by ordinance or resolution, and a person in lawful possession of an offstreet parking facility may designate stalls or spaces in an offstreet parking facility owned or operated by that local authority or person for the exclusive purpose of charging and parking a vehicle that is connected for electric charging purposes.

(b) If posted in accordance with subdivision (d) or (e), the owner or person in lawful possession of a privately owned or operated offstreet parking facility, after notifying the police or sheriff’s department, may cause the removal of a vehicle from a stall or space designated pursuant to subdivision (a) in the facility to the nearest public garage if the vehicle is not connected for electric charging purposes.

(c) If posted in accordance with subdivision (d), the local authority owning or operating an offstreet parking facility, after notifying the police or sheriff’s department, may cause the removal of a vehicle from a stall or space designated pursuant to subdivision (a) in the facility to the nearest garage, as defined in Section 340, that is owned, leased, or approved for use by a public agency if the vehicle is not connected for electric charging purposes.

(d) The posting required for an offstreet parking facility owned or operated either privately or by a local authority shall consist of a sign not less than 17 by 22 inches in size with lettering not less than one inch in height that clearly and conspicuously states the following: “Unauthorized vehicles not connected for electric charging purposes will be towed away at owner’s expense. Towed vehicles may be reclaimed at

or by telephoning

(Address)

.”

(Telephone number of local law enforcement agency)

The sign shall be posted in either of the following locations:

(1) Immediately adjacent to, and visible from, the stall or space.

(2) In a conspicuous place at each entrance to the offstreet parking facility.

(e) If the parking facility is privately owned and public parking is prohibited by the posting of a sign meeting the requirements of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 22658, the requirements of subdivision (b) may be met by the posting of a sign immediately adjacent to, and visible from, each stall or space indicating that a vehicle not meeting the requirements of subdivision (a) will be removed at the owner’s expense and containing the telephone number of the local traffic law enforcement agency.

(f) This section does not interfere with existing law governing the ability of local authorities to adopt ordinances related to parking programs within their jurisdiction, such as programs that provide free parking in metered areas or municipal garages for electric vehicles.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 274, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2012.)

22511.1.
  

(a) A person shall not park or leave standing a vehicle in a stall or space designated pursuant to Section 22511 unless the vehicle is connected for electric charging purposes.

(b) A person shall not obstruct, block, or otherwise bar access to parking stalls or spaces described in subdivision (a) except as provided in subdivision (a).

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 274, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2012.)

22511.3.
  

(a) A veteran displaying special license plates issued under Section 5101.3, 5101.4, 5101.5, 5101.6, or 5101.8 may park his or her motor vehicle, weighing not more than 6,000 pounds gross weight, without charge, in a metered parking space.

(b) Nothing in this section restricts the rights of a person displaying either a special identification license plate issued pursuant to Section 5007 or a distinguishing placard issued pursuant to Section 22511.55 or 22511.59.

(c) (1) This section does not exempt a vehicle displaying special license plates issued under Section 5101.3, 5101.4, 5101.5, 5101.6, or 5101.8 from compliance with any other state law or ordinance, including, but not limited to, vehicle height restrictions, zones that prohibit stopping, parking, or standing of all vehicles, parking time limitations, street sweeping, restrictions of the parking space to a particular type of vehicle, or the parking of a vehicle that is involved in the operation of a street vending business.

(2) This section does not authorize a vehicle displaying special license plates issued under Section 5101.3, 5101.4, 5101.5, 5101.6, or 5101.8 to park in a state parking facility that is designated only for state employees.

(3) This section does not authorize a vehicle displaying special license plates issued under Section 5101.3, 5101.4, 5101.5, 5101.6, or 5101.8 to park during time periods other than the normal business hours of, or the maximum time allotted by, a state or local authority parking facility.

(4) This section does not require the state or a local authority to designate specific parking spaces for vehicles displaying special license plates issued under Section 5101.3, 5101.4, 5101.5, 5101.6, or 5101.8.

(d) A local authority’s compliance with subdivision (a) is solely contingent upon the approval of its governing body.

(Added by Stats. 2008, Ch. 588, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2009.)

22511.5.
  

(a) (1) A disabled person or disabled veteran displaying special license plates issued under Section 5007 or a distinguishing placard issued under Section 22511.55 or 22511.59 is allowed to park for unlimited periods in any of the following zones:

(A) In any restricted zone described in paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 21458 or on streets upon which preferential parking privileges and height limits have been given pursuant to Section 22507.

(B) In any parking zone that is restricted as to the length of time parking is permitted as indicated by a sign erected pursuant to a local ordinance.

(2) A disabled person or disabled veteran is allowed to park in any metered parking space without being required to pay parking meter fees.

(3) This subdivision does not apply to a zone for which state law or ordinance absolutely prohibits stopping, parking, or standing of all vehicles, or which the law or ordinance reserves for special types of vehicles, or to the parking of a vehicle that is involved in the operation of a street vending business.

(b) A disabled person or disabled veteran is allowed to park a motor vehicle displaying a special disabled person license plate or placard issued by a foreign jurisdiction with the same parking privileges authorized in this code for any motor vehicle displaying a special license plate or a distinguishing placard issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 478, Sec. 11. Effective January 1, 2011.)

22511.55.
  

(a) (1) A disabled person or disabled veteran may apply to the department for the issuance of a distinguishing placard. The placard may be used in lieu of the special license plate or plates issued under Section 5007 for parking purposes described in Section 22511.5 when (A) suspended from the rearview mirror, (B) if there is no rearview mirror, when displayed on the dashboard of a vehicle, or (C) inserted in a clip designated for a distinguishing placard and installed by the manufacturer on the driver’s side of the front window. It is the intent of the Legislature to encourage the use of distinguishing placards because they provide law enforcement officers with a more readily recognizable symbol for distinguishing vehicles qualified for the parking privilege. The placard shall be the size, shape, and color determined by the department and shall bear the International Symbol of Access adopted pursuant to Section 3 of Public Law 100-641, commonly known as the “wheelchair symbol.” The department shall incorporate instructions for the lawful use of a placard, and a summary of the penalties for the unlawful use of a placard, into the identification card issued to the placard owner.

