Code Section Group

Penal Code - PEN

PART 1. OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS [25 - 680]

  ( Part 1 enacted 1872. )

TITLE 7. OF CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC JUSTICE [92 - 186.34]

  ( Title 7 enacted 1872. )

CHAPTER 9. Criminal Profiteering [186 - 186.8]
  ( Chapter 9 added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1281, Sec. 1. )

186.
  

This act may be cited as the “California Control of Profits of Organized Crime Act.”

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1281, Sec. 1.)

186.1.
  

The Legislature hereby finds and declares that an effective means of punishing and deterring criminal activities of organized crime is through the forfeiture of profits acquired and accumulated as a result of such criminal activities. It is the intent of the Legislature that the “California Control of Profits of Organized Crime Act” be used by prosecutors to punish and deter only such activities.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1281, Sec. 1.)

186.2.
  

For purposes of this chapter, the following definitions apply:

(a) “Criminal profiteering activity” means any act committed or attempted or any threat made for financial gain or advantage, which act or threat may be charged as a crime under any of the following sections:

(1) Arson, as defined in Section 451.

(2) Bribery, as defined in Sections 67, 67.5, and 68.

(3) Child pornography or exploitation, as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 311.2, or Section 311.3 or 311.4, which may be prosecuted as a felony.

(4) Felonious assault, as defined in Section 245.

(5) Embezzlement, as defined in Sections 424 and 503.

(6) Extortion, as defined in Section 518.

(7) Forgery, as defined in Section 470.

(8) Gambling, as defined in Sections 337a to 337f, inclusive, and Section 337i, except the activities of a person who participates solely as an individual bettor.

(9) Kidnapping, as defined in Section 207.

(10) Mayhem, as defined in Section 203.

(11) Murder, as defined in Section 187.

(12) Pimping and pandering, as defined in Section 266.

(13) Receiving stolen property, as defined in Section 496.

(14) Robbery, as defined in Section 211.

(15) Solicitation of crimes, as defined in Section 653f.

(16) Grand theft, as defined in Section 487 or subdivision (a) of Section 487a.

(17) Trafficking in controlled substances, as defined in Sections 11351, 11352, and 11353 of the Health and Safety Code.

(18) Violation of the laws governing corporate securities, as defined in Section 25541 of the Corporations Code.

(19) Offenses contained in Chapter 7.5 (commencing with Section 311) of Title 9, relating to obscene matter, or in Chapter 7.6 (commencing with Section 313) of Title 9, relating to harmful matter that may be prosecuted as a felony.

(20) Presentation of a false or fraudulent claim, as defined in Section 550.

(21) False or fraudulent activities, schemes, or artifices, as described in Section 14107 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(22) Money laundering, as defined in Section 186.10.

(23) Offenses relating to the counterfeit of a registered mark, as specified in Section 350, or offenses relating to piracy, as specified in Section 653w.

(24) Offenses relating to the unauthorized access to computers, computer systems, and computer data, as specified in Section 502.

(25) Conspiracy to commit any of the crimes listed above, as defined in Section 182.

(26) Subdivision (a) of Section 186.22, or a felony subject to enhancement as specified in subdivision (b) of Section 186.22.

(27) Offenses related to fraud or theft against the state’s beverage container recycling program, including, but not limited to, those offenses specified in this subdivision and those criminal offenses specified in the California Beverage Container Recycling and Litter Reduction Act, commencing at Section 14500 of the Public Resources Code.

(28) Human trafficking, as defined in Section 236.1.

(29) Any crime in which the perpetrator induces, encourages, or persuades a person under 18 years of age to engage in a commercial sex act. For purposes of this paragraph, a commercial sex act means any sexual conduct on account of which anything of value is given or received by any person.

(30) Any crime in which the perpetrator, through force, fear, coercion, deceit, violence, duress, menace, or threat of unlawful injury to the victim or to another person, causes a person under 18 years of age to engage in a commercial sex act. For purposes of this paragraph, a commercial sex act means any sexual conduct on account of which anything of value is given or received by any person.

