Code Section Group

Penal Code - PEN

PART 2. OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE [681 - 1620]

  ( Part 2 enacted 1872. )

TITLE 12. OF SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS OF A CRIMINAL NATURE [1473 - 1564]

  ( Title 12 enacted 1872. )

CHAPTER 3. Of Search Warrants [1523 - 1542.5]
  ( Chapter 3 enacted 1872. )

1523.
  

A search warrant is an order in writing, in the name of the people, signed by a magistrate, directed to a peace officer, commanding him or her to search for a person or persons, a thing or things, or personal property, and, in the case of a thing or things or personal property, bring the same before the magistrate.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 1078, Sec. 1.5. Effective January 1, 1997.)

1524.
  

(a) A search warrant may be issued upon any of the following grounds:

(1) When the property was stolen or embezzled.

(2) When the property or things were used as the means of committing a felony.

(3) When the property or things are in the possession of any person with the intent to use them as a means of committing a public offense, or in the possession of another to whom he or she may have delivered them for the purpose of concealing them or preventing them from being discovered.

(4) When the property or things to be seized consist of an item or constitute evidence that tends to show a felony has been committed, or tends to show that a particular person has committed a felony.

(5) When the property or things to be seized consist of evidence that tends to show that sexual exploitation of a child, in violation of Section 311.3, or possession of matter depicting sexual conduct of a person under 18 years of age, in violation of Section 311.11, has occurred or is occurring.

(6) When there is a warrant to arrest a person.

(7) When a provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service has records or evidence, as specified in Section 1524.3, showing that property was stolen or embezzled constituting a misdemeanor, or that property or things are in the possession of any person with the intent to use them as a means of committing a misdemeanor public offense, or in the possession of another to whom he or she may have delivered them for the purpose of concealing them or preventing their discovery.

(8) When the property or things to be seized include an item or evidence that tends to show a violation of Section 3700.5 of the Labor Code, or tends to show that a particular person has violated Section 3700.5 of the Labor Code.

(9) When the property or things to be seized include a firearm or other deadly weapon at the scene of, or at the premises occupied or under the control of the person arrested in connection with, a domestic violence incident involving a threat to human life or a physical assault as provided in Section 18250. This section does not affect warrantless seizures otherwise authorized by Section 18250.

(10) When the property or things to be seized include a firearm or other deadly weapon that is owned by, or in the possession of, or in the custody or control of, a person described in subdivision (a) of Section 8102 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(11) When the property or things to be seized include a firearm that is owned by, or in the possession of, or in the custody or control of, a person who is subject to the prohibitions regarding firearms pursuant to Section 6389 of the Family Code, if a prohibited firearm is possessed, owned, in the custody of, or controlled by a person against whom a protective order has been issued pursuant to Section 6218 of the Family Code, the person has been lawfully served with that order, and the person has failed to relinquish the firearm as required by law.

(12) When the information to be received from the use of a tracking device constitutes evidence that tends to show that either a felony, a misdemeanor violation of the Fish and Game Code, or a misdemeanor violation of the Public Resources Code has been committed or is being committed, tends to show that a particular person has committed a felony, a misdemeanor violation of the Fish and Game Code, or a misdemeanor violation of the Public Resources Code, or is committing a felony, a misdemeanor violation of the Fish and Game Code, or a misdemeanor violation of the Public Resources Code, or will assist in locating an individual who has committed or is committing a felony, a misdemeanor violation of the Fish and Game Code, or a misdemeanor violation of the Public Resources Code. A tracking device search warrant issued pursuant to this paragraph shall be executed in a manner meeting the requirements specified in subdivision (b) of Section 1534.

(13) When a sample of the blood of a person constitutes evidence that tends to show a violation of Section 23140, 23152, or 23153 of the Vehicle Code and the person from whom the sample is being sought has refused an officer’s request to submit to, or has failed to complete, a blood test as required by Section 23612 of the Vehicle Code, and the sample will be drawn from the person in a reasonable, medically approved manner. This paragraph is not intended to abrogate a court’s mandate to determine the propriety of the issuance of a search warrant on a case-by-case basis.

(14) Beginning January 1, 2016, the property or things to be seized are firearms or ammunition or both that are owned by, in the possession of, or in the custody or control of a person who is the subject of a gun violence restraining order that has been issued pursuant to Division 3.2 (commencing with Section 18100) of Title 2 of Part 6, if a prohibited firearm or ammunition or both is possessed, owned, in the custody of, or controlled by a person against whom a gun violence restraining order has been issued, the person has been lawfully served with that order, and the person has failed to relinquish the firearm as required by law.

(15) Beginning January 1, 2018, the property or things to be seized include a firearm that is owned by, or in the possession of, or in the custody or control of, a person who is subject to the prohibitions regarding firearms pursuant to Section 29800 or 29805, and the court has made a finding pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 29810 that the person has failed to relinquish the firearm as required by law.

(16) When the property or things to be seized are controlled substances or a device, contrivance, instrument, or paraphernalia used for unlawfully using or administering a controlled substance pursuant to the authority described in Section 11472 of the Health and Safety Code.

(17) (A) When all of the following apply:

(i) A sample of the blood of a person constitutes evidence that tends to show a violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of Section 655 of the Harbors and Navigation Code.

(ii) The person from whom the sample is being sought has refused an officer’s request to submit to, or has failed to complete, a blood test as required by Section 655.1 of the Harbors and Navigation Code.

(iii) The sample will be drawn from the person in a reasonable, medically approved manner.

(B) This paragraph is not intended to abrogate a court’s mandate to determine the propriety of the issuance of a search warrant on a case-by-case basis.

(18) When the property or things to be seized consists of evidence that tends to show that a violation of paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subdivision (j) of Section 647 has occurred or is occurring.

(b) The property, things, person, or persons described in subdivision (a) may be taken on the warrant from any place, or from any person in whose possession the property or things may be.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (a) or (b), a search warrant shall not be issued for any documentary evidence in the possession or under the control of any person who is a lawyer as defined in Section 950 of the Evidence Code, a physician as defined in Section 990 of the Evidence Code, a psychotherapist as defined in Section 1010 of the Evidence Code, or a member of the clergy as defined in Section 1030 of the Evidence Code, and who is not reasonably suspected of engaging or having engaged in criminal activity related to the documentary evidence for which a warrant is requested unless the following procedure has been complied with:

(1) At the time of the issuance of the warrant, the court shall appoint a special master in accordance with subdivision (d) to accompany the person who will serve the warrant. Upon service of the warrant, the special master shall inform the party served of the specific items being sought and that the party shall have the opportunity to provide the items requested. If the party, in the judgment of the special master, fails to provide the items requested, the special master shall conduct a search for the items in the areas indicated in the search warrant.

(2) (A) If the party who has been served states that an item or items should not be disclosed, they shall be sealed by the special master and taken to court for a hearing.

(B) At the hearing, the party searched shall be entitled to raise any issues that may be raised pursuant to Section 1538.5 as well as a claim that the item or items are privileged, as provided by law. The hearing shall be held in the superior court. The court shall provide sufficient time for the parties to obtain counsel and make motions or present evidence. The hearing shall be held within three days of the service of the warrant unless the court makes a finding that the expedited hearing is impracticable. In that case, the matter shall be heard at the earliest possible time.