(2) (A) The department may establish procedures for the issuance and renewal of the placards. The procedures shall include, but are not limited to, advising an applicant in writing on the application for a placard of the procedure to apply for a special license plate or plates, as described in Section 5007, and the fee exemptions established pursuant to Section 9105 and in subdivision (a) of Section 10783 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. The placards shall have a fixed expiration date of June 30 every two years. A portion of the placard shall be printed in a contrasting color that shall be changed every two years. The size and color of this contrasting portion of the placard shall be large and distinctive enough to be readily identifiable by a law enforcement officer in a passing vehicle.

(B) As used in this section, “year” means the period between the inclusive dates of July 1 through June 30.

(C) Prior to the end of each year, the department shall, for the most current three years available, compare its record of disability placards issued against the records of the Office of Vital Records of the State Department of Public Health, or its successor, and withhold any renewal notices that otherwise would have been sent for a placardholder identified as deceased.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (4), a person shall not be eligible for more than one placard at a time.

(4) Organizations and agencies involved in the transportation of disabled persons or disabled veterans may apply for a placard for each vehicle used for the purpose of transporting disabled persons or disabled veterans.

(b) (1) Except as provided in paragraph (4), prior to issuing an original distinguishing placard to a disabled person or disabled veteran, the department shall require the submission of a certificate, in accordance with paragraph (2), signed by the physician and surgeon, or to the extent that it does not cause a reduction in the receipt of federal aid highway funds, by a nurse practitioner, certified nurse midwife, or physician assistant, substantiating the disability, unless the applicant’s disability is readily observable and uncontested. The disability of a person who has lost, or has lost use of, one or more lower extremities or one hand, for a disabled veteran, or both hands, for a disabled person, or who has significant limitation in the use of lower extremities, may also be certified by a licensed chiropractor. The blindness of an applicant shall be certified by a licensed physician and surgeon who specializes in diseases of the eye or a licensed optometrist. The physician and surgeon, nurse practitioner, certified nurse midwife, physician assistant, chiropractor, or optometrist certifying the qualifying disability shall provide a full description of the illness or disability on the form submitted to the department.

(2) The physician and surgeon, nurse practitioner, certified nurse midwife, physician assistant, chiropractor, or optometrist who signs a certificate submitted under this subdivision shall retain information sufficient to substantiate that certificate and, upon request of the department, shall make that information available for inspection by the Medical Board of California or the appropriate regulatory board.

(3) The department shall maintain in its records all information on an applicant’s certification of permanent disability and shall make that information available to eligible law enforcement or parking control agencies upon a request pursuant to Section 22511.58.

(4) For a disabled veteran, the department shall accept, in lieu of the certificate described in paragraph (1), a certificate from the United States Department of Veterans Affairs that certifies that the applicant is a disabled veteran as described in Section 295.7.

(c) A person who is issued a distinguishing placard pursuant to subdivision (a) may apply to the department for a substitute placard without recertification of eligibility, if that placard is lost or stolen.

(d) The distinguishing placard shall be returned to the department not later than 60 days after the death of the disabled person or disabled veteran to whom the placard was issued.

(e) The department shall print on any distinguishing placard issued on or after January 1, 2005, the maximum penalty that may be imposed for a violation of Section 4461. For purposes of this subdivision, the “maximum penalty” is the amount derived from adding all of the following:

(1) The maximum fine that may be imposed under Section 4461.

(2) The penalty required to be imposed under Section 70372 of the Government Code.

(3) The penalty required to be levied under Section 76000 of the Government Code.

(4) The penalty required to be levied under Section 1464 of the Penal Code.

(5) The surcharge required to be levied under Section 1465.7 of the Penal Code.

(6) The penalty authorized to be imposed under Section 4461.3.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 491, Sec. 42.3. Effective January 1, 2011.)

22511.56.
  

(a) A person using a distinguishing placard issued under Section 22511.55 or 22511.59, or a special license plate issued under Section 5007, for parking as permitted by Section 22511.5 shall, upon request of a peace officer or person authorized to enforce parking laws, ordinances, or regulations, present identification and evidence of the issuance of that placard or plate to that person, or that vehicle if the plate was issued pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 5007.

(b) Failure to present the requested identification and evidence of the issuance of that placard or plate shall be a rebuttable presumption that the placard or plate is being misused and that the associated vehicle has been parked in violation of Section 22507.8, or has exercised a disabled person’s parking privilege pursuant to Section 22511.5.

(c) In addition to any other applicable penalty for the misuse of a placard, the officer or parking enforcement person may confiscate a placard being used for parking purposes that benefit a person other than the person to whom the placard was issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles. A placard lawfully used by a person transporting a disabled person pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 4461 may not be confiscated.

(d) In addition to any other applicable penalty for the misuse of a special license plate issued under Section 5007, a peace officer may confiscate the plate being used for parking purposes that benefit a person other than the person to whom the plate was issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles.

(e) After verification with the Department of Motor Vehicles that the user of the placard or plate is not the registered owner of the placard or plate, the appropriate agency that confiscated the placard or plate shall notify the department of the placard or plate number and the department shall cancel the placard or plate. A placard or plate canceled by the department pursuant to this subdivision may be destroyed by the agency that confiscated the placard or plate.

(Amended by Stats. 2006, Ch. 203, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2007.)

22511.57.
  

