Code Section Group

Penal Code - PEN

PART 2. OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE [681 - 1620]

  ( Part 2 enacted 1872. )

TITLE 6. PLEADINGS AND PROCEEDINGS BEFORE TRIAL [976 - 1054.10]

  ( Heading of Title 6 amended by Stats. 1951, Ch. 1674. )

CHAPTER 1. Of the Arraignment of the Defendant [976 - 993]
  ( Chapter 1 enacted by Stats. 1872. )

976.
  

(a) When the accusatory pleading is filed, the defendant shall be arraigned thereon before the court in which it is filed, unless the action is transferred to some other court for trial. However, within any county, if the defendant is in custody, upon the approval of both the presiding judge of the court in which the accusatory pleading is filed and the presiding judge of the court nearest to the place in which he or she is held in custody the arraignment may be before the court nearest to that place of custody.

(b) A defendant arrested in another county shall have the right to be taken before a magistrate in the arresting county for the purpose of being admitted to bail, as provided in Section 821 or 822. The defendant shall be informed of this right.

(c) Prior to being taken from the place where he or she is in custody to the place where he or she is to be arraigned, the defendent shall be allowed to make three completed telephone calls, at no expense to the defendant, in addition to any other telephone calls which the defendant is entitled to make pursuant to law.

(Amended by Stats. 1982, Ch. 395, Sec. 1.)

977.
  

(a) (1) In all cases in which the accused is charged with a misdemeanor only, he or she may appear by counsel only, except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3). If the accused agrees, the initial court appearance, arraignment, and plea may be by video, as provided by subdivision (c).

(2) If the accused is charged with a misdemeanor offense involving domestic violence, as defined in Section 6211 of the Family Code, or a misdemeanor violation of Section 273.6, the accused shall be present for arraignment and sentencing, and at any time during the proceedings when ordered by the court for the purpose of being informed of the conditions of a protective order issued pursuant to Section 136.2.

(3) If the accused is charged with a misdemeanor offense involving driving under the influence, in an appropriate case, the court may order a defendant to be present for arraignment, at the time of plea, or at sentencing. For purposes of this paragraph, a misdemeanor offense involving driving under the influence shall include a misdemeanor violation of any of the following:

(A) Subdivision (b) of Section 191.5.

(B) Section 23103 as specified in Section 23103.5 of the Vehicle Code.

(C) Section 23152 of the Vehicle Code.

(D) Section 23153 of the Vehicle Code.

(b) (1) Except as provided in subdivision (c), in all cases in which a felony is charged, the accused shall be personally present at the arraignment, at the time of plea, during the preliminary hearing, during those portions of the trial when evidence is taken before the trier of fact, and at the time of the imposition of sentence. The accused shall be personally present at all other proceedings unless he or she shall, with leave of court, execute in open court, a written waiver of his or her right to be personally present, as provided by paragraph (2). If the accused agrees, the initial court appearance, arraignment, and plea may be by video, as provided by subdivision (c).

(2) The accused may execute a written waiver of his or her right to be personally present, approved by his or her counsel, and the waiver shall be filed with the court. However, the court may specifically direct the defendant to be personally present at any particular proceeding or portion thereof. The waiver shall be substantially in the following form:

“Waiver of Defendant’s Personal Presence”

“The undersigned defendant, having been advised of his or her right to be present at all stages of the proceedings, including, but not limited to, presentation of and arguments on questions of fact and law, and to be confronted by and cross-examine all witnesses, hereby waives the right to be present at the hearing of any motion or other proceeding in this cause. The undersigned defendant hereby requests the court to proceed during every absence of the defendant that the court may permit pursuant to this waiver, and hereby agrees that his or her interest is represented at all times by the presence of his or her attorney the same as if the defendant were personally present in court, and further agrees that notice to his or her attorney that his or her presence in court on a particular day at a particular time is required is notice to the defendant of the requirement of his or her appearance at that time and place.”


(c) (1) The court may permit the initial court appearance and arraignment of defendants held in any state, county, or local facility within the county on felony or misdemeanor charges, except for those defendants who were indicted by a grand jury, to be conducted by two-way electronic audiovideo communication between the defendant and the courtroom in lieu of the physical presence of the defendant in the courtroom. If the defendant is represented by counsel, the attorney shall be present with the defendant at the initial court appearance and arraignment, and may enter a plea during the arraignment. However, if the defendant is represented by counsel at an arraignment on an information in a felony case, and if the defendant does not plead guilty or nolo contendere to any charge, the attorney shall be present with the defendant or if the attorney is not present with the defendant, the attorney shall be present in court during the hearing. The defendant shall have the right to make his or her plea while physically present in the courtroom if he or she so requests. If the defendant decides not to exercise the right to be physically present in the courtroom, he or she shall execute a written waiver of that right. A judge may order a defendant’s personal appearance in court for the initial court appearance and arraignment. In a misdemeanor case, a judge may, pursuant to this subdivision, accept a plea of guilty or no contest from a defendant who is not physically in the courtroom. In a felony case, a judge may, pursuant to this subdivision, accept a plea of guilty or no contest from a defendant who is not physically in the courtroom if the parties stipulate thereto.

(2) (A) A defendant who does not wish to be personally present for noncritical portions of the trial when no testimonial evidence is taken may make an oral waiver in open court prior to the proceeding or may submit a written request to the court, which the court may grant in its discretion. The court may, when a defendant has waived the right to be personally present, require a defendant held in