(C) If an item or items are taken to court for a hearing, any limitations of time prescribed in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 799) of Title 3 of Part 2 shall be tolled from the time of the seizure until the final conclusion of the hearing, including any associated writ or appellate proceedings.

(3) The warrant shall, whenever practicable, be served during normal business hours. In addition, the warrant shall be served upon a party who appears to have possession or control of the items sought. If, after reasonable efforts, the party serving the warrant is unable to locate the person, the special master shall seal and return to the court, for determination by the court, any item that appears to be privileged as provided by law.

(d) (1) As used in this section, a “special master” is an attorney who is a member in good standing of the California State Bar and who has been selected from a list of qualified attorneys that is maintained by the State Bar particularly for the purposes of conducting the searches described in this section. These attorneys shall serve without compensation. A special master shall be considered a public employee, and the governmental entity that caused the search warrant to be issued shall be considered the employer of the special master and the applicable public entity, for purposes of Division 3.6 (commencing with Section 810) of Title 1 of the Government Code, relating to claims and actions against public entities and public employees. In selecting the special master, the court shall make every reasonable effort to ensure that the person selected has no relationship with any of the parties involved in the pending matter. Information obtained by the special master shall be confidential and may not be divulged except in direct response to inquiry by the court.

(2) In any case in which the magistrate determines that, after reasonable efforts have been made to obtain a special master, a special master is not available and would not be available within a reasonable period of time, the magistrate may direct the party seeking the order to conduct the search in the manner described in this section in lieu of the special master.

(e) Any search conducted pursuant to this section by a special master may be conducted in a manner that permits the party serving the warrant or his or her designee to accompany the special master as he or she conducts his or her search. However, that party or his or her designee may not participate in the search nor shall he or she examine any of the items being searched by the special master except upon agreement of the party upon whom the warrant has been served.

(f) As used in this section, “documentary evidence” includes, but is not limited to, writings, documents, blueprints, drawings, photographs, computer printouts, microfilms, X-rays, files, diagrams, ledgers, books, tapes, audio and video recordings, films, and papers of any type or description.

(g) No warrant shall issue for any item or items described in Section 1070 of the Evidence Code.

(h) Notwithstanding any other law, no claim of attorney work product as described in Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010) of Title 4 of Part 4 of the Code of Civil Procedure shall be sustained where there is probable cause to believe that the lawyer is engaging or has engaged in criminal activity related to the documentary evidence for which a warrant is requested unless it is established at the hearing with respect to the documentary evidence seized under the warrant that the services of the lawyer were not sought or obtained to enable or aid anyone to commit or plan to commit a crime or a fraud.

(i) Nothing in this section is intended to limit an attorney’s ability to request an in-camera hearing pursuant to the holding of the Supreme Court of California in People v. Superior Court (Laff) (2001) 25 Cal.4th 703.

(j) In addition to any other circumstance permitting a magistrate to issue a warrant for a person or property in another county, when the property or things to be seized consist of any item or constitute evidence that tends to show a violation of Section 530.5, the magistrate may issue a warrant to search a person or property located in another county if the person whose identifying information was taken or used resides in the same county as the issuing court.

(k) This section shall not be construed to create a cause of action against any foreign or California corporation, its officers, employees, agents, or other specified persons for providing location information.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 342, Sec. 1. (AB 539) Effective January 1, 2018. Note: This section was amended on November 8, 2016, by initiative Prop. 63.)

1524.1.
  

(a) The primary purpose of the testing and disclosure provided in this section is to benefit the victim of a crime by informing the victim whether the defendant is infected with the HIV virus. It is also the intent of the Legislature in enacting this section to protect the health of both victims of crime and those accused of committing a crime. Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize mandatory testing or disclosure of test results for the purpose of a charging decision by a prosecutor, nor, except as specified in subdivisions (g) and (i), shall this section be construed to authorize breach of the confidentiality provisions contained in Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 120975) of Part 4 of Division 105 of the Health and Safety Code.

(b) (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 120975) of Part 4 of Division 105 of the Health and Safety Code, when a defendant has been charged by complaint, information, or indictment with a crime, or a minor is the subject of a petition filed in juvenile court alleging the commission of a crime, the court, at the request of the victim, may issue a search warrant for the purpose of testing the accused’s blood or oral mucosal transudate saliva with any HIV test, as defined in Section 120775 of the Health and Safety Code only under the following circumstances: when the court finds, upon the conclusion of the hearing described in paragraph (3), or in those cases in which a preliminary hearing is not required to be held, that there is probable cause to believe that the accused committed the offense, and that there is probable cause to believe that blood, semen, or any other bodily fluid identified by the State Department of Health Services in appropriate regulations as capable of transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus has been transferred from the accused to the victim.

(2) Notwithstanding Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 120975) of Part 4 of Division 105 of the Health and Safety Code, when a defendant has been charged by complaint, information, or indictment with a crime under Section 220, 261, 261.5, 262, 264.1, 266c, 269, 286, 288, 288a, 288.5, 289, or 289.5, or with an attempt to commit any of the offenses, and is the subject of a police report alleging the commission of a separate, uncharged offense that could be charged under Section 220, 261, 261.5, 262, 264.1, 266c, 269, 286, 288, 288a, 288.5, 289, or 289.5, or of an attempt to commit any of the offenses, or a minor is the subject of a petition filed in juvenile court alleging the commission of a crime under Section 220, 261, 261.5, 262, 264.1, 266c, 269, 286, 288, 288a, 288.5, 289, or 289.5, or of an attempt to commit any of the offenses, and is the subject of a police report alleging the commission of a separate, uncharged offense that could be charged under Section 220, 261, 261.5, 262, 264.1, 266c, 269, 286, 288, 288a, 288.5, 289, or 289.5, or of an attempt to commit any of the offenses, the court, at the request of the victim of the uncharged offense, may issue a search warrant for the purpose of testing the accused’s blood or oral mucosal transudate saliva with any HIV test, as defined in Section 120775 of the Health and Safety Code only under the following circumstances: when the court finds that there is probable cause to believe that the accused committed the uncharged offense, and that there is probable cause to believe that blood, semen, or any other bodily fluid identified by the State Department of Health Services in appropriate regulations as capable of transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus has been transferred from the accused to the victim. As used in this paragraph, “Section 289.5” refers to the statute enacted by Chapter 293 of the Statutes of 1991, penetration by an unknown object.

(3) (A) Prior to the issuance of a search warrant pursuant to paragraph (1), the court, where applicable and at the conclusion of the preliminary examination if the defendant is ordered to answer pursuant to Section 872, shall conduct a hearing at which both the victim and the defendant have the right to be present. During the hearing, only affidavits, counter affidavits, and medical reports regarding the facts that support or rebut the issuance of a search warrant under paragraph (1) shall be admissible.

(B) Prior to the issuance of a search warrant pursuant to paragraph (2), the court, where applicable, shall conduct a hearing at which both the victim and the defendant are present. During the hearing, only affidavits, counter affidavits, and medical reports regarding the facts that support or rebut the issuance of a search warrant under paragraph (2) shall be admissible.

