Code Section Group

Penal Code - PEN

PART 1. OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS [25 - 680]

  ( Part 1 enacted 1872. )

TITLE 8. OF CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON [187 - 248]

  ( Title 8 enacted 1872. )

CHAPTER 8. False Imprisonment and Human Trafficking [236 - 237]
  ( Heading of Chapter 8 amended November 6, 2012, by initiative Proposition 35, Sec. 5. )

236.
  

False imprisonment is the unlawful violation of the personal liberty of another.

(Enacted 1872.)

236.1.
  

(a) A person who deprives or violates the personal liberty of another with the intent to obtain forced labor or services, is guilty of human trafficking and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for 5, 8, or 12 years and a fine of not more than five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000).

(b) A person who deprives or violates the personal liberty of another with the intent to effect or maintain a violation of Section 266, 266h, 266i, 266j, 267, 311.1, 311.2, 311.3, 311.4, 311.5, 311.6, or 518 is guilty of human trafficking and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for 8, 14, or 20 years and a fine of not more than five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000).

(c) A person who causes, induces, or persuades, or attempts to cause, induce, or persuade, a person who is a minor at the time of commission of the offense to engage in a commercial sex act, with the intent to effect or maintain a violation of Section 266, 266h, 266i, 266j, 267, 311.1, 311.2, 311.3, 311.4, 311.5, 311.6, or 518 is guilty of human trafficking. A violation of this subdivision is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison as follows:

(1) Five, 8, or 12 years and a fine of not more than five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000).

(2) Fifteen years to life and a fine of not more than five hundred thousand dollars ($500,000) when the offense involves force, fear, fraud, deceit, coercion, violence, duress, menace, or threat of unlawful injury to the victim or to another person.

(d) In determining whether a minor was caused, induced, or persuaded to engage in a commercial sex act, the totality of the circumstances, including the age of the victim, his or her relationship to the trafficker or agents of the trafficker, and any handicap or disability of the victim, shall be considered.

(e) Consent by a victim of human trafficking who is a minor at the time of the commission of the offense is not a defense to a criminal prosecution under this section.

(f) Mistake of fact as to the age of a victim of human trafficking who is a minor at the time of the commission of the offense is not a defense to a criminal prosecution under this section.

(g) The Legislature finds that the definition of human trafficking in this section is equivalent to the federal definition of a severe form of trafficking found in Section 7102(9) of Title 22 of the United States Code.

(h) For purposes of this chapter, the following definitions apply:

(1) “Coercion” includes a scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that failure to perform an act would result in serious harm to or physical restraint against any person; the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process; debt bondage; or providing and facilitating the possession of a controlled substance to a person with the intent to impair the person’s judgment.

(2) “Commercial sex act” means sexual conduct on account of which anything of value is given or received by a person.

(3) “Deprivation or violation of the personal liberty of another” includes substantial and sustained restriction of another’s liberty accomplished through force, fear, fraud, deceit, coercion, violence, duress, menace, or threat of unlawful injury to the victim or to another person, under circumstances where the person receiving or apprehending the threat reasonably believes that it is likely that the person making the threat would carry it out.

(4) “Duress” includes a direct or implied threat of force, violence, danger, hardship, or retribution sufficient to cause a reasonable person to acquiesce in or perform an act which he or she would otherwise not have submitted to or performed; a direct or implied threat to destroy, conceal, remove, confiscate, or possess an actual or purported passport or immigration document of the victim; or knowingly destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating, or possessing an actual or purported passport or immigration document of the victim.

(5) “Forced labor or services” means labor or services that are performed or provided by a person and are obtained or maintained through force, fraud, duress, or coercion, or equivalent conduct that would reasonably overbear the will of the person.

(6) “Great bodily injury” means a significant or substantial physical injury.

(7) “Minor” means a person less than 18 years of age.

(8) “Serious harm” includes any harm, whether physical or nonphysical, including psychological, financial, or reputational harm, that is sufficiently serious, under all the surrounding circumstances, to compel a reasonable person of the same background and in the same circumstances to perform or to continue performing labor, services, or commercial sexual acts in order to avoid incurring that harm.

(i) The total circumstances, including the age of the victim, the relationship between the victim and the trafficker or agents of the trafficker, and any handicap or disability of the victim, shall be factors to consider in determining the presence of “deprivation or violation of the personal liberty of another,” “duress,” and “coercion” as described in this section.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 86, Sec. 223.5. Effective January 1, 2017. Note: Prop. 35 is titled the Californians Against Sexual Exploitation (CASE) Act.)

236.2.
  

Law enforcement agencies shall use due diligence to identify all victims of human trafficking, regardless of the citizenship of the person. When a peace officer comes into contact with a person who has been deprived of his or her personal liberty, a minor who has engaged in a commercial sex act, a person suspected of violating subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 647, or a victim of a crime of domestic violence or sexual assault, the peace officer shall consider whether the following indicators of human trafficking are present:

(a) Signs of trauma, fatigue, injury, or other evidence of poor care.