(31) Theft of personal identifying information, as defined in Section 530.5.

(32) Offenses involving the theft of a motor vehicle, as specified in Section 10851 of the Vehicle Code.

(33) Abduction or procurement by fraudulent inducement for prostitution, as defined in Section 266a.

(34) Offenses relating to insurance fraud, as specified in Sections 2106, 2108, 2109, 2110, 2110.3, 2110.5, 2110.7, and 2117 of the Unemployment Insurance Code.

(b) (1) “Pattern of criminal profiteering activity” means engaging in at least two incidents of criminal profiteering, as defined by this chapter, that meet the following requirements:

(A) Have the same or a similar purpose, result, principals, victims, or methods of commission, or are otherwise interrelated by distinguishing characteristics.

(B) Are not isolated events.

(C) Were committed as a criminal activity of organized crime.

(2) Acts that would constitute a “pattern of criminal profiteering activity” may not be used by a prosecuting agency to seek the remedies provided by this chapter unless the underlying offense occurred after the effective date of this chapter and the prior act occurred within 10 years, excluding any period of imprisonment, of the commission of the underlying offense. A prior act may not be used by a prosecuting agency to seek remedies provided by this chapter if a prosecution for that act resulted in an acquittal.

(c) “Prosecuting agency” means the Attorney General or the district attorney of any county.

(d) “Organized crime” means crime that is of a conspiratorial nature and that is either of an organized nature and seeks to supply illegal goods or services such as narcotics, prostitution, pimping and pandering, loan-sharking, counterfeiting of a registered mark in violation of Section 350, the piracy of a recording or audiovisual work in violation of Section 653w, gambling, and pornography, or that, through planning and coordination of individual efforts, seeks to conduct the illegal activities of arson for profit, hijacking, insurance fraud, smuggling, operating vehicle theft rings, fraud against the beverage container recycling program, embezzlement, securities fraud, insurance fraud in violation of the provisions listed in paragraph (34) of subdivision (a), grand theft, money laundering, forgery, or systematically encumbering the assets of a business for the purpose of defrauding creditors. “Organized crime” also means crime committed by a criminal street gang, as defined in subdivision (f) of Section 186.22. “Organized crime” also means false or fraudulent activities, schemes, or artifices, as described in Section 14107 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, and the theft of personal identifying information, as defined in Section 530.5.

(e) “Underlying offense” means an offense enumerated in subdivision (a) for which the defendant is being prosecuted.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 86, Sec. 221. Effective January 1, 2017.)

186.3.
  

(a) In any case in which a person is alleged to have been engaged in a pattern of criminal profiteering activity, upon a conviction of the underlying offense, the assets listed in subdivisions (b) and (c) shall be subject to forfeiture upon proof of the provisions of subdivision (d) of Section 186.5.

(b) Any property interest whether tangible or intangible, acquired through a pattern of criminal profiteering activity.

(c) All proceeds of a pattern of criminal profiteering activity, which property shall include all things of value that may have been received in exchange for the proceeds immediately derived from the pattern of criminal profiteering activity.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1281, Sec. 1.)

186.4.
  

(a) The prosecuting agency shall, in conjunction with the criminal proceeding, file a petition of forfeiture with the superior court of the county in which the defendant has been charged with the underlying criminal offense, which shall allege that the defendant has engaged in a pattern of criminal profiteering activity, including the acts or threats chargeable as crimes and the property forfeitable pursuant to Section 186.3. The prosecuting agency shall make service of process of a notice regarding that petition upon every individual who may have a property interest in the alleged proceeds, which notice shall state that any interested party may file a verified claim with the superior court stating the amount of their claimed interest and an affirmation or denial of the prosecuting agency’s allegation. If the notices cannot be given by registered mail or personal delivery, the notices shall be published for at least three successive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the county where the property is located. If the property alleged to be subject to forfeiture is real property, the prosecuting agency shall, at the time of filing the petition of forfeiture, record a lis pendens in each county in which the real property is situated which specifically identifies the real property alleged to be subject to forfeiture. The judgment of forfeiture shall not affect the interest in real property of any third party which was acquired prior to the recording of the lis pendens.