(4) A request for a probable cause hearing made by a victim under paragraph (2) shall be made before sentencing in the superior court, or before disposition on a petition in a juvenile court, of the criminal charge or charges filed against the defendant.

(c) (1) In all cases in which the person has been charged by complaint, information, or indictment with a crime, or is the subject of a petition filed in a juvenile court alleging the commission of a crime, the prosecutor shall advise the victim of his or her right to make this request. To assist the victim of the crime to determine whether he or she should make this request, the prosecutor shall refer the victim to the local health officer for prerequest counseling to help that person understand the extent to which the particular circumstances of the crime may or may not have put the victim at risk of transmission of HIV from the accused, to ensure that the victim understands both the benefits and limitations of the current tests for HIV, to help the victim decide whether he or she wants to request that the accused be tested, and to help the victim decide whether he or she wants to be tested.

(2) The Department of Justice, in cooperation with the California District Attorneys Association, shall prepare a form to be used in providing victims with the notice required by paragraph (1).

(d) If the victim decides to request HIV testing of the accused, the victim shall request the issuance of a search warrant, as described in subdivision (b).

Neither the failure of a prosecutor to refer or advise the victim as provided in this subdivision, nor the failure or refusal by the victim to seek or obtain counseling, shall be considered by the court in ruling on the victim’s request.

(e) The local health officer shall make provision for administering all HIV tests ordered pursuant to subdivision (b).

(f) Any blood or oral mucosal transudate saliva tested pursuant to subdivision (b) shall be subjected to appropriate confirmatory tests to ensure accuracy of the first test results, and under no circumstances shall test results be transmitted to the victim or the accused unless any initially reactive test result has been confirmed by appropriate confirmatory tests for positive reactors.

(g) The local health officer shall have the responsibility for disclosing test results to the victim who requested the test and to the accused who was tested. However, no positive test results shall be disclosed to the victim or to the accused without also providing or offering professional counseling appropriate to the circumstances.

(h) The local health officer and victim shall comply with all laws and policies relating to medical confidentiality subject to the disclosure authorized by subdivisions (g) and (i). Any individual who files a false report of sexual assault in order to obtain test result information pursuant to this section shall, in addition to any other liability under law, be guilty of a misdemeanor punishable as provided in subdivision (c) of Section 120980 of the Health and Safety Code. Any individual as described in the preceding sentence who discloses test result information obtained pursuant to this section shall also be guilty of an additional misdemeanor punishable as provided for in subdivision (c) of Section 120980 of the Health and Safety Code for each separate disclosure of that information.

(i) Any victim who receives information from the health officer pursuant to subdivision (g) may disclose the test results as the victim deems necessary to protect his or her health and safety or the health and safety of his or her family or sexual partner.

(j) Any person transmitting test results or disclosing information pursuant to this section shall be immune from civil liability for any actions taken in compliance with this section.

(k) The results of any blood or oral mucosal transudate saliva tested pursuant to subdivision (b) shall not be used in any criminal proceeding as evidence of either guilt or innocence.

(Amended by Stats. 2003, Ch. 62, Sec. 234. Effective January 1, 2004.)

1524.2.
  

(a) As used in this section, the following terms have the following meanings:

(1) The terms “electronic communication services” and “remote computing services” shall be construed in accordance with the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 in Chapter 121 (commencing with Section 2701) of Part I of Title 18 of the United States Code. This section does not apply to corporations that do not provide those services to the general public.

(2) An “adverse result” occurs when notification of the existence of a search warrant results in:

(A) Danger to the life or physical safety of an individual.

(B) A flight from prosecution.

(C) The destruction of or tampering with evidence.

(D) The intimidation of potential witnesses.

(E) Serious jeopardy to an investigation or undue delay of a trial.

(3) “Applicant” refers to the peace officer to whom a search warrant is issued pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1528.

(4) “California corporation” refers to any corporation or other entity that is subject to Section 102 of the Corporations Code, excluding foreign corporations.

(5) “Foreign corporation” refers to any corporation that is qualified to do business in this state pursuant to Section 2105 of the Corporations Code.

(6) “Properly served” means that a search warrant has been delivered by hand, or in a manner reasonably allowing for proof of delivery if delivered by United States mail, overnight delivery service, or facsimile to a person or entity listed in Section 2110 of the Corporations Code, or any other means specified by the recipient of the search warrant, including email or submission via an Internet Web portal that the recipient has designated for the purpose of service of process.

(b) The following provisions apply to any search warrant issued pursuant to this chapter allowing a search for records that are in the actual or constructive possession of a foreign corporation that provides electronic communication services or remote computing services to the general public, where those records would reveal the identity of the customers using those services, data stored by, or on behalf of, the customer, the customer’s usage of those services, the recipient or destination of communications sent to or from those customers, or the content of those communications.

(1) When properly served with a search warrant issued by the California court, a foreign corporation subject to this section shall provide to the applicant, all records sought pursuant to that warrant within five business days of receipt, including those records maintained or located outside this state.

(2) If the applicant makes a showing and the magistrate finds that failure to produce records within less than five business days would cause an adverse result, the warrant may require production of records within less than five business days. A court may reasonably extend the time required for production of the records upon finding that the foreign corporation has shown good cause for that extension and that an extension of time would not cause an adverse result.

(3) A foreign corporation seeking to quash the warrant must seek relief from the court that issued the warrant within the time required for production of records pursuant to this section. The issuing court shall hear and decide that motion no later than five court days after the motion is filed.

(4) The foreign corporation shall verify the authenticity of records that it produces by providing an affidavit that complies with the requirements set forth in Section 1561 of the Evidence Code. Those records shall be admissible in evidence as set forth in Section 1562 of the Evidence Code.

(c) A California corporation that provides electronic communication services or remote computing services to the general public, when served with a warrant issued by another state to produce records that would reveal the identity of the customers using those services, data stored by, or on behalf of, the customer, the customer’s usage of those services, the recipient or destination of communications sent to or from those customers, or the content of those communications, shall produce those records as if that warrant had been issued by a California court.

(d) A cause of action shall not lie against any foreign or California corporation subject to this section, its officers, employees, agents, or other specified persons for providing records, information, facilities, or assistance in accordance with the terms of a warrant issued pursuant to this chapter.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 86, Sec. 231. (SB 1171) Effective January 1, 2017.)

1524.3.
  

(a) A provider of electronic communication service or remote computing service, as used in Chapter 121 (commencing with Section 2701) of Title 18 of the United States Code, shall disclose to a governmental prosecuting or investigating agency the name, address, local and long distance telephone toll billing records, telephone number or other subscriber number or identity, and length of service of a subscriber to or customer of that service, the types of services the subscriber or customer utilized, and the contents of communication originated by or addressed to the service provider when the governmental entity is granted a search warrant pursuant to paragraph (7) of subdivision (a) of Section 1524.

(b) The search warrant shall be limited to only that information necessary to achieve the objective of the warrant, including by specifying the target individuals or accounts, the applications or services, the types of information, and the time periods covered, as appropriate.