A local authority may, by ordinance or resolution, prohibit or restrict the parking or standing of a vehicle on streets or highways or in a parking stall or space in a privately or publicly owned or operated offstreet parking facility within its jurisdiction when the vehicle displays, in order to obtain special parking privileges, a distinguishing placard or special license plate, issued pursuant to Section 5007, 22511.55, or 22511.59, and any of the following conditions are met:

(a) The records of the Department of Motor Vehicles for the identification number assigned to the placard or license plate indicate that the placard or license plate has been reported as lost, stolen, surrendered, canceled, revoked, or expired, or was issued to a person who has been reported as deceased for a period exceeding 60 days.

(b) The placard or license plate is displayed on a vehicle that is not being used to transport, and is not in the reasonable proximity of, the person to whom the license plate or placard was issued or a person who is authorized to be transported in the vehicle displaying that placard or license plate.

(c) The placard or license plate is counterfeit, forged, altered, or mutilated.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 341, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2012.)

22511.58.
  

(a) Upon a request to the department by a local public law enforcement agency or local agency responsible for the administration or enforcement of parking regulations, the department shall make available to the requesting agency any information contained in a physician’s certificate submitted to the department as part of the application for a disabled person’s parking privileges, substantiating the disability of a person applying for or who has been issued a parking placard pursuant to Section 22511.55. The department shall not provide the information specified in this subdivision to any private or other third-party parking citation processing agency.

(b) Local authorities may establish a review board or panel, which shall include a qualified physician or medical authority, for purposes of reviewing information contained in the applications for special parking privileges and the certification of qualifying disabilities for persons residing within the jurisdiction of the local authority. Any findings or determinations by a review board or panel under this section indicating that an application or certification is fraudulent or lacks proper certification may be transmitted to the department or other appropriate authorities for further review and investigation.

(Added by Stats. 1996, Ch. 1033, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1997.)

22511.59.
  

(a) Upon the receipt of the applications and documents required by subdivision (b), (c), or (d), the department shall issue a temporary distinguishing placard bearing the International Symbol of Access adopted pursuant to Section 3 of Public Law 100-641 commonly known as the “wheelchair symbol.” During the period for which it is valid, the temporary distinguishing placard may be used for the parking purposes described in Section 22511.5 in the same manner as a distinguishing placard issued pursuant to Section 22511.55.

(b) (1) A person who is temporarily disabled for a period of not more than six months may apply to the department for the issuance of the temporary distinguishing placard described in subdivision (a).

(2) Prior to issuing a placard pursuant to this subdivision, the department shall require the submission of a certificate signed by a physician and surgeon, or to the extent that it does not cause a reduction in the receipt of federal aid highway funds, by a nurse practitioner, certified nurse midwife, physician assistant, chiropractor, or optometrist, as described in subdivision (b) of Section 22511.55, substantiating the temporary disability and stating the date upon which the disability is expected to terminate.

(3) The physician and surgeon, nurse practitioner, certified nurse midwife, physician assistant, chiropractor, or optometrist who signs a certificate submitted under this subdivision shall maintain information sufficient to substantiate that certificate and, upon request of the department, shall make that information available for inspection by the Medical Board of California or the appropriate regulatory board.

(4) A placard issued pursuant to this subdivision shall expire not later than 180 days from the date of issuance or upon the expected termination date of the disability, as stated on the certificate required by paragraph (2), whichever is less.

(5) The fee for a temporary placard issued pursuant to this subdivision shall be six dollars ($6).

(6) A placard issued pursuant to this subdivision shall be renewed a maximum of six times consecutively.

(c) (1) A permanently disabled person or disabled veteran who is not a resident of this state and plans to travel within the state may apply to the department for the issuance of the temporary distinguishing placard described in subdivision (a).

(2) Prior to issuing a placard pursuant to this subdivision, the department shall require certification of the disability, as described in subdivision (b) of Section 22511.55.

(3) The physician and surgeon, nurse practitioner, certified nurse midwife, physician assistant, chiropractor, or optometrist who signs a certificate submitted under this subdivision shall maintain information sufficient to substantiate that certificate and, upon request of the department, shall make that information available for inspection by the Medical Board of California or the appropriate regulatory board.

(4) A placard issued pursuant to this subdivision shall expire not later than 90 days from the date of issuance.

(5) The department shall not charge a fee for issuance of a placard under this subdivision.

(6) A placard issued pursuant to this subdivision shall be renewed a maximum of six times consecutively.

(d) (1) A permanently disabled person or disabled veteran who has been issued either a distinguishing placard pursuant to Section 22511.55 or special license plates pursuant to Section 5007, but not both, may apply to the department for the issuance of the temporary distinguishing placard described in subdivision (a) for the purpose of travel.

(2) Prior to issuing a placard pursuant to this subdivision, the department shall require the applicant to submit either the number identifying the distinguishing placard issued pursuant to Section 22511.55 or the number on the special license plates.

(3) A placard issued pursuant to this subdivision shall expire not later than 30 days from the date of issuance.

(4) The department shall not charge a fee for issuance of a placard under this subdivision.

(5) A placard issued pursuant to this subdivision shall be renewed a maximum of six times consecutively.

(e) The department shall print on a temporary distinguishing placard, the maximum penalty that may be imposed for a violation of Section 4461. For the purposes of this subdivision, the “maximum penalty” is the amount derived from adding all of the following:

(1) The maximum fine that may be imposed under Section 4461.

(2) The penalty required to be imposed under Section 70372 of the Government Code.

(3) The penalty required to be levied under Section 76000 of the Government Code.

(4) The penalty required to be levied under Section 1464 of the Penal Code.

(5) The surcharge required to be levied under Section 1465.7 of the Penal Code.

(6) The penalty authorized to be imposed under Section 4461.3.

(Amended by Stats. 2007, Ch. 413, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2008.)

22511.6.
  

(a) The Department of Motor Vehicles may cancel or revoke a distinguishing placard issued pursuant to Section 22511.55 or 22511.59 in any of the following events:

(1) When the department is satisfied that the placard was fraudulently obtained or erroneously issued.