(b) The person is withdrawn, afraid to talk, or his or her communication is censored by another person.

(c) The person does not have freedom of movement.

(d) The person lives and works in one place.

(e) The person owes a debt to his or her employer.

(f) Security measures are used to control who has contact with the person.

(g) The person does not have control over his or her own government-issued identification or over his or her worker immigration documents.

(Amended November 6, 2012, by initiative Proposition 35, Sec. 7.)

236.23.
  

(a) In addition to any other affirmative defense, it is a defense to a charge of a crime that the person was coerced to commit the offense as a direct result of being a human trafficking victim at the time of the offense and had a reasonable fear of harm. This defense does not apply to a serious felony, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 1192.7, or a violent felony, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5, or a violation of Section 236.1.

(b) A defendant asserting the affirmative defense specified in subdivision (a) has the burden of establishing the affirmative defense by a preponderance of the evidence.

(c) Certified records of a federal, state, tribal, or local court or governmental agency documenting the person’s status as a victim of human trafficking at the time of the offense, including identification of a victim of human trafficking by a peace officer pursuant to Section 236.2 and certified records of approval notices or enforcement certifications generated from federal immigration proceedings, may be presented to establish an affirmative defense pursuant to this section.

(d) The affirmative defense may be asserted at any time before the entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or admission to the truth of the charges and before the conclusion of any trial for the offense. If asserted before the preliminary hearing held in a case, the affirmative defense shall, upon request by the defendant, be determined at the preliminary hearing.

(e) If the defendant prevails on the affirmative defense provided under subdivision (a), the defendant is entitled to all of the following relief:

(1) (A) The court shall order that all records in the case be sealed pursuant to Section 851.86.

(B) Records that have been sealed pursuant to this paragraph may be accessed, inspected, or utilized by law enforcement for subsequent investigatory purposes involving persons other than the defendant.

(2) The person shall be released from all penalties and disabilities resulting from the charge, and all actions and proceedings by law enforcement personnel, courts, or other government employees that led to the charge shall be deemed not to have occurred.

(3) (A) The person may in all circumstances state that he or she has never been arrested for, or charged with, the crime that is the subject of the charge or conviction, including without limitation in response to questions on employment, housing, financial aid, or loan applications.

(B) The person may not be denied rights or benefits, including, without limitation, employment, housing, financial aid, welfare, or a loan or other financial accommodation, based on the arrest or charge or his or her failure or refusal to disclose the existence of or information concerning those events.

(C) The person may not be thereafter charged or convicted of perjury or otherwise of giving a false statement by reason of having failed to disclose or acknowledge the existence of the charge, or any arrest, indictment, trial, or other proceedings related thereto.

(f) If, in a proceeding pursuant to Section 602 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, the juvenile court finds that the offense on which the proceeding is based was committed as a direct result of the minor being a human trafficking victim, and the affirmative defense established in subdivision (a) is established by a preponderance of the evidence, the court shall dismiss the proceeding and order the relief prescribed in Section 786 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(Added by Stats. 2016, Ch. 636, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2017.)

236.3.
  

Upon conviction of a violation of Section 236.1, if real property is used to facilitate the commission of the offense, the procedures for determining whether the property constitutes a nuisance and the remedies imposed therefor as provided in Article 2 (commencing with Section 11225) of Chapter 3 of Title 1 of Part 4 shall apply.

(Added by Stats. 2010, Ch. 625, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2011.)

236.4.
  

(a) Upon the conviction of a person of a violation of Section 236.1, the court may, in addition to any other penalty, fine, or restitution imposed, order the defendant to pay an additional fine not to exceed one million dollars ($1,000,000). In setting the amount of the fine, the court shall consider any relevant factors, including, but not limited to, the seriousness and gravity of the offense, the circumstances and duration of its commission, the amount of economic gain the defendant derived as a result of the crime, and the extent to which the victim suffered losses as a result of the crime.

(b) Any person who inflicts great bodily injury on a victim in the commission or attempted commission of a violation of Section 236.1 shall be punished by an additional and consecutive term of imprisonment in the state prison for 5, 7, or 10 years.

(c) Any person who has previously been convicted of a violation of any crime specified in Section 236.1 shall receive an additional and consecutive term of imprisonment in the state prison for 5 years for each additional conviction on charges separately brought and tried.

(d) Every fine imposed and collected pursuant to Section 236.1 and this section shall be deposited in the Victim-Witness Assistance Fund, to be administered by the California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA), to fund grants for services for victims of human trafficking. Seventy percent of the fines collected and deposited shall be granted to public agencies and nonprofit corporations that provide shelter, counseling, or other direct services for trafficked victims. Thirty percent of the fines collected and deposited shall be granted to law enforcement and prosecution agencies in the jurisdiction in which the charges were filed to fund human trafficking prevention, witness protection, and rescue operations.