(c) Information obtained through the execution of a search warrant pursuant to this section that is unrelated to the objective of the warrant shall be sealed and not be subject to further review without an order from the court.

(d) (1) A governmental entity receiving subscriber records or information under this section shall provide notice to a subscriber or customer upon receipt of the requested records. The notification may be delayed by the court, in increments of 90 days, upon a showing that there is reason to believe that notification of the existence of the search warrant may have an adverse result.

(2) An “adverse result” for purposes of paragraph (1) means any of the following:

(A) Endangering the life or physical safety of an individual.

(B) Flight from prosecution.

(C) Tampering or destruction of evidence.

(D) Intimidation of a potential witness.

(E) Otherwise seriously jeopardizing an investigation or unduly delaying a trial.

(e) Upon the expiration of the period of delay for the notification, the governmental entity shall, by regular mail or email, provide a copy of the process or request and a notice, to the subscriber or customer. The notice shall accomplish all of the following:

(1) State the nature of the law enforcement inquiry with reasonable specificity.

(2) Inform the subscriber or customer that information maintained for the subscriber or customer by the service provider named in the process or request was supplied to or requested by the governmental entity, and the date upon which the information was supplied, and the request was made.

(3) Inform the subscriber or customer that notification to the subscriber or customer was delayed, and which court issued the order pursuant to which the notification was delayed.

(4) Provide a copy of the written inventory of the property that was taken that was provided to the court pursuant to Section 1537.

(f) A court issuing a search warrant pursuant to paragraph (7) of subdivision (a) of Section 1524, on a motion made promptly by the service provider, may quash or modify the warrant if the information or records requested are unusually voluminous in nature or compliance with the warrant otherwise would cause an undue burden on the provider.

(g) A provider of wire or electronic communication services or a remote computing service, upon the request of a peace officer, shall take all necessary steps to preserve records and other evidence in its possession pending the issuance of a search warrant or a request in writing and an affidavit declaring an intent to file a warrant to the provider. Records shall be retained for a period of 90 days, which shall be extended for an additional 90-day period upon a renewed request by the peace officer.

(h) No cause of action shall be brought against any provider, its officers, employees, or agents for providing information, facilities, or assistance in good faith compliance with a search warrant.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 643, Sec. 2. (AB 1310) Effective January 1, 2016.)

1524.4.
  

(a) This section applies to a service provider that is subject to the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (Chapter 3.6 (commencing with Section 1546)) and that operates in California. This section does not apply to a service provider that does not offer services to the general public.

(b) (1) Every service provider described in subdivision (a) shall maintain a law enforcement contact process that meets the criteria set forth in paragraph (2).

(2) Every service provider described in subdivision (a) shall ensure, at a minimum, that its law enforcement contact process meets all of the following criteria:

(A) Provides a specific contact mechanism for law enforcement personnel.

(B) Provides continual availability of the law enforcement contact process.

(C) Provides a method to provide status updates to a requesting law enforcement agency on a request for assistance.

(3) Every service provider described in subdivision (a) shall, by July 1, 2017, file a statement with the Attorney General describing the law enforcement contact process maintained pursuant to paragraph (1). If a service provider makes a material change to its law enforcement contact process, the service provider shall, as soon as practicable, file a statement with the Attorney General describing its new law enforcement contact process.

(c) The Attorney General shall consolidate the statements received pursuant to this section into one discrete record and regularly make that record available to local law enforcement agencies.

(d) The exclusive remedy for a violation of this section shall be an action brought by the Attorney General for injunctive relief. Nothing in this section shall limit remedies available for a violation of any other state or federal law.

(e) A statement filed or distributed pursuant to this section is confidential and shall not be disclosed pursuant to any state law, including, but not limited to, the California Public Records Act (Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 6250) of Division 7 of Title 1 of the Government Code).

(Added by Stats. 2016, Ch. 514, Sec. 2. (AB 1993) Effective January 1, 2017.)

1525.
  

A search warrant cannot be issued but upon probable cause, supported by affidavit, naming or describing the person to be searched or searched for, and particularly describing the property, thing, or things and the place to be searched.

The application shall specify when applicable, that the place to be searched is in the possession or under the control of an attorney, physician, psychotherapist or clergyman.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 1078, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 1997.)

1526.
  

(a) The magistrate, before issuing the warrant, may examine on oath the person seeking the warrant and any witnesses the person may produce, and shall take his or her affidavit or their affidavits in writing, and cause the affidavit or affidavits to be subscribed by the party or parties making them.

(b) In lieu of the written affidavit required in subdivision (a), the magistrate may take an oral statement under oath under one of the following conditions:

(1) The oath shall be made under penalty of perjury and recorded and transcribed. The transcribed statement shall be deemed to be an affidavit for the purposes of this chapter. In these cases, the recording of the sworn oral statement and the transcribed statement shall be certified by the magistrate receiving it and shall be filed with the clerk of the court. In the alternative in these cases, the sworn oral statement shall be recorded by a certified court reporter and the transcript of the statement shall be certified by the reporter, after which the magistrate receiving it shall certify the transcript which shall be filed with the clerk of the court.

(2) The oath is made using telephone and facsimile transmission equipment, telephone and email, or telephone and computer server, as follows:

(A) The oath is made during a telephone conversation with the magistrate, after the affiant has signed his or her affidavit in support of the application for the search warrant and transmitted the proposed search warrant and all supporting affidavits and documents to the magistrate. The affiant’s signature may be in the form of a digital signature or electronic signature if email or computer server is used for transmission to the magistrate.

(B) The magistrate shall confirm with the affiant the receipt of the search warrant and the supporting affidavits and attachments. The magistrate shall verify that all the pages sent have been received, that all pages are legible, and that the affiant’s signature, digital signature, or electronic signature is acknowledged as genuine.

(C) If the magistrate decides to issue the search warrant, he or she shall:

(i) Sign the warrant. The magistrate’s signature may be in the form of a digital signature or electronic signature if email or computer server is used for transmission by the magistrate.

(ii) Note on the warrant the exact date and time of the issuance of the warrant.

(iii) Indicate on the warrant that the oath of the affiant was administered orally over the telephone.

(D) The magistrate shall transmit via facsimile transmission equipment, email, or computer server, the signed search warrant to the affiant. The completed search warrant, as signed by the magistrate and received by the affiant, shall be deemed to be the original warrant. The original warrant and any affidavits or attachments in support thereof shall be returned as provided in Section 1534.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 86, Sec. 232. (SB 1171) Effective January 1, 2017.)

1527.
  

The affidavit or affidavits must set forth the facts tending to establish the grounds of the application, or probable cause for believing that they exist.

(Amended by Stats. 1957, Ch. 1883.)

1528.
  

(a) If the magistrate is thereupon satisfied of the existence of the grounds of the application, or that there is probable cause to believe their existence, he or she must issue a search warrant, signed by him or her with his or her name of office, to a peace officer in his or her county, commanding him or her forthwith to search the person or place named for the property or things or person or persons specified, and to retain the property or things in his or her custody subject to order of the court as provided by Section 1536.