(2) When the department determines that the required fee has not been paid and the fee is not paid upon reasonable notice and demand.

(3) When the placard could have been refused when last issued or renewed.

(4) When the department determines that the owner of the placard has committed any offense described in Section 4461 or 4463, involving the placard to be canceled or revoked.

(5) When the department determines that the owner of the placard is deceased.

(b) Whenever the Department of Motor Vehicles cancels or revokes a distinguishing placard, the owner or person in possession of the placard shall immediately return the placard to the department.

(Amended by Stats. 1994, Ch. 1149, Sec. 9. Effective January 1, 1995.)

22511.7.
  

(a) In addition to Section 22511.8 for offstreet parking, a local authority may, by ordinance or resolution, designate onstreet parking spaces for the exclusive use of a vehicle that displays either a special identification license plate issued pursuant to Section 5007 or a distinguishing placard issued pursuant to Section 22511.55 or 22511.59.

(b) (1) Whenever a local authority so designates a parking space, it shall be indicated by blue paint on the curb or edge of the paved portion of the street adjacent to the space. In addition, the local authority shall post immediately adjacent to and visible from the space a sign consisting of a profile view of a wheelchair with occupant in white on a blue background.

(2) The sign required pursuant to paragraph (1) shall clearly and conspicuously state the following: “Minimum Fine $250.” This paragraph applies only to signs for parking spaces constructed on or after July 1, 2008, and signs that are replaced on or after July 1, 2008.

(3) If the loading and unloading area of the pavement adjacent to a parking stall or space designated for disabled persons or disabled veterans is to be marked by a border and hatched lines, the border shall be painted blue and the hatched lines shall be painted a suitable contrasting color to the parking space. Blue or white paint is preferred. In addition, within the border the words “No Parking” shall be painted in white letters no less than 12 inches high. This paragraph applies only to parking spaces constructed on or after July 1, 2008, and painting that is done on or after July 1, 2008.

(c) This section does not restrict the privilege granted to disabled persons and disabled veterans by Section 22511.5.

(Amended by Stats. 2009, Ch. 200, Sec. 13. Effective January 1, 2010.)

22511.8.
  

(a) A local authority, by ordinance or resolution, and a person in lawful possession of an offstreet parking facility may designate stalls or spaces in an offstreet parking facility owned or operated by the local authority or person for the exclusive use of a vehicle that displays either a special license plate issued pursuant to Section 5007 or a distinguishing placard issued pursuant to Section 22511.55 or 22511.59. The designation shall be made by posting a sign as described in paragraph (1), and by either of the markings described in paragraph (2) or (3):

(1) (A) By posting immediately adjacent to, and visible from, each stall or space, a sign consisting of a profile view of a wheelchair with occupant in white on a blue background.

(B) The sign shall also clearly and conspicuously state the following: “Minimum Fine $250.” This subparagraph applies only to signs for parking spaces constructed on or after July 1, 2008, and signs that are replaced on or after July 1, 2008, or as the State Architect deems necessary when renovations, structural repair, alterations, and additions occur to existing buildings and facilities on or after July 1, 2008.

(2) (A) By outlining or painting the stall or space in blue and outlining on the ground in the stall or space in white or suitable contrasting color a profile view depicting a wheelchair with occupant.

(B) The loading and unloading area of the pavement adjacent to a parking stall or space designated for disabled persons or disabled veterans shall be marked by a border and hatched lines. The border shall be painted blue and the hatched lines shall be painted a suitable contrasting color to the parking space. Blue or white paint is preferred. In addition, within the border the words “No Parking” shall be painted in white letters no less than 12 inches high. This subparagraph applies only to parking spaces constructed on or after July 1, 2008, and painting that is done on or after July 1, 2008, or as the State Architect deems necessary when renovations, structural repair, alterations, and additions occur to existing buildings and facilities on or after July 1, 2008.

(3) By outlining a profile view of a wheelchair with occupant in white on a blue background, of the same dimensions as in paragraph (2). The profile view shall be located so that it is visible to a traffic enforcement officer when a vehicle is properly parked in the space.

(b) The Department of General Services under the Division of the State Architect shall develop pursuant to Section 4450 of the Government Code, as appropriate, conforming regulations to ensure compliance with subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) and subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a). Initial regulations to implement these provisions shall be adopted as emergency regulations. The adoption of these regulations shall be considered by the Department of General Services to be an emergency necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health and safety, or general welfare.

(c) If posted in accordance with subdivision (e) or (f), the owner or person in lawful possession of a privately owned or operated offstreet parking facility, after notifying the police or sheriff’s department, may cause the removal of a vehicle from a stall or space designated pursuant to subdivision (a) in the facility to the nearest public garage unless a special license plate issued pursuant to Section 5007 or distinguishing placard issued pursuant to Section 22511.55 or 22511.59 is displayed on the vehicle.

(d) If posted in accordance with subdivision (e), the local authority owning or operating an offstreet parking facility, after notifying the police or sheriff’s department, may cause the removal of a vehicle from a stall or space designated pursuant to subdivision (a) in the facility to the nearest public garage unless a special license plate issued pursuant to Section 5007 or a distinguishing placard issued pursuant to Section 22511.55 or 22511.59 is displayed on the vehicle.

(e) Except as provided in Section 22511.9, the posting required for an offstreet parking facility owned or operated either privately or by a local authority shall consist of a sign not less than 17 by 22 inches in size with lettering not less than one inch in height which clearly and conspicuously states the following: “Unauthorized vehicles parked in designated accessible spaces not displaying distinguishing placards or special license plates issued for persons with disabilities will be towed away at the owner’s expense. Towed vehicles may be reclaimed at:

or by telephoning

(Address)

.”

(Telephone number of local law enforcement agency)

The sign shall be posted in either of the following locations:

(1) Immediately adjacent to, and visible from, the stall or space.

(2) In a conspicuous place at each entrance to the offstreet parking facility.