(Added November 6, 2012, by initiative Proposition 35, Sec. 8.)

236.5.
  

(a) Within 15 business days of the first encounter with a victim of human trafficking, as defined by Section 236.1, law enforcement agencies shall provide brief letters that satisfy the following Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) endorsement regulations as found in paragraph (1) of subdivision (f) of Section 214.11 of Title 8 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(b) The LEA must be submitted on Supplement B, Declaration of Law Enforcement Officer for Victim of Trafficking in Persons, of Form I-914. The LEA endorsement must be filled out completely in accordance with the instructions contained on the form and must attach the results of any name or database inquiry performed. In order to provide persuasive evidence, the LEA endorsement must contain a description of the victimization upon which the application is based, including the dates the trafficking in persons and victimization occurred, and be signed by a supervising official responsible for the investigation or prosecution of trafficking in persons. The LEA endorsement must address whether the victim had been recruited, harbored, transported, provided, or obtained specifically for either labor or services, or for the purposes of a commercial sex act.

(c) Where state law enforcement agencies find the grant of a LEA endorsement to be inappropriate for a victim of trafficking in persons, the agency shall within 15 days provide the victim with a letter explaining the grounds of the denial of the LEA. The victim may submit additional evidence to the law enforcement agency, which must reconsider the denial of the LEA within one week of the receipt of additional evidence.

(Added by renumbering Section 236.2 by Stats. 2008, Ch. 358, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2009.)

236.6.
  

(a) To prevent dissipation or secreting of assets or property, the prosecuting agency may, at the same time as or subsequent to the filing of a complaint or indictment charging human trafficking under Section 236.1, file a petition with the criminal division of the superior court of the county in which the accusatory pleading was filed, seeking a temporary restraining order, preliminary injunction, the appointment of a receiver, or any other protective relief necessary to preserve the property or assets. The filing of the petition shall start a proceeding that shall be pendent to the criminal proceeding and maintained solely to effect the remedies available for this crime, including, but not limited to, payment of restitution and payment of fines. The proceeding shall not be subject to or governed by the provisions of the Civil Discovery Act as set forth in Title 4 (commencing with Section 2016.010) of Part 4 of the Code of Civil Procedure. The petition shall allege that the defendant has been charged with human trafficking under Section 236.1 and shall identify that criminal proceeding and the assets and property to be affected by an order issued pursuant to this section.

(b) The prosecuting agency shall, by personal service or registered mail, provide notice of the petition to every person who may have an interest in the property specified in the petition. Additionally, the notice shall be published for at least three successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the county where the property affected by the order is located. The notice shall state that any interested person may file a verified claim with the superior court stating the nature and amount of his or her claimed interest. The notice shall set forth the time within which a claim of interest in the protected property shall be filed.

(c) If the property to be preserved is real property, the prosecuting agency shall record, at the time of filing the petition, a lis pendens in each county in which the real property is situated that specifically identifies the property by legal description, the name of the owner of record, as shown on the latest equalized assessment roll, and the assessor’s parcel number.

(d) If the property to be preserved consists of assets under the control of a banking or financial institution, the prosecuting agency, at the time of filing the petition, may obtain an order from the court directing the banking or financial institution to immediately disclose the account numbers and value of the assets of the accused held by the banking or financial institution. The prosecuting agency shall file a supplemental petition, specifically identifying which banking or financial institution accounts shall be subject to a temporary restraining order, preliminary injunction, or other protective remedy.

(e) A person claiming an interest in the protected property or assets may, at any time within 30 days from the date of the first publication of the notice of the petition, or within 30 days after receipt of actual notice, whichever is later, file with the superior court of the county in which the action is pending a verified claim stating the nature and amount of his or her interest in the property or assets. A verified copy of the claim shall be served by the claimant on the Attorney General or district attorney, as appropriate.

(f) Concurrent with or subsequent to the filing of the petition, the prosecuting agency may move the superior court for, and the superior court may issue, any of the following pendente lite orders to preserve the status quo of the property or assets alleged in the petition:

(1) An injunction to restrain any person from transferring, encumbering, hypothecating, or otherwise disposing of the property or assets.

(2) Appointment of a receiver to take possession of, care for, manage, and operate the assets and properties so that they may be maintained and preserved. The court may order that a receiver appointed pursuant to this section shall be compensated for all reasonable expenditures made or incurred by him or her in connection with the possession, care, management, and operation of property or assets that are subject to the provisions of this section.

(3) Requiring a bond or other undertaking, in lieu of other orders, of a value sufficient to ensure the satisfaction of restitution and fines imposed pursuant to Section 236.1.