(b) The magistrate may orally authorize a peace officer to sign the magistrate’s name on a duplicate original warrant. A duplicate original warrant shall be deemed to be a search warrant for the purposes of this chapter, and it shall be returned to the magistrate as provided for in Section 1537. The magistrate shall enter on the face of the original warrant the exact time of the issuance of the warrant and shall sign and file the original warrant and the duplicate original warrant with the clerk of the court as provided for in Section 1541.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 1078, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 1997.)

1529.
  

The warrant shall be in substantially the following form:

County of ____.

The people of the State of California to any peace officer in the County of ____:

Proof, by affidavit, having been this day made before me by (naming every person whose affidavit has been taken), that (stating the grounds of the application, according to Section 1524, or, if the affidavit be not positive, that there is probable cause for believing that ____ stating the ground of the application in the same manner), you are therefore commanded, in the daytime (or at any time of the day or night, as the case may be, according to Section 1533), to make search on the person of C. D. (or in the house situated ____, describing it, or any other place to be searched, with reasonable particularity, as the case may be) for the following property, thing, things, or person: (describing the property, thing, things, or person with reasonable particularity); and, in the case of a thing or things or personal property, if you find the same or any part thereof, to bring the thing or things or personal property forthwith before me (or this court) at (stating the place).

Given under my hand, and dated this ____ day of ____, A.D. (year).

E. F., Judge of the (applicable) Court.

(Amended by Stats. 2005, Ch. 181, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2006.)

1530.
  

A search warrant may in all cases be served by any of the officers mentioned in its directions, but by no other person, except in aid of the officer on his requiring it, he being present and acting in its execution.

(Enacted 1872.)

1531.
  

The officer may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house, or any part of a house, or anything therein, to execute the warrant, if, after notice of his authority and purpose, he is refused admittance.

(Enacted 1872.)

1532.
  

He may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house, for the purpose of liberating a person who, having entered to aid him in the execution of the warrant, is detained therein, or when necessary for his own liberation.

(Enacted 1872.)

1533.
  

Upon a showing of good cause, the magistrate may, in his or her discretion, insert a direction in a search warrant that it may be served at any time of the day or night. In the absence of such a direction, the warrant shall be served only between the hours of 7 a.m. and 10 p.m.

When establishing “good cause” under this section, the magistrate shall consider the safety of the peace officers serving the warrant and the safety of the public as a valid basis for nighttime endorsements.

(Amended by Stats. 1986, Ch. 257, Sec. 1.)

1534.
  

(a) A search warrant shall be executed and returned within 10 days after date of issuance. A warrant executed within the 10-day period shall be deemed to have been timely executed and no further showing of timeliness need be made. After the expiration of 10 days, the warrant, unless executed, is void. The documents and records of the court relating to the warrant need not be open to the public until the execution and return of the warrant or the expiration of the 10-day period after issuance. Thereafter, if the warrant has been executed, the documents and records shall be open to the public as a judicial record.

(b) (1) A tracking device search warrant issued pursuant to paragraph (12) of subdivision (a) of Section 1524 shall identify the person or property to be tracked and shall specify a reasonable length of time, not to exceed 30 days from the date the warrant is issued, that the device may be used. The court may, for good cause, grant one or more extensions for the time that the device may be used, with each extension lasting for a reasonable length of time, not to exceed 30 days. The search warrant shall command the officer to execute the warrant by installing a tracking device or serving a warrant on a third-party possessor of the tracking data. The officer shall perform any installation authorized by the warrant during the daytime unless the magistrate, for good cause, expressly authorizes installation at another time. Execution of the warrant shall be completed no later than 10 days immediately after the date of issuance. A warrant executed within this 10-day period shall be deemed to have been timely executed and no further showing of timeliness need be made. After the expiration of 10 days, the warrant shall be void, unless it has been executed.

(2) An officer executing a tracking device search warrant shall not be required to knock and announce his or her presence before executing the warrant.

(3) No later than 10 calendar days after the use of the tracking device has ended, the officer executing the warrant shall file a return to the warrant.

(4) (A) No later than 10 calendar days after the use of the tracking device has ended, the officer who executed the tracking device warrant shall notify the person who was tracked or whose property was tracked pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1546.2.

(B) Notice under this paragraph may be delayed pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 1546.2.

(5)  An officer installing a device authorized by a tracking device search warrant may install and use the device only within California.

(6) As used in this section, “tracking device” means any electronic or mechanical device that permits the tracking of the movement of a person or object.

(7) As used in this section, “daytime” means the hours between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. according to local time.

(c) If a duplicate original search warrant has been executed, the peace officer who executed the warrant shall enter the exact time of its execution on its face.

(d) A search warrant may be made returnable before the issuing magistrate or his or her court.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 541, Sec. 1. (SB 1121) Effective January 1, 2017.)

1535.
  

When the officer takes property under the warrant, he must give a receipt for the property taken (specifying it in detail) to the person from whom it was taken by him, or in whose possession it was found; or, in the absence of any person, he must leave it in the place where he found the property.

(Enacted 1872.)

1536.
  

All property or things taken on a warrant must be retained by the officer in his custody, subject to the order of the court to which he is required to return the proceedings before him, or of any other court in which the offense in respect to which the property or things taken is triable.

(Amended by Stats. 1957, Ch. 1885.)

1536.5.
  

(a) If a government agency seizes business records from an entity pursuant to a search warrant, the entity from which the records were seized may file a demand on that government agency to produce copies of the business records that have been seized. The demand for production of copies of business records shall be supported by a declaration, made under penalty of perjury, that denial of access to the records in question will either unduly interfere with the entity’s ability to conduct its regular course of business or obstruct the entity from fulfilling an affirmative obligation that it has under the law. Unless the government agency objects pursuant to subdivision (d), this declaration shall suffice if it makes a prima facie case that specific business activities or specific legal obligations faced by the entity would be impaired or impeded by the ongoing loss of records.

(b) (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), when a government agency seizes business records from an entity and is subsequently served with a demand for copies of those business records pursuant to subdivision (a), the government agency in possession of those records shall make copies of those records available to the entity within 10 court days of the service of the demand to produce copies of the records.

(2) In the alternative, the agency in possession of the original records, may in its discretion, make the original records reasonably available to the entity within 10 court days following the service of the demand to produce records, and allow the entity reasonable time to copy the records.

(3) No agency shall be required to make records available at times other than normal business hours.

(4) If data is recorded in a tangible medium, copies of the data may be provided in that same medium, or any other medium of which the entity may make reasonable use. If the data is stored electronically, electromagnetically, or photo-optically, the entity may obtain either a copy made by the same process in which the data is stored, or in the alternative, by any other tangible medium through which the entity may make reasonable use of the data.

(5) A government agency granting the entity access to the original records for the purpose of making copies of the records, may take reasonable steps to ensure the integrity and chain of custody of the business records.