(f) If the parking facility is privately owned and public parking is prohibited by the posting of a sign meeting the requirements of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 22658, the requirements of subdivision (c) may be met by the posting of a sign immediately adjacent to, and visible from, each stall or space indicating that a vehicle not meeting the requirements of subdivision (a) will be removed at the owner’s expense and containing the telephone number of the local traffic law enforcement agency.

(g) This section does not restrict the privilege granted to disabled persons and disabled veterans by Section 22511.5.

(Amended by Stats. 2009, Ch. 200, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2010.)

22511.85.
  

A vehicle, identified with a special license plate issued pursuant to Section 5007 or a distinguishing placard issued pursuant to Section 22511.55 or 22511.59, which is equipped with a lift, ramp, or assistive equipment that is used for the loading and unloading of a person with a disability may park in not more than two adjacent stalls or spaces on a street or highway or in a public or private off-street parking facility if the equipment has been or will be used for loading or unloading a person with a disability, and if there is no single parking space immediately available on the street or highway or within the facility that is suitable for that purpose, including, but not limited to, when there is not sufficient space to operate a vehicle lift, ramp, or assistive equipment, or there is not sufficient room for a person with a disability to exit the vehicle or maneuver once outside the vehicle.

(Amended by Stats. 2008, Ch. 179, Sec. 221. Effective January 1, 2009.)

22511.9.
  

Every new or replacement sign installed on or after January 1, 1992, relating to parking privileges for disabled persons shall refer to “disabled persons” rather than “physically handicapped persons” or any other similar term, whenever such a reference is required on a sign.

(Added by Stats. 1991, Ch. 928, Sec. 28. Effective October 14, 1991.)

22511.95.
  

All new or replacement signs installed on or after July 1, 2008, relating to parking privileges for disabled persons shall refer to “persons with disabilities” rather than “disabled persons” or any other similar term, whenever the reference is required on the sign.

(Added by Stats. 2007, Ch. 413, Sec. 5. Effective January 1, 2008.)

22511.10.
  

The Legislature hereby finds and declares all of the following:

(a) Two and one-half million Californians suffer from some form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Those persons who are not in wheelchairs have difficulty walking long distances.

(b) Encouraging those with physical disabilities to engage in activities outside of the home promotes better health and self-esteem, thereby lowering health costs.

(c) Placing disabled person parking spaces closest to the main entrances of buildings does not cost taxpayers, but provides accessibility to the physically disabled.

(d) It is the intent of the Legislature, in enacting Section 22511.11, to direct the Office of the State Architect to propose regulations that require disabled person parking spaces to be located on the shortest accessible route of travel to an accessible entrance or exit of a building or parking facility.

(Added by Stats. 1992, Ch. 1187, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1993.)

22511.11.
  

(a) The Office of the State Architect shall propose regulations specifying the location of disabled person parking stalls or spaces designated pursuant to Section 22511.8, for parking facilities constructed or reconstructed pursuant to a building permit issued on or after October 1, 1993. In specifying the placement of those stalls or spaces near buildings or facilities and within parking structures, consideration shall be given to the special access needs of disabled persons.

(b) The Office of the State Architect shall submit the regulations proposed pursuant to subdivision (a) to the State Building Standards Commission on or before July 1, 1993, for approval, adoption, and publication in Title 24 of the California Code of Regulations.

(Added by Stats. 1992, Ch. 1187, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1993.)

22512.
  

Except as otherwise indicated in subdivision (b), none of the following provisions shall apply to the driver or owner of any service vehicle owned or operated by or for or operated under contract with a utility or public utility, whether privately, municipally, or publicly owned, used in the construction, operation, removal, or repair of utility or public utility property or facilities, if warning devices are displayed and when the vehicle is stopped, standing, or parked at the site of work involving the construction, operation, removal, or repair of the utility or public utility property or facilities upon, in, over, under, or adjacent to a highway, bicycle lane, bikeway, or bicycle path or trail, or of a vehicle, whether privately, municipally, or publicly owned, if warning devices are displayed and when the vehicle is engaged in authorized work on the highway, bicycle lane, bikeway, or bicycle path or trail:

(a) Sections 21112, 21211, 21707, 21708, 22507.6, 24605, 25253, 25300, 27700, and 27907.

(b) This chapter, except Sections 22507, 22509, 22515, and 22517.

(c) Chapter 10 (commencing with Section 22650).

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 124, Sec. 128. Effective January 1, 1997.)

22513.
  

(a) (1) It is a misdemeanor for a towing company or the owner or operator of a tow truck to stop or cause a person to stop at the scene of an accident or near a disabled vehicle for the purpose of soliciting an engagement for towing services, either directly or indirectly, to furnish towing services, to move a vehicle from a highway, street, or public property when the vehicle has been left unattended or when there is an injury as the result of an accident, or to accrue charges for services furnished under those circumstances, unless requested to perform that service by a law enforcement officer or public agency pursuant to that agency’s procedures, or unless summoned to the scene or requested to stop by the owner or operator of a disabled vehicle.

(2) (A) A towing company or the owner or operator of a tow truck summoned, or alleging it was summoned, to the scene by the owner or operator of a disabled vehicle shall possess all of the following information in writing prior to arriving at the scene:

(i) The first and last name and working telephone number of the person who summoned it to the scene.

(ii) The make, model, year, and license plate number of the disabled vehicle.

(iii) The date and time it was summoned to the scene.

(iv) The name of the person who obtained the information in clauses (i), (ii), and (iii).

(B) A towing company or the owner or operator of a tow truck summoned, or alleging it was summoned, to the scene by a motor club, as defined by Section 12142 of the Insurance Code, pursuant to the request of the owner or operator of a disabled vehicle is exempt from the requirements of subparagraph (A), provided it possesses all of the following information in writing prior to arriving at the scene:

(i) The business name of the motor club.