(g) The following procedures shall be followed in processing the petition:

(1) No preliminary injunction shall be granted or receiver appointed without notice to the interested parties and a hearing to determine that the order is necessary to preserve the property or assets, pending the outcome of the criminal proceedings. However, a temporary restraining order may be issued pending that hearing pursuant to the provisions of Section 527 of the Code of Civil Procedure. The temporary restraining order may be based upon the sworn declaration of a peace officer with personal knowledge of the criminal investigation that establishes probable cause to believe that human trafficking has taken place and that the amount of restitution and fines established pursuant to subdivision (f) exceeds or equals the worth of the property or assets subject to the temporary restraining order. The declaration may include the hearsay statements of witnesses to establish the necessary facts. The temporary restraining order may be issued without notice upon a showing of good cause to the court.

(2) The defendant, or a person who has filed a verified claim, shall have the right to have the court conduct an order to show cause hearing within 10 days of the service of the request for a hearing upon the prosecuting agency, in order to determine whether the temporary restraining order should remain in effect, whether relief should be granted from a lis pendens recorded pursuant to subdivision (c), or whether an existing order should be modified in the interests of justice. Upon a showing of good cause, the hearing shall be held within two days of the service of the request for a hearing upon the prosecuting agency.

(3) In determining whether to issue a preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order in a proceeding brought by a prosecuting agency in conjunction with or subsequent to the filing of an allegation pursuant to this section, the court has the discretion to consider any matter that it deems reliable and appropriate, including hearsay statements, in order to reach a just and equitable decision. The court shall weigh the relative degree of certainty of the outcome on the merits and the consequences to each of the parties of granting the interim relief. If the prosecution is likely to prevail on the merits and the risk of the dissipation of assets outweighs the potential harm to the defendants and the interested parties, the court shall grant injunctive relief. The court shall give significant weight to the following factors:

(A) The public interest in preserving the property or assets pendente lite.

(B) The difficulty of preserving the property or assets pendente lite where the underlying alleged crimes involve human trafficking.

(C) The fact that the requested relief is being sought by a public prosecutor on behalf of alleged victims of human trafficking.

(D) The likelihood that substantial public harm has occurred where the human trafficking is alleged to have been committed.

(E) The significant public interest involved in compensating victims of human trafficking and paying court-imposed restitution and fines.

(4) The court, in making its orders, may consider a defendant’s request for the release of a portion of the property affected by this section in order to pay reasonable legal fees in connection with the criminal proceeding, necessary and appropriate living expenses pending trial and sentencing, and for the purpose of posting bail. The court shall weigh the needs of the public to retain the property against the needs of the defendant to a portion of the property. The court shall consider the factors listed in paragraph (3) prior to making an order releasing property for these purposes.

(5) The court, in making its orders, shall seek to protect the interests of innocent third parties, including an innocent spouse, who were not involved in the commission of criminal activity.

(6) The orders shall be no more extensive than necessary to effect the remedies available for the crime. In determining the amount of property to be held, the court shall ascertain the amount of fines that are assessed for a violation of this chapter and the amount of possible restitution.

(7) A petition filed pursuant to this section is part of the criminal proceedings for purposes of appointment of counsel and shall be assigned to the criminal division of the superior court of the county in which the accusatory pleading was filed.

(8) Based upon a noticed motion brought by the receiver appointed pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (f), the court may order an interlocutory sale of property named in the petition when the property is liable to perish, to waste, or to be significantly reduced in value, or when the expenses of maintaining the property are disproportionate to the value of the property. The proceeds of the interlocutory sale shall be deposited with the court or as directed by the court pending determination of the proceeding pursuant to this section.

(9) The court may make any orders that are necessary to preserve the continuing viability of a lawful business enterprise that is affected by the issuance of a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction issued pursuant to this section.

(10) In making its orders, the court shall seek to prevent the property or asset subject to a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction from perishing, spoiling, going to waste, or otherwise being significantly reduced in value. Where the potential for diminution in value exists, the court shall appoint a receiver to dispose of or otherwise protect the value of the property or asset.

(11) A preservation order shall not be issued against an asset of a business that is not likely to be dissipated and that may be subject to levy or attachment to meet the purposes of this section.

(h) If the allegation of human trafficking is dismissed or found by the trier of fact to be untrue, a preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order issued pursuant to this section shall be dissolved. If a jury is the trier of fact, and the jury is unable to reach a unanimous verdict, the court shall have the discretion to continue or dissolve all or a portion of the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order based upon the interests of justice. However, if the prosecuting agency elects not to retry the case, a preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order issued pursuant to this section shall be dissolved.

(i) (1) (A) If the defendant is convicted of human trafficking, the trial judge shall continue the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order until the date of the criminal sentencing and shall make a finding at that time as to what portion, if any, of the property or assets subject to the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order shall be levied upon to pay fines and restitution to victims of the crime. The order imposing fines and restitution may exceed the total worth of the property or assets subjected to the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order. The court may order the immediate transfer of the property or assets to satisfy a restitution order issued pursuant to Section 1202.4 and a fine imposed pursuant to this chapter.