(b) All notices shall set forth the time within which a claim of interest in the property seized is required to be filed pursuant to Section 186.5.

(Amended by Stats. 1983, Ch. 208, Sec. 1.)

186.5.
  

(a) Any person claiming an interest in the property or proceeds may, at any time within 30 days from the date of the first publication of the notice of seizure, or within 30 days after receipt of actual notice, file with the superior court of the county in which the action is pending a verified claim stating his or her interest in the property or proceeds. A verified copy of the claim shall be given by the claimant to the Attorney General or district attorney, as appropriate.

(b) (1) If, at the end of the time set forth in subdivision (a), an interested person, other than the defendant, has not filed a claim, the court, upon motion, shall declare that the person has defaulted upon his or her alleged interest, and it shall be subject to forfeiture upon proof of the provisions of subdivision (d).

(2) The defendant may admit or deny that the property is subject to forfeiture pursuant to the provisions of this chapter. If the defendant fails to admit or deny or to file a claim of interest in the property or proceeds, the court shall enter a response of denial on behalf of the defendant.

(c) (1) The forfeiture proceeding shall be set for hearing in the superior court in which the underlying criminal offense will be tried.

(2) If the defendant is found guilty of the underlying offense, the issue of forfeiture shall be promptly tried, either before the same jury or before a new jury in the discretion of the court, unless waived by the consent of all parties.

(d) At the forfeiture hearing, the prosecuting agency shall have the burden of establishing beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant was engaged in a pattern of criminal profiteering activity and that the property alleged in the petition comes within the provisions of subdivision (b) or (c) of Section 186.3.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1281, Sec. 1.)

186.6.
  

(a) Concurrent with, or subsequent to, the filing of the petition, the prosecuting agency may move the superior court for the following pendente lite orders to preserve the status quo of the property alleged in the petition of forfeiture:

(1) An injunction to restrain all interested parties and enjoin them from transferring, encumbering, hypothecating or otherwise disposing of that property.

(2) Appointment of a receiver to take possession of, care for, manage, and operate the assets and properties so that such property may be maintained and preserved.

(b) No preliminary injunction may be granted or receiver appointed without notice to the interested parties and a hearing to determine that such an order is necessary to preserve the property, pending the outcome of the criminal proceedings, and that there is probable cause to believe that the property alleged in the forfeiture proceedings are proceeds or property interests forfeitable under Section 186.3. However, a temporary restraining order may issue pending that hearing pursuant to the provisions of Section 527 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court in granting these motions may order a surety bond or undertaking to preserve the property interests of the interested parties.

(d) The court shall, in making its orders, seek to protect the interests of those who may be involved in the same enterprise as the defendant, but who were not involved in the commission of the criminal profiteering activity.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1281, Sec. 1.)

186.7.
  

(a) If the trier of fact at the forfeiture hearing finds that the alleged property or proceeds is forfeitable pursuant to Section 186.3 and the defendant was engaged in a pattern of criminal profiteering activity, the court shall declare that property or proceeds forfeited to the state or local governmental entity, subject to distribution as provided in Section 186.8. No property solely owned by a bona fide purchaser for value shall be subject to forfeiture.

(b) If the trier of fact at the forfeiture hearing finds that the alleged property is forfeitable pursuant to Section 186.3 but does not find that a person holding a valid lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract acquired that interest with actual knowledge that the property was to be used for a purpose for which forfeiture is permitted, and the amount due to that person is less than the appraised value of the property, that person may pay to the state or the local governmental entity which initiated the forfeiture proceeding, the amount of the registered owner’s equity, which shall be deemed to be the difference between the appraised value and the amount of the lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract. Upon that payment, the state or local governmental entity shall relinquish all claims to the property. If the holder of the interest elects not to make that payment to the state or local governmental entity, the property shall be deemed forfeited to the state or local governmental entity and the ownership certificate shall be forwarded. The appraised value shall be determined as of the date judgment is entered either by agreement between the legal owner and the governmental entity involved, or if they cannot agree, then by a court-appointed appraiser for the county in which the action is brought. A person holding a valid lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract shall be paid the appraised value of his or her interest.