(ii) The identification number the motor club assigns to the referral.

(iii) The date and time it was summoned to the scene by the motor club.

(3) A towing company or the owner or operator of a tow truck requested, or alleging it was requested, to stop at the scene by the owner or operator of a disabled vehicle shall possess all of the following information in writing upon arriving at the scene:

(A) The first and last name and working telephone number of the person who requested the stop.

(B) The make, model, and license plate number, if one is displayed, of the disabled vehicle.

(C) The date and time it was requested to stop.

(D) The name of the person who obtained the information in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C).

(4) A towing company or the owner or operator of a tow truck summoned or requested, or alleging it was summoned or requested, by a law enforcement officer or public agency pursuant to that agency’s procedures to stop at the scene of an accident or near a disabled vehicle for the purpose of soliciting an engagement for towing services, either directly or indirectly, to furnish towing services, or that is expressly authorized to move a vehicle from a highway, street, or public property when the vehicle has been left unattended or when there is an injury as the result of an accident, shall possess all of the following in writing before leaving the scene:

(A) The identity of the law enforcement agency or public agency.

(B) The log number, call number, incident number, or dispatch number assigned to the incident by law enforcement or the public agency, or the surname and badge number of the law enforcement officer, or the surname and employee identification number of the public agency employee.

(C) The date and time of the summons, request, or express authorization.

(5) For purposes of this section, “writing” includes electronic records.

(b) The towing company or the owner or operator of a tow truck shall make the written information described in subdivision (a) available to law enforcement, upon request, from the time it appears at the scene until the time the vehicle is towed and released to a third party, and shall maintain that information for three years. The towing company or owner or operator of a tow truck shall make that information available for inspection and copying within 48 hours of a written request from any officer or agent of a police department, sheriff’s department, the Department of the California Highway Patrol, the Attorney General’s office, a district attorney’s office, or a city attorney’s office.

(c) (1) Prior to attaching a vehicle to the tow truck, if the vehicle owner or operator is present at the time and location of the anticipated tow, the towing company or the owner or operator of the tow truck shall furnish the vehicle’s owner or operator with a written itemized estimate of all charges and services to be performed. The estimate shall include all of the following:

(A) The name, address, telephone number, and motor carrier permit number of the towing company.

(B) The license plate number of the tow truck performing the tow.

(C) The first and last name of the towing operator, and if different than the towing operator, the first and last name of the person from the towing company furnishing the estimate.

(D) A description and cost for all services, including, but not limited to, charges for labor, special equipment, mileage from dispatch to return, and storage fees, expressed as a 24-hour rate.

(2) The tow truck operator shall obtain the vehicle owner or operator’s signature on the itemized estimate and shall furnish a copy to the person who signed the estimate.

(3) The requirements in paragraph (1) may be completed after the vehicle is attached and removed to the nearest safe shoulder or street if done at the request of law enforcement or a public agency, provided the estimate is furnished prior to the removal of the vehicle from the nearest safe shoulder or street.

(4) The towing company or the owner or operator of a tow truck shall maintain the written documents described in this subdivision for three years, and shall make them available for inspection and copying within 48 hours of a written request from any officer or agent of a police department, sheriff’s department, the Department of the California Highway Patrol, the Attorney General’s office, a district attorney’s office, or a city attorney’s office.

(5) This subdivision does not apply to a towing company or the owner or operator of a tow truck summoned to the scene by a motor club, as defined by Section 12142 of the Insurance Code, pursuant to the request of the owner or operator of a disabled vehicle.

(6) This subdivision does not apply to a towing company or the owner or operator of a tow truck summoned to the scene by law enforcement or a public agency pursuant to that agency’s procedures, and operating at the scene pursuant to a contract with that law enforcement agency or public agency.

(d) (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a towing company or the owner or operator of a tow truck shall not charge a fee for towing or storage, or both, of a vehicle in excess of the greater of the following:

(A) The fee that would have been charged for that towing or storage, or both, made at the request of a law enforcement agency under an agreement between a towing company and the law enforcement agency that exercises primary jurisdiction in the city in which the vehicle was, or was attempted to be, removed, or if not located within a city, the law enforcement agency that exercises primary jurisdiction in the county in which the vehicle was, or was attempted to be, removed.

(B) The fee that would have been charged for that towing or storage, or both, under the rate approved for that towing operator by the Department of the California Highway Patrol for the jurisdiction from which the vehicle was, or was attempted to be, removed.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to the towing or transportation of a vehicle or temporary storage of a vehicle in transit, if the towing or transportation is performed with the prior consent of the owner or operator of the vehicle.

(3) No charge shall be made in excess of the estimated price without the prior consent of the vehicle owner or operator.

(4) All services rendered by a tow company or tow truck operator, including any warranty or zero cost services, shall be recorded on an invoice, as described in subdivision (e) of Section 22651.07. The towing company or the owner or operator of a tow truck shall maintain the written documents described in this subdivision for three years, and shall make the documents available for inspection and copying within 48 hours of a written request from any officer or agent of a police department, sheriff’s department, the Department of the California Highway Patrol, the Attorney General’s office, a district attorney’s office, or a city attorney’s office.

(e) A person who willfully violates subdivision (b), (c), or (d) is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not more than two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500), or by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than three months, or by both that fine and imprisonment.

(f) This section shall not apply to the following:

(1) A vehicle owned or operated by, or under contract to, a motor club, as defined by Section 12142 of the Insurance Code, which stops to provide services for which compensation is neither requested nor received, provided that those services may not include towing other than that which may be necessary to remove the vehicle to the nearest safe shoulder. The owner or operator of that vehicle may contact a law enforcement agency or other public agency on behalf of a motorist, but may not refer a motorist to a tow truck owner or operator, unless the motorist is a member of the motor club, the motorist is referred to a tow truck owner or operator under contract to the motor club, and, if there is a dispatch facility that services the area and is owned or operated by the motor club, the referral is made through that dispatch facility.