(B) If the execution of judgment is stayed pending an appeal of an order of the superior court pursuant to this section, the preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order shall be maintained in full force and effect during the pendency of the appellate period.

(2) The order imposing fines and restitution shall not affect the interest in real property of a third party that was acquired prior to the recording of the lis pendens, unless the property was obtained from the defendant other than as a bona fide purchaser for value. If any assets or property affected by this section are subject to a valid lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract and the amount due to the holder of the lien, mortgage, interest, or contract is less than the appraised value of the property, that person may pay to the state or the local government that initiated the proceeding the amount of the difference between the appraised value of the property and the amount of the lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract. Upon that payment, the state or local entity shall relinquish all claims to the property. If the holder of the interest elects not to make that payment to the state or local governmental entity, the interest in the property shall be deemed transferred to the state or local governmental entity and any indicia of ownership of the property shall be confirmed in the state or local governmental entity. The appraised value shall be determined as of the date judgment is entered either by agreement between the holder of the lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract and the governmental entity involved or, if they cannot agree, then by a court-appointed appraiser for the county in which the action is brought. A person holding a valid lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract shall be paid the appraised value of his or her interest.

(3) In making its final order, the court shall seek to protect the legitimately acquired interests of innocent third parties, including an innocent spouse, who were not involved in the commission of criminal activity.

(j) In all cases where property is to be levied upon pursuant to this section, a receiver appointed by the court shall be empowered to liquidate all property or assets, which shall be distributed in the following order of priority:

(1) To the receiver, or court-appointed appraiser, for all reasonable expenditures made or incurred by him or her in connection with the sale of the property or liquidation of assets, including all reasonable expenditures for necessary repairs, storage, or transportation of property levied upon under this section.

(2) To a holder of a valid lien, mortgage, or security interest, up to the amount of his or her interest in the property or proceeds.

(3) To a victim as restitution for human trafficking that was alleged in the accusatory pleading and that was proven by the prosecution.

(4) For payment of a fine imposed. The proceeds obtained in payment of a fine shall be paid in the manner set forth in subdivision (h) of Section 236.1.

(Added by Stats. 2012, Ch. 512, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2013.)

236.7.
  

(a) Any interest in a vehicle, boat, airplane, money, negotiable instruments, securities, real property, or other thing of value that was put to substantial use for the purpose of facilitating the crime of human trafficking that involves a commercial sex act, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (g) of Section 236.1, where the victim was less than 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the crime, may be seized and ordered forfeited by the court upon the conviction of a person guilty of human trafficking that involves a commercial sex act where the victim is an individual under 18 years of age, pursuant to Section 236.1.

(b) In any case in which a defendant is convicted of human trafficking pursuant to Section 236.1 and an allegation is found to be true that the victim was a person under 18 years of age and the crime involved a commercial sex act, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (g) of Section 236.1, the following assets shall be subject to forfeiture upon proof of the provisions of subdivision (d) of Section 236.9:

(1) Any property interest, whether tangible or intangible, acquired through human trafficking that involves a commercial sex act where the victim was less than 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the crime.

(2) All proceeds from human trafficking that involves a commercial sex act where the victim was less than 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the crime, which property shall include all things of value that may have been received in exchange for the proceeds immediately derived from the act.

(c) If a prosecuting agency petitions for forfeiture of an interest under subdivision (a) or (b), the process prescribed in Sections 236.8 to 236.12, inclusive, shall apply, but no local or state prosecuting agency shall be required to petition for forfeiture in any case.

(d) Real property that is used as a family residence or for other lawful purposes, or that is owned by two or more persons, one of whom had no knowledge of its unlawful use, shall not be subject to forfeiture.

(e) An interest in a vehicle that may be lawfully driven with a class C, class M1, or class M2 license, as prescribed in Section 12804.9 of the Vehicle Code, may not be forfeited under this section if there is a community property interest in the vehicle by a person other than the defendant and the vehicle is the sole vehicle of this type available to the defendant’s immediate family.

(f) Real property subject to forfeiture may not be seized, absent exigent circumstances, without notice to the interested parties and a hearing to determine that seizure is necessary to preserve the property pending the outcome of the proceedings. At the hearing, the prosecution shall bear the burden of establishing that probable cause exists for the forfeiture of the property and that seizure is necessary to preserve the property pending the outcome of the forfeiture proceedings. The court may issue a seizure order pursuant to this section if it finds that seizure is warranted or a pendente lite order pursuant to Section 236.10 if it finds that the status quo or value of the property can be preserved without seizure.

(g) For purposes of this section, no allegation or proof of a pattern of criminal profiteering activity is required.

(Added by Stats. 2012, Ch. 514, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2013.)

236.8.
  