(c) If the amount due to a person holding a valid lien, mortgage, security interest, or interest under a conditional sales contract is less than the value of the property and the person elects not to make payment to the governmental entity, the property shall be sold at public auction by the Department of General Services or by the local governmental entity which shall provide notice of that sale by one publication in a newspaper published and circulated in the city, community, or locality where the sale is to take place.

(d) Notwithstanding subdivision (c), a county may dispose of any real property forfeited to the county pursuant to this chapter pursuant to Section 25538.5 of the Government Code.

(Amended by Stats. 1992, Ch. 1020, Sec. 3.7. Effective January 1, 1993.)

186.8.
  

Notwithstanding that no response or claim has been filed pursuant to Section 186.5, in all cases where property is forfeited pursuant to this chapter and, if necessary, sold by the Department of General Services or local governmental entity, the money forfeited or the proceeds of sale shall be distributed by the state or local governmental entity as follows:

(a) To the bona fide or innocent purchaser, conditional sales vendor, or holder of a valid lien, mortgage, or security interest, if any, up to the amount of his or her interest in the property or proceeds, when the court declaring the forfeiture orders a distribution to that person. The court shall endeavor to discover all those lienholders and protect their interests and may, at its discretion, order the proceeds placed in escrow for up to an additional 60 days to ensure that all valid claims are received and processed.

(b) To the Department of General Services or local governmental entity for all expenditures made or incurred by it in connection with the sale of the property, including expenditures for any necessary repairs, storage, or transportation of any property seized under this chapter.

(c) To the General Fund of the state or a general fund of a local governmental entity, whichever prosecutes.

(d) In any case involving a violation of subdivision (b) of Section 311.2, or Section 311.3 or 311.4, in lieu of the distribution of the proceeds provided for by subdivisions (b) and (c), the proceeds shall be deposited in the county children’s trust fund, established pursuant to Section 18966 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, of the county that filed the petition of forfeiture. If the county does not have a children’s trust fund, the funds shall be deposited in the State Children’s Trust Fund, established pursuant to Section 18969 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(e) In any case involving crimes against the state beverage container recycling program, in lieu of the distribution of proceeds provided in subdivision (c), the proceeds shall be deposited in the penalty account established pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 14580 of the Public Resources Code, except that a portion of the proceeds equivalent to the cost of prosecution in the case shall be distributed to the local prosecuting entity that filed the petition of forfeiture.

(f) (1) In any case described in paragraph (29) or (30) of subdivision (a) of Section 186.2, or paragraph (33) of subdivision (a) of Section 186.2 where the victim is a minor, in lieu of the distribution provided for in subdivision (c), the proceeds shall be deposited in the Victim-Witness Assistance Fund to be available for appropriation to fund child sexual exploitation and child sexual abuse victim counseling centers and prevention programs under Section 13837. Fifty percent of the funds deposited in the Victim-Witness Assistance Fund pursuant to this subdivision shall be granted to community-based organizations that serve minor victims of human trafficking.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), any proceeds specified in paragraph (1) that would otherwise be distributed to the General Fund of the state under subdivision (c) pursuant to a paragraph in subdivision (a) of Section 186.2 other than paragraph (29) or (30) of subdivision (a) of Section 186.2, or paragraph (33) of subdivision (a) of Section 186.2 where the victim is a minor, shall, except as otherwise required by law, continue to be distributed to the General Fund of the state as specified in subdivision (c).

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 514, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2013.)

PENPenal Code - PEN