(2) A tow truck operator employed by a law enforcement agency or other public agency.

(3) A tow truck owner or operator acting under contract with a law enforcement or other public agency to abate abandoned vehicles, or to provide towing service or emergency road service to motorists while involved in freeway service patrol operations, to the extent authorized by law.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 518, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2017.)

22513.1.
  

(a) (1) A business taking possession of a vehicle from a tow truck during hours the business is open to the public shall document all of the following:

(A) The name, address, and telephone number of the towing company.

(B) The name and driver’s license number, driver’s identification number issued by a motor club, as defined in Section 12142 of the Insurance Code, or other government authorized unique identifier of the tow truck operator.

(C) The make, model, and license plate or Vehicle Identification Number.

(D) The date and time that possession was taken of the vehicle.

(2) For purposes of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), if a tow truck operator refuses to provide information described in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) to a new motor vehicle dealer, as defined in Section 426, a new motor vehicle dealer is in compliance with this section if the new motor vehicle dealer documents the reasonable efforts made to obtain this information from the tow truck operator.

(b) A business taking possession of a vehicle from a tow truck when the business is closed to the public shall document all of the following:

(1) The make, model, and license plate or vehicle identification number.

(2) The date and time that the business first observed the vehicle on its property.

(3) The reasonable effort made by the business to contact the towing company, if identifying information was left with the vehicle, and the vehicle’s owner or operator to obtain and document both of the following:

(A) The name, address, and telephone number of the towing company.

(B) The name and driver’s license number, driver’s identification number issued by a motor club, as defined in Section 12142 of the Insurance Code, or other government authorized unique identifier of the tow truck operator.

(c) The information required in this section shall be maintained for three years and shall be available for inspection and copying within 48 hours of a written request by any officer or agent of a police department, a sheriff’s department, the Department of the California Highway Patrol, the Attorney General’s office, the Bureau of Automotive Repair, a district attorney’s office, or a city attorney’s office.

(d) For purposes of this section, a new motor vehicle dealer, as defined in Section 426, is not open to the public during hours its repair shop is closed to the public.

(e) A person who willfully violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor, and is punishable by a fine of not more than two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500), or by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than three months, or by both that fine and imprisonment.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 518, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2017.)

22514.
  

No person shall stop, park, or leave standing any vehicle within 15 feet of a fire hydrant except as follows:

(a) If the vehicle is attended by a licensed driver who is seated in the front seat and who can immediately move such vehicle in case of necessity.

(b) If the local authority adopts an ordinance or resolution reducing that distance. If the distance is less than 10 feet total length when measured along the curb or edge of the street, the distance shall be indicated by signs or markings.

(c) If the vehicle is owned or operated by a fire department and is clearly marked as a fire department vehicle.

(Amended by Stats. 1987, Ch. 488, Sec. 1.)

22515.
  

(a) No person driving, or in control of, or in charge of, a motor vehicle shall permit it to stand on any highway unattended without first effectively setting the brakes thereon and stopping the motor thereof.

(b) No person in control of, or in charge of, any vehicle, other than a motor vehicle, shall permit it to stand on any highway without first effectively setting the brakes thereon, or blocking the wheels thereof, to effectively prevent the movement of the vehicle.

(Amended by Stats. 1986, Ch. 362, Sec. 3.)

22516.
  

No person shall leave standing a locked vehicle in which there is any person who cannot readily escape therefrom.

(Enacted by Stats. 1959, Ch. 3.)

22517.
  

No person shall open the door of a vehicle on the side available to moving traffic unless it is reasonably safe to do so and can be done without interfering with the movement of such traffic, nor shall any person leave a door open on the side of a vehicle available to moving traffic for a period of time longer than necessary to load or unload passengers.

(Amended by Stats. 1963, Ch. 162.)

22518.
  

(a) Fringe and transportation corridor parking facilities constructed, maintained, or operated by the Department of Transportation pursuant to Section 146.5 of the Streets and Highways Code shall be used only by persons using a bicycle or public transit, or engaged in ridesharing, including, but not limited to, carpools or vanpools. A person shall not park a vehicle 30 feet or more in length, engage in loitering or camping, or engage in vending or any other commercial activity on any fringe or transportation corridor parking facility.

(b) This section does not apply to alternatively fueled infrastructure programs in park-and-ride lots owned and operated by the Department of Transportation.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 676, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2013.)

22519.
  

Local authorities may by ordinance or resolution prohibit, restrict or regulate the parking, stopping or standing of vehicles on any offstreet parking facility which it owns or operates. No such ordinance or resolution shall apply until signs giving notice thereof have been erected.

(Added by Stats. 1959, Ch. 1486.)

22520.5.
  

(a) No person shall solicit, display, sell, offer for sale, or otherwise vend or attempt to vend any merchandise or service while being wholly or partly within any of the following:

(1) The right-of-way of any freeway, including any on ramp, off ramp, or roadway shoulder which lies within the right-of-way of the freeway.

(2) Any roadway or adjacent shoulder within 500 feet of a freeway off ramp or on ramp.

(3) Any sidewalk within 500 feet of a freeway off ramp or on ramp, when vending or attempting to vend to vehicular traffic.

(b) Subdivision (a) does not apply to a roadside rest area or vista point located within a freeway right-of-way which is subject to Section 22520.6, to a tow truck or service vehicle rendering assistance to a disabled vehicle, or to a person issued a permit to vend upon the freeway pursuant to Section 670 of the Streets and Highways Code.

(c) A violation of this section is an infraction. A second or subsequent conviction of a violation of this section is a misdemeanor.

(Amended by Stats. 1988, Ch. 924, Sec. 10.)

22520.6.
  

(a) No person shall engage in any activity within a highway roadside rest area or vista point prohibited by rules and regulations adopted pursuant to Section 225 of the Streets and Highways Code.