(a) If the prosecuting agency, in conjunction with the criminal proceeding, files a petition of forfeiture with the superior court of the county in which the defendant has been charged with human trafficking that involves a commercial sex act, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (g) of Section 236.1, where the victim was less than 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the crime, the prosecuting agency shall make service of process of a notice regarding that petition upon every individual who may have a property interest in the alleged proceeds or instruments. The notice shall state that any interested party may file a verified claim with the superior court stating the amount of their claimed interest and an affirmation or denial of the prosecuting agency’s allegation. If the notice cannot be given by registered mail or personal delivery, the notice shall be published for at least three successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the county where the property is located. If the property alleged to be subject to forfeiture is real property, the prosecuting agency shall, at the time of filing the petition of forfeiture, record a lis pendens with the county recorder in each county in which the real property is situated that specifically identifies the real property alleged to be subject to forfeiture. The judgment of forfeiture shall not affect the interest in real property of a third party that was acquired prior to the recording of the lis pendens.

(b) All notices shall set forth the time within which a claim of interest in the property seized is required to be filed pursuant to Section 236.9.

(Added by Stats. 2012, Ch. 514, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2013.)

236.9.
  

(a) A person claiming an interest in the property, proceeds, or instruments may, at any time within 30 days from the date of the first publication of the notice of seizure or within 30 days after receipt of actual notice, file with the superior court of the county in which the action is pending a verified claim stating his or her interest in the property, proceeds, or instruments. A verified copy of the claim shall be given by the claimant to the Attorney General or district attorney, as appropriate.

(b) (1) If, at the end of the time set forth in subdivision (a), an interested person, other than the defendant, has not filed a claim, the court, upon motion, shall declare that the person has defaulted upon his or her alleged interest and the interest shall be subject to forfeiture upon proof of the provisions of subdivision (d).

(2) The defendant may admit or deny that the property is subject to forfeiture pursuant to the provisions of this chapter. If the defendant fails to admit or deny or to file a claim of interest in the property, proceeds, or instruments, the court shall enter a response of denial on behalf of the defendant.

(c) (1) The forfeiture proceeding shall be set for hearing in the superior court in which the underlying criminal offense will be tried.

(2) If the defendant is found guilty of the underlying offense, the issue of forfeiture shall be promptly tried, either before the same jury or before a new jury in the discretion of the court, unless waived by the consent of all parties.

(d) At the forfeiture hearing, the prosecuting agency shall have the burden of establishing beyond a reasonable doubt that the property alleged in the petition comes within the provisions of Section 236.7.

(e) Unless the trier of fact finds that the seized property was used for a purpose for which forfeiture is permitted, the court shall order the seized property released to the person that the court determines is entitled to possession of that property. If the trier of fact finds that the seized property was used for a purpose for which forfeiture is permitted, but does not find that a person who has a valid interest in the property had actual knowledge that the property would be or was used for a purpose for which forfeiture is permitted and consented to that use, the court shall order the property released to the claimant.

(Added by Stats. 2012, Ch. 514, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 2013.)

236.10.
  

(a) Concurrent with or subsequent to the filing of the petition, the prosecuting agency may move the superior court for, and the superior court may issue, the following pendente lite orders to preserve the status quo of the property alleged in the petition:

(1) An injunction to restrain anyone from transferring, encumbering, hypothecating, or otherwise disposing of the property.

(2) Appointment of a receiver to take possession of, care for, manage, and operate the assets and properties so that the property may be maintained and preserved. The court may order that a receiver appointed pursuant to this section be compensated for all reasonable expenditures made or incurred by him or her in connection with the possession, care, management, and operation of property or assets that are subject to the provisions of this section.

(b) No preliminary injunction may be granted or receiver appointed without notice to the interested parties and a hearing to determine that an order is necessary to preserve the property, pending the outcome of the criminal proceedings, and that there is probable cause to believe that the property alleged in the forfeiture proceedings are proceeds, instruments, or property interests forfeitable under the provisions of Section 236.7. However, a temporary restraining order may issue pending that hearing pursuant to the provisions of Section 527 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court in granting these motions may order a surety bond or undertaking to preserve the property interests of the interested parties.

(d) The court shall, in making its orders, seek to protect the interests of those who may be involved in the same enterprise as the defendant, but who were not involved in human trafficking that involves a commercial sex act, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (g) of Section 236.1, where the victim was less than 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the crime.

(Added by Stats. 2012, Ch. 514, Sec. 5. Effective January 1, 2013.)

236.11.
  

(a) If the trier of fact at the forfeiture hearing finds that the alleged property, instruments, or proceeds are forfeitable pursuant to Section 236.7 and the defendant was engaged in human trafficking that involves a commercial sex act, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (g) of Section 236.1, where the victim was less than 18 years of age at the time of the commission of the crime, the court shall declare that property or proceeds forfeited to the state or local governmental entity, subject to distribution as provided in Section 236.12. No property solely owned by a bona fide purchaser for value shall be subject to forfeiture.