(6) If the seized records are too voluminous to be reviewed or be copied in the time period required by subdivision (a), the government agency that seized the records may file a written motion with the court for additional time to review the records or make the copies. This motion shall be made within 10 court days of the service of the demand for the records. An extension of time under this paragraph shall not be granted unless the agency establishes that reviewing or producing copies of the records within the 10 court day time period, would create a hardship on the agency. If the court grants the motion, it shall make an order designating a timeframe for the review and the duplication and return of the business records, deferring to the entity the priority of the records to be reviewed, duplicated, and returned first.

(c) If a court finds that a declaration made by an entity as provided in subdivision (a) is adequate to establish the specified prima facie case, a government agency may refuse to produce copies of the business records or to grant access to the original records only under one or both of the following circumstances:

(1) The court determines by the preponderance of the evidence standard that denial of access to the business records or copies of the business records will not unduly interfere with the entity’s ability to conduct its regular course of business or obstruct the entity from fulfilling an affirmative obligation that it has under the law.

(2) The court determines by the preponderance of the evidence standard that possession of the business records by the entity will pose a significant risk of ongoing criminal activity, or that the business records are contraband, evidence of criminal conduct by the entity from which the records were seized, or depict a person under the age of 18 years personally engaging in or simulating sexual conduct, as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 311.4.

(d) A government agency that desires not to produce copies of, or grant access to, seized business records shall file a motion with the court requesting an order denying the entity copies of and access to the records. A motion under this paragraph shall be in writing, and filed and served upon the entity prior to the expiration of 10 court days following the service of the demand to produce records specified in subdivision (a), within any extension of that time period granted under paragraph (6) of subdivision (b), or as soon as reasonably possible after discovery of the risk of harm.

(e) A hearing on a motion under subdivision (d) shall be held within two court days of the filing of the motion, except upon agreement of the parties.

(f) (1) Upon filing a motion under subdivision (d) opposing a demand for copies of records, the government agency may file a request in writing, served upon the demanding entity, that any showings of why the material should not be copied and released occur in an ex parte, in camera hearing. If the government agency alleges in its request for an in camera hearing that the demanding entity is, or is likely to become, a target of the investigation resulting in the seizure of records, the court shall hold this hearing outside of the presence of the demanding entity, and any representatives or counsel of the demanding entity. If the government agency does not allege in its request for an in camera hearing that the demanding entity is, or is likely to become, a target of the investigation resulting in the seizure of records, the court shall hold the hearing in camera only upon a particular factual showing by the government agency in its pleadings that a hearing in open court would impede or interrupt an ongoing criminal investigation.

(2) At the in camera hearing, any evidence that the government agency may offer that the release of the material would pose a significant risk of ongoing criminal activity, impede or interrupt an ongoing criminal investigation, or both, shall be offered under oath. A reporter shall be present at the in camera hearing to transcribe the entirety of the proceedings.

(3) Any transcription of the proceedings at the in camera hearing, as well as any physical evidence presented at the hearing, shall be ordered sealed by the court, and only a court may have access to its contents, unless a court determines that the failure to disclose the contents of the hearing would deprive the defendant or the people of a fair trial.

(4) Following the conclusion of the in camera hearing, the court shall make its ruling in open court, after notice to the demanding entity.

(g) The reasonable and necessary costs of producing copies of business records under this section shall be borne by the entity requesting copies of the records. Either party may request the court to resolve any dispute regarding these costs.

(h) Any motion under this section shall be filed in the court that issued the search warrant.

(i) For purposes of this section, the following terms are defined as follows:

(1) “Seize” means obtaining actual possession of any property alleged by the entity to contain business records.

(2) “Business” means an entity, sole proprietorship, partnership, or corporation operating legally in the State of California, that sells, leases, distributes, creates, or otherwise offers products or services to customers.

(3) “Business records” means computer data, data compilations, accounts, books, reports, contracts, correspondence, inventories, lists, personnel files, payrolls, vendor and client lists, documents, or papers of the person or business normally used in the regular course of business, or any other material item of business recordkeeping that may become technologically feasible in the future.

(Added by Stats. 2004, Ch. 372, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2005.)

1537.
  

The officer must forthwith return the warrant to the magistrate, and deliver to him a written inventory of the property taken, made publicly or in the presence of the person from whose possession it was taken, and of the applicant for the warrant, if they are present, verified by the affidavit of the officer at the foot of the inventory, and taken before the magistrate at the time, to the following effect: “I, R. S., the officer by whom this warrant was executed, do swear that the above inventory contains a true and detailed account of all the property taken by me on the warrant.”

(Enacted 1872.)

1538.
  

The magistrate must thereupon, if required, deliver a copy of the inventory to the person from whose possession the property was taken, and to the applicant for the warrant.

(Enacted 1872.)

1538.5.
  

(a) (1) A defendant may move for the return of property or to suppress as evidence any tangible or intangible thing obtained as a result of a search or seizure on either of the following grounds:

(A) The search or seizure without a warrant was unreasonable.

(B) The search or seizure with a warrant was unreasonable because any of the following apply:

(i) The warrant is insufficient on its face.

(ii) The property or evidence obtained is not that described in the warrant.

(iii) There was not probable cause for the issuance of the warrant.

(iv) The method of execution of the warrant violated federal or state constitutional standards.

(v) There was any other violation of federal or state constitutional standards.

(2) A motion pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be made in writing and accompanied by a memorandum of points and authorities and proof of service. The memorandum shall list the specific items of property or evidence sought to be returned or suppressed and shall set forth the factual basis and the legal authorities that demonstrate why the motion should be granted.

(b) When consistent with the procedures set forth in this section and subject to the provisions of Sections 170 to 170.6, inclusive, of the Code of Civil Procedure, the motion should first be heard by the magistrate who issued the search warrant if there is a warrant.

(c) (1) Whenever a search or seizure motion is made in the superior court as provided in this section, the judge or magistrate shall receive evidence on any issue of fact necessary to determine the motion.

(2) While a witness is under examination during a hearing pursuant to a search or seizure motion, the judge or magistrate shall, upon motion of either party, do any of the following:

(A) Exclude all potential and actual witnesses who have not been examined.

(B) Order the witnesses not to converse with each other until they are all examined.

(C) Order, where feasible, that the witnesses be kept separated from each other until they are all examined.

(D) Hold a hearing, on the record, to determine if the person sought to be excluded is, in fact, a person excludable under this section.

(3) Either party may challenge the exclusion of any person under paragraph (2).

(4) Paragraph (2) does not apply to the investigating officer or the investigator for the defendant, nor does it apply to officers having custody of persons brought before the court.

(d) If a search or seizure motion is granted pursuant to the proceedings authorized by this section, the property or evidence shall not be admissible against the movant at any trial or other hearing unless further proceedings authorized by this section, Section 871.5, 1238, or 1466 are utilized by the people.

(e) If a search or seizure motion is granted at a trial, the property shall be returned upon order of the court unless it is otherwise subject to lawful detention. If the motion is granted at a special hearing, the property shall be returned upon order of the court only if, after the conclusion of any further proceedings authorized by this section, Section 1238 or 1466, the property is not subject to lawful detention or if the time for initiating the proceedings has expired, whichever occurs last. If the motion is granted at a preliminary hearing, the property shall be returned upon order of the court after 10 days unless the property is otherwise subject to lawful detention or unless, within that time, further proceedings authorized by this section, Section 871.5 or 1238 are utilized; if they are utilized, the property shall be returned only if, after the conclusion of the proceedings, the property is no longer subject to lawful detention.