(b) A violation of this section is an infraction. A second or subsequent conviction of a violation of this section is a misdemeanor.

(Added by Stats. 1983, Ch. 275, Sec. 3. Effective July 15, 1983.)

22521.
  

No person shall park a vehicle upon any railroad track or within 71/2 feet of the nearest rail.

(Added by Stats. 1968, Ch. 625.)

22522.
  

No person shall park a vehicle within three feet of any sidewalk access ramp constructed at, or adjacent to, a crosswalk or at any other location on a sidewalk so as to be accessible to and usable by the physically disabled, if the area adjoining the ramp is designated by either a sign or red paint.

(Amended by Stats. 1999, Ch. 1007, Sec. 22. Effective January 1, 2000.)

22523.
  

(a) No person shall abandon a vehicle upon any highway.

(b) No person shall abandon a vehicle upon public or private property without the express or implied consent of the owner or person in lawful possession or control of the property.

(c) Any person convicted of a violation of this section shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100) and shall provide proof that the costs of removal and disposition of the vehicle have been paid. No part of any fine imposed shall be suspended. The fine may be paid in installments if the court determines that the defendant is unable to pay the entire amount in one payment.

(d) Proof that the costs of removal and disposition of the vehicle have been paid shall not be required if proof is provided to the court that the vehicle was stolen prior to abandonment. That proof may consist of a police report or other evidence acceptable to the court.

(e) The costs required to be paid for the removal and disposition of any vehicle determined to be abandoned pursuant to Section 22669 shall not exceed those for towing and seven days of storage. This subdivision does not apply if the registered owner or legal owner has completed and returned to the lienholder a “Declaration of Opposition” form within the time specified in Section 22851.8.

(f) (1) If a vehicle is abandoned in violation of subdivision (b) and is not redeemed after impound, the last registered owner is guilty of an infraction. In addition to any other penalty, the registered owner shall be liable for any deficiency remaining after disposal of the vehicle under Section 3071 or 3072 of the Civil Code or Section 22851.10 of this code.

(2) The filing of a report of sale or transfer of the vehicle pursuant to Section 5602, the filing of a vehicle theft report with a law enforcement agency, or the filing of a form or notice with the department pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 4456 or Section 5900 or 5901 relieves the registered owner of liability under this subdivision.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 676, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1997.)

22524.
  

(a) The abandonment of any vehicle in a manner as provided in Section 22523 shall constitute a prima facie presumption that the last registered owner of record is responsible for the abandonment and is thereby liable for the cost of removal and disposition of the vehicle.

(b) An owner who has made a bona fide sale or transfer of a vehicle and has delivered possession of the vehicle to a purchaser may overcome the presumption prescribed in subdivision (a) by demonstrating that he or she has complied with Section 5900 or providing other proof satisfactory to the court.

(c) This section shall become operative on July 1, 1989.

(Repealed (in Sec. 6) and added by Stats. 1988, Ch. 1267, Sec. 7. Effective September 26, 1988. Section operative July 1, 1989, by its own provisions.)

22524.5.
  

(a) Any insurer that is responsible for coverage for ordinary and reasonable towing and storage charges under an automobile insurance policy to an insured or on behalf of an insured to a valid claimant, is liable for those charges to the person performing those services when a vehicle is towed and stored as a result of an accident or stolen recovery. The insurer may discharge the obligation by making payment to the person performing the towing and storage services or to the insured or on behalf of the insured to the claimant.

(b) Any insured or claimant who has received payment, which includes towing and storage charges, from an insurer for a loss relating to a vehicle is liable for those charges to the person performing those services.

(Added by Stats. 1986, Ch. 1380, Sec. 1.)

22525.
  

Local authorities may by ordinance or resolution authorize vanpool vehicles to utilize designated state highway bus stops.

The ordinance or resolution shall be submitted to the Department of Transportation for approval. No ordinance or resolution shall become effective until approved by the department. The department shall review the ordinance or resolution within 45 days after receipt.

(Added by Stats. 1987, Ch. 262, Sec. 1.)

22526.
  

(a) Notwithstanding any official traffic control signal indication to proceed, a driver of a vehicle shall not enter an intersection or marked crosswalk unless there is sufficient space on the other side of the intersection or marked crosswalk to accommodate the vehicle driven without obstructing the through passage of vehicles from either side.

(b) A driver of a vehicle which is making a turn at an intersection who is facing a steady circular yellow or yellow arrow signal shall not enter the intersection or marked crosswalk unless there is sufficient space on the other side of the intersection or marked crosswalk to accommodate the vehicle driven without obstructing the through passage of vehicles from either side.

(c) A driver of a vehicle shall not enter a railroad or rail transit crossing, notwithstanding any official traffic control device or signal indication to proceed, unless there is sufficient undercarriage clearance to cross the intersection without obstructing the through passage of a railway vehicle, including, but not limited to, a train, trolley, or city transit vehicle.

(d) A driver of a vehicle shall not enter a railroad or rail transit crossing, notwithstanding any official traffic control device or signal indication to proceed, unless there is sufficient space on the other side of the railroad or rail transit crossing to accommodate the vehicle driven and any railway vehicle, including, but not limited to, a train, trolley, or city transit vehicle.

(e) A local authority may post appropriate signs at the entrance to intersections indicating the prohibition in subdivisions (a), (b), and (c).

(f) A violation of this section is not a violation of a law relating to the safe operation of vehicles and is the following:

(1) A stopping violation when a notice to appear has been issued by a peace officer described in Section 830.1, 830.2, or 830.33 of the Penal Code.

(2) A parking violation when a notice of parking violation is issued by a person, other than a peace officer described in paragraph (1), who is authorized to enforce parking statutes and regulations.

(g) This section shall be known and may be cited as the Anti-Gridlock Act of 1987.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 216, Sec. 11. Effective January 1, 2011.)

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