(b) If the trier of fact at the forfeiture hearing finds that the alleged property is forfeitable pursuant to Section 236.7 but does not find that a person holding a valid lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract acquired that interest with actual knowledge that the property was to be used for a purpose for which forfeiture is permitted, and the amount due to that person is less than the appraised value of the property, that person may pay to the state or the local governmental entity that initiated the forfeiture proceeding the amount of the registered owner’s equity, which shall be deemed to be the difference between the appraised value and the amount of the lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract. Upon payment, the state or local governmental entity shall relinquish all claims to the property. If the holder of the interest elects not to pay the state or local governmental entity, the property shall be deemed forfeited to the state or local governmental entity and the ownership certificate shall be forwarded. The appraised value shall be determined as of the date judgment is entered either by agreement between the legal owner and the governmental entity involved, or, if they cannot agree, by a court-appointed appraiser for the county in which the action is brought. A person holding a valid lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract shall be paid the appraised value of his or her interest.

(c) If the amount due to a person holding a valid lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract is less than the value of the property and the person elects not to make payment to the governmental entity, the property shall be sold at public auction by the Department of General Services or by the local governmental entity. The seller shall provide notice of the sale by one publication in a newspaper published and circulated in the city, community, or locality where the sale is to take place.

(d) Notwithstanding subdivision (c), a county may dispose of real property forfeited to the county pursuant to this chapter by the process prescribed in Section 25538.5 of the Government Code.

(Added by Stats. 2012, Ch. 514, Sec. 6. Effective January 1, 2013.)

236.12.
  

Notwithstanding that no response or claim has been filed pursuant to Section 236.9, in all cases where property is forfeited pursuant to this chapter and, if necessary, sold by the Department of General Services or local governmental entity, the money forfeited or the proceeds of sale shall be distributed by the state or local governmental entity as follows:

(a) To the bona fide or innocent purchaser, conditional sales vendor, or holder of a valid lien, mortgage, or security interest, if any, up to the amount of his or her interest in the property or proceeds, when the court declaring the forfeiture orders a distribution to that person. The court shall endeavor to discover all those lienholders and protect their interests and may, at its discretion, order the proceeds placed in escrow for up to an additional 60 days to ensure that all valid claims are received and processed.

(b) To the Department of General Services or local governmental entity for all expenditures made or incurred by it in connection with the sale of the property, including expenditures for necessary repairs, storage, or transportation of property seized under this chapter.

(c) (1) Fifty percent to the General Fund of the state or local governmental entity, whichever prosecutes or handles the forfeiture hearing.

(2) Fifty percent to the Victim-Witness Assistance Fund to be used upon appropriation for grants to community-based organizations that serve victims of human trafficking.

(Added by Stats. 2012, Ch. 514, Sec. 7. Effective January 1, 2013.)

236.13.
  

(a) In a case involving a charge of human trafficking under Section 236.1, a minor who is a victim of the human trafficking shall be provided with assistance from the local county Victim Witness Assistance Center if the minor so desires.

(b) This section does not require a local agency to operate a Victim Witness Assistance Center.

(Added by Stats. 2016, Ch. 641, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2017.)

236.14.
  

(a) If a person was arrested for or convicted of any nonviolent offense committed while he or she was a victim of human trafficking, including, but not limited to, prostitution as described in subdivision (b) of Section 647, the person may petition the court for vacatur relief of his or her convictions and arrests under this section. The petitioner shall establish, by clear and convincing evidence, that the arrest or conviction was the direct result of being a victim of human trafficking.

(b) The petition for relief shall be submitted under penalty of perjury and shall describe all of the available grounds and evidence that the petitioner was a victim of human trafficking and the arrest or conviction of a nonviolent offense was the direct result of being a victim of human trafficking.

(c) The petition for relief and supporting documentation shall be served on the state or local prosecutorial agency that obtained the conviction for which vacatur is sought or with jurisdiction over charging decisions with regard to the arrest. The state or local prosecutorial agency shall have 45 days from the date of receipt of service to respond to the petition for relief.

(d) If opposition to the petition is not filed by the applicable state or local prosecutorial agency, the court shall deem the petition unopposed and may grant the petition.

(e) The court may, with the agreement of the petitioner and all of the involved state or local prosecutorial agencies, consolidate into one hearing a petition with multiple convictions from different jurisdictions.

(f) If the petition is opposed or if the court otherwise deems it necessary, the court shall schedule a hearing on the petition. The hearing may consist of the following:

(1) Testimony by the petitioner, which may be required in support of the petition.

(2) Evidence and supporting documentation in support of the petition.

(3) Opposition evidence presented by any of the involved state or local prosecutorial agencies that obtained the conviction.

(g) After considering the totality of the evidence presented, the court may vacate the conviction and expunge the arrests and issue an order if it finds all of the following:

(1) That the petitioner was a victim of human trafficking at the time the nonviolent crime was committed.

(2) The commission of the crime was a direct result of being a victim of human trafficking.