(f) (1) If the property or evidence relates to a felony offense initiated by a complaint, the motion shall be made only upon filing of an information, except that the defendant may make the motion at the preliminary hearing, but the motion shall be restricted to evidence sought to be introduced by the people at the preliminary hearing.

(2) The motion may be made at the preliminary examination only if, at least five court days before the date set for the preliminary examination, the defendant has filed and personally served on the people a written motion accompanied by a memorandum of points and authorities as required by paragraph (2) of subdivision (a). At the preliminary examination, the magistrate may grant the defendant a continuance for the purpose of filing the motion and serving the motion upon the people, at least five court days before resumption of the examination, upon a showing that the defendant or his or her attorney of record was not aware of the evidence or was not aware of the grounds for suppression before the preliminary examination.

(3) Any written response by the people to the motion described in paragraph (2) shall be filed with the court and personally served on the defendant or his or her attorney of record at least two court days prior to the hearing at which the motion is to be made.

(g) If the property or evidence relates to a misdemeanor complaint, the motion shall be made before trial and heard prior to trial at a special hearing relating to the validity of the search or seizure. If the property or evidence relates to a misdemeanor filed together with a felony, the procedure provided for a felony in this section and Sections 1238 and 1539 shall be applicable.

(h) If, prior to the trial of a felony or misdemeanor, opportunity for this motion did not exist or the defendant was not aware of the grounds for the motion, the defendant shall have the right to make this motion during the course of trial.

(i) If the property or evidence obtained relates to a felony offense initiated by complaint and the defendant was held to answer at the preliminary hearing, or if the property or evidence relates to a felony offense initiated by indictment, the defendant shall have the right to renew or make the motion at a special hearing relating to the validity of the search or seizure which shall be heard prior to trial and at least 10 court days after notice to the people, unless the people are willing to waive a portion of this time. Any written response by the people to the motion shall be filed with the court and personally served on the defendant or his or her attorney of record at least two court days prior to the hearing, unless the defendant is willing to waive a portion of this time. If the offense was initiated by indictment or if the offense was initiated by complaint and no motion was made at the preliminary hearing, the defendant shall have the right to fully litigate the validity of a search or seizure on the basis of the evidence presented at a special hearing. If the motion was made at the preliminary hearing, unless otherwise agreed to by all parties, evidence presented at the special hearing shall be limited to the transcript of the preliminary hearing and to evidence that could not reasonably have been presented at the preliminary hearing, except that the people may recall witnesses who testified at the preliminary hearing. If the people object to the presentation of evidence at the special hearing on the grounds that the evidence could reasonably have been presented at the preliminary hearing, the defendant shall be entitled to an in camera hearing to determine that issue. The court shall base its ruling on all evidence presented at the special hearing and on the transcript of the preliminary hearing, and the findings of the magistrate shall be binding on the court as to evidence or property not affected by evidence presented at the special hearing. After the special hearing is held, any review thereafter desired by the defendant prior to trial shall be by means of an extraordinary writ of mandate or prohibition filed within 30 days after the denial of his or her motion at the special hearing.

(j) If the property or evidence relates to a felony offense initiated by complaint and the defendant’s motion for the return of the property or suppression of the evidence at the preliminary hearing is granted, and if the defendant is not held to answer at the preliminary hearing, the people may file a new complaint or seek an indictment after the preliminary hearing, and the ruling at the prior hearing shall not be binding in any subsequent proceeding, except as limited by subdivision (p). In the alternative, the people may move to reinstate the complaint, or those parts of the complaint for which the defendant was not held to answer, pursuant to Section 871.5. If the property or evidence relates to a felony offense initiated by complaint and the defendant’s motion for the return or suppression of the property or evidence at the preliminary hearing is granted, and if the defendant is held to answer at the preliminary hearing, the ruling at the preliminary hearing shall be binding upon the people unless, upon notice to the defendant and the court in which the preliminary hearing was held and upon the filing of an information, the people, within 15 days after the preliminary hearing, request a special hearing, in which case the validity of the search or seizure shall be relitigated de novo on the basis of the evidence presented at the special hearing, and the defendant shall be entitled, as a matter of right, to a continuance of the special hearing for a period of time up to 30 days. The people may not request relitigation of the motion at a special hearing if the defendant’s motion has been granted twice. If the defendant’s motion is granted at a special hearing, the people, if they have additional evidence relating to the motion and not presented at the special hearing, shall have the right to show good cause at the trial why the evidence was not presented at the special hearing and why the prior ruling at the special hearing should not be binding, or the people may seek appellate review as provided in subdivision (o), unless the court, prior to the time the review is sought, has dismissed the case pursuant to Section 1385. If the case has been dismissed pursuant to Section 1385, either on the court’s own motion or the motion of the people after the special hearing, the people may file a new complaint or seek an indictment after the special hearing, and the ruling at the special hearing shall not be binding in any subsequent proceeding, except as limited by subdivision (p). If the property or evidence seized relates solely to a misdemeanor complaint, and the defendant made a motion for the return of property or the suppression of evidence in the superior court prior to trial, both the people and defendant shall have the right to appeal any decision of that court relating to that motion to the appellate division, in accordance with the California Rules of Court provisions governing appeals to the appellate division in criminal cases. If the people prosecute review by appeal or writ to decision, or any review thereof, in a felony or misdemeanor case, it shall be binding upon them.

(k) If the defendant’s motion to return property or suppress evidence is granted and the case is dismissed pursuant to Section 1385, or the people appeal in a misdemeanor case pursuant to subdivision (j), the defendant shall be released pursuant to Section 1318 if he or she is in custody and not returned to custody unless the proceedings are resumed in the trial court and he or she is lawfully ordered by the court to be returned to custody.

If the defendant’s motion to return property or suppress evidence is granted and the people file a petition for writ of mandate or prohibition pursuant to subdivision (o) or a notice of intention to file a petition, the defendant shall be released pursuant to Section 1318, unless (1) he or she is charged with a capital offense in a case where the proof is evident and the presumption great, or (2) he or she is charged with a noncapital offense defined in Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 187) of Title 8 of Part 1, and the court orders that the defendant be discharged from actual custody upon bail.

(l) If the defendant’s motion to return property or suppress evidence is granted, the trial of a criminal case shall be stayed to a specified date pending the termination in the appellate courts of this state of the proceedings provided for in this section, Section 871.5, 1238, or 1466 and, except upon stipulation of the parties, pending the time for the initiation of these proceedings. Upon the termination of these proceedings, the defendant shall be brought to trial as provided by Section 1382, and, subject to the provisions of Section 1382, whenever the people have sought and been denied appellate review pursuant to subdivision (o), the defendant shall be entitled to have the action dismissed if he or she is not brought to trial within 30 days of the date of the order that is the last denial of the petition. Nothing contained in this subdivision shall prohibit a court, at the same time as it rules upon the search and seizure motion, from dismissing a case pursuant to Section 1385 when the dismissal is upon the court’s own motion and is based upon an order at the special hearing granting the defendant’s motion to return property or suppress evidence. In a misdemeanor case, the defendant shall be entitled to a continuance of up to 30 days if he or she intends to file a motion to return property or suppress evidence and needs this time to prepare for the special hearing on the motion. In case of an appeal by the defendant in a misdemeanor case from the denial of the motion, he or she shall be entitled to bail as a matter of right, and, in the discretion of the trial or appellate court, may be released on his or her own recognizance pursuant to Section 1318. In the case of an appeal by the defendant in a misdemeanor case from the denial of the motion, the trial court may, in its discretion, order or deny a stay of further proceedings pending disposition of the appeal.