(3) The victim is engaged in a good faith effort to distance himself or herself from the human trafficking scheme.

(4) It is in the best interest of the petitioner and in the interests of justice.

(h) In issuing an order of vacatur for the convictions, an order shall do the following:

(1) Set forth a finding that the petitioner was a victim of human trafficking when he or she committed the offense.

(2) Set aside the verdict of guilty or the adjudication and dismiss the accusation or information against the petitioner.

(3) Notify the Department of Justice that the petitioner was a victim of human trafficking when he or she committed the crime and of the relief that has been ordered.

(i) Notwithstanding this section, a petitioner shall not be relieved of any financial restitution order that directly benefits the victim of a nonviolent crime, unless it has already been paid.

(j) A person who was arrested as, or found to be, a person described in Section 602 of the Welfare and Institutions Code because he or she committed a nonviolent offense while he or she was a victim of human trafficking, including, but not limited to, prostitution, as described in subdivision (b) of Section 647, may petition the court for relief under this section. If the petitioner establishes that the arrest or adjudication was the direct result of being a victim of human trafficking the petitioner is entitled to a rebuttable presumption that the requirements for relief have been met.

(k) If the court issues an order as described in subdivision (a) or (j), the court shall also order the law enforcement agency having jurisdiction over the offense, the Department of Justice, and any law enforcement agency that arrested the petitioner or participated in the arrest of the petitioner to seal their records of the arrest and the court order to seal and destroy the records for three years from the date of the arrest, or within one year after the court order is granted, whichever occurs later, and thereafter to destroy their records of the arrest and the court order to seal and destroy those records. The court shall provide the petitioner a copy of any court order concerning the destruction of the arrest records.

(l) A petition pursuant to this section shall be made and heard within a reasonable time after the person has ceased to be a victim of human trafficking, or within a reasonable time after the petitioner has sought services for being a victim of human trafficking, whichever occurs later, subject to reasonable concerns for the safety of the petitioner, family members of the petitioner, or other victims of human trafficking who may be jeopardized by the bringing of the application or for other reasons consistent with the purposes of this section.

(m) For the purposes of this section, official documentation of a petitioner’s status as a victim of human trafficking may be introduced as evidence that his or her participation in the offense was the result of his or her status as a victim of human trafficking. For the purposes of this subdivision, “official documentation” means any documentation issued by a federal, state, or local agency that tends to show the petitioner’s status as a victim of human trafficking. Official documentation shall not be required for the issuance of an order described in subdivision (a).

(n) A petitioner, or his or her attorney, may be excused from appearing in person at a hearing for relief pursuant to this section only if the court finds a compelling reason why the petitioner cannot attend the hearing, in which case the petitioner may appear telephonically, via videoconference, or by other electronic means established by the court.

(o) Notwithstanding any other law, a petitioner who has obtained an order pursuant to this section may lawfully deny or refuse to acknowledge an arrest, conviction, or adjudication that is set aside pursuant to the order.

(p) Notwithstanding any other law, the records of the arrest, conviction, or adjudication shall not be distributed to any state licensing board.

(q) The record of a proceeding related to a petition pursuant to this section that is accessible by the public shall not disclose the petitioner’s full name.

(r) A court that grants relief pursuant to this section may take additional action as appropriate under the circumstances to carry out the purposes of this section.

(s) If the court denies the application because the evidence is insufficient to establish grounds for vacatur, the denial may be without prejudice. The court may state the reasons for its denial in writing or on the record that is memorialized by transcription, audio tape, or video tape, and if those reasons are based on curable deficiencies in the application, allow the applicant a reasonable time period to cure the deficiencies upon which the court based the denial.

(t) For the purposes of this section, the following terms apply:

(1) “Nonviolent offense” means any offense not listed in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5.

(2) “Vacate” means that the arrest and any adjudications or convictions suffered by the petitioner are deemed not to have occurred and that all records in the case are sealed and destroyed pursuant to this section. The court shall provide the petitioner with a copy of the orders described in subdivisions (a), (j), and (k), as applicable, and inform the petitioner that he or she may thereafter state that he or she was not arrested for the charge, or adjudicated or convicted of the charge, that was vacated.

(3) “Victim of human trafficking” means the victim of a crime described in subdivisions (a), (b), and (c) of Section 236.1.

(Added by Stats. 2016, Ch. 650, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2017.)

237.
  

(a) False imprisonment is punishable by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by imprisonment in the county jail for not more than one year, or by both that fine and imprisonment. If the false imprisonment be effected by violence, menace, fraud, or deceit, it shall be punishable by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170.

(b) False imprisonment of an elder or dependent adult by use of violence, menace, fraud, or deceit shall be punishable as described in subdivision (f) of Section 368.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 15, Sec. 288. Effective April 4, 2011. Operative October 1, 2011, by Sec. 636 of Ch. 15, as amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 39, Sec. 68.)

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