(m) The proceedings provided for in this section, and Sections 871.5, 995, 1238, and 1466 shall constitute the sole and exclusive remedies prior to conviction to test the unreasonableness of a search or seizure where the person making the motion for the return of property or the suppression of evidence is a defendant in a criminal case and the property or thing has been offered or will be offered as evidence against him or her. A defendant may seek further review of the validity of a search or seizure on appeal from a conviction in a criminal case notwithstanding the fact that the judgment of conviction is predicated upon a plea of guilty. Review on appeal may be obtained by the defendant provided that at some stage of the proceedings prior to conviction he or she has moved for the return of property or the suppression of the evidence.

(n) This section establishes only the procedure for suppression of evidence and return of property, and does not establish or alter any substantive ground for suppression of evidence or return of property. Nothing contained in this section shall prohibit a person from making a motion, otherwise permitted by law, to return property, brought on the ground that the property obtained is protected by the free speech and press provisions of the United States and California Constitutions. Nothing in this section shall be construed as altering (1) the law of standing to raise the issue of an unreasonable search or seizure; (2) the law relating to the status of the person conducting the search or seizure; (3) the law relating to the burden of proof regarding the search or seizure; (4) the law relating to the reasonableness of a search or seizure regardless of any warrant that may have been utilized; or (5) the procedure and law relating to a motion made pursuant to Section 871.5 or 995, or the procedures that may be initiated after the granting or denial of a motion.

(o) Within 30 days after a defendant’s motion is granted at a special hearing in a felony case, the people may file a petition for writ of mandate or prohibition in the court of appeal, seeking appellate review of the ruling regarding the search or seizure motion. If the trial of a criminal case is set for a date that is less than 30 days from the granting of a defendant’s motion at a special hearing in a felony case, the people, if they have not filed a petition and wish to preserve their right to file a petition, shall file in the superior court on or before the trial date or within 10 days after the special hearing, whichever occurs last, a notice of intention to file a petition and shall serve a copy of the notice upon the defendant.

(p) If a defendant’s motion to return property or suppress evidence in a felony matter has been granted twice, the people may not file a new complaint or seek an indictment in order to relitigate the motion or relitigate the matter de novo at a special hearing as otherwise provided by subdivision (j), unless the people discover additional evidence relating to the motion that was not reasonably discoverable at the time of the second suppression hearing. Relitigation of the motion shall be heard by the same judge who granted the motion at the first hearing if the judge is available.

(q) The amendments to this section enacted in the 1997 portion of the 1997–98 Regular Session of the Legislature shall apply to all criminal proceedings conducted on or after January 1, 1998.

(Amended by Stats. 2007, Ch. 302, Sec. 19. Effective January 1, 2008.)

1539.
  

(a) If a special hearing is held in a felony case pursuant to Section 1538.5, or if the grounds on which the warrant was issued are controverted and a motion to return property is made (i) by a defendant on grounds not covered by Section 1538.5, (ii) by a defendant whose property has not been offered or will not be offered as evidence against the defendant, or (iii) by a person who is not a defendant in a criminal action at the time the hearing is held, the judge or magistrate shall proceed to take testimony in relation thereto, and the testimony of each witness shall be reduced to writing and authenticated by a shorthand reporter in the manner prescribed in Section 869.

(b) The reporter shall forthwith transcribe the reporter’s shorthand notes pursuant to this section if any party to a special hearing in a felony case files a written request for its preparation with the clerk of the court in which the hearing was held. The reporter shall forthwith file in the superior court an original and as many copies thereof as there are defendants (other than a fictitious defendant) or persons aggrieved. The reporter is entitled to compensation in accordance with the provisions of Section 869. In every case in which a transcript is filed as provided in this section, the clerk of the court shall deliver the original of the transcript so filed to the district attorney immediately upon receipt thereof and shall deliver a copy of the transcript to each defendant (other than a fictitious defendant) upon demand without cost to the defendant.

(c) Upon a motion by a defendant pursuant to this chapter, the defendant is entitled to discover any previous application for a search warrant in the case which was refused by a magistrate for lack of probable cause.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 71, Sec. 7. Effective January 1, 2003.)

1540.
  

If it appears that the property taken is not the same as that described in the warrant, or that there is no probable cause for believing the existence of the grounds on which the warrant was issued, the magistrate must cause it to be restored to the person from whom it was taken.

(Enacted 1872.)

1541.
  

The magistrate must annex the affidavit, or affidavits, the search warrant and return, and the inventory, and if he has not power to inquire into the offense in respect to which the warrant was issued, he must at once file such warrant and return and such affidavit, or affidavits, and inventory with the clerk of the court having power to so inquire.

(Amended by Stats. 1957, Ch. 1881.)

1542.
  

When a person charged with a felony is supposed by the magistrate before whom he is brought to have on his person a dangerous weapon, or anything which may be used as evidence of the commission of the offense, the magistrate may direct him to be searched in his presence, and the weapon or other thing to be retained, subject to his order, or to the order of the Court in which the defendant may be tried.

(Enacted 1872.)

1542.5.
  

Notwithstanding any other law, with regards to a search warrant issued upon the grounds specified in paragraph (14) of subdivision (a) of Section 1524, the following shall apply:

(a) The law enforcement officer executing the warrant shall take custody of any firearm or ammunition that is in the restrained person’s custody or control or possession or that is owned by the restrained person, which is discovered pursuant to a consensual or other lawful search.

(b) (1) If the location to be searched during the execution of the warrant is jointly occupied by the restrained person and one or more other persons and a law enforcement officer executing the warrant finds a firearm or ammunition in the restrained person’s custody or control or possession, but that is owned by a person other than the restrained person, the firearm or ammunition shall not be seized if both of the following conditions are satisfied:

(A) The firearm or ammunition is removed from the restrained person’s custody or control or possession and stored in a manner that the restrained person does not have access to or control of the firearm or ammunition.

(B) There is no evidence of unlawful possession of the firearm or ammunition by the owner of the firearm or ammunition.

(2) If the location to be searched during the execution of the warrant is jointly occupied by the restrained person and one or more other persons and a locked gun safe is located that is owned by a person other than the restrained person, the contents of the gun safe shall not be searched except in the owner’s presence, and with his or her consent or with a valid search warrant for the gun safe.

(c) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2016.

(Added by Stats. 2014, Ch. 872, Sec. 2. (AB 1014) Effective January 1, 2015. Section operative January 1, 2016, by its own provisions.)

PENPenal Code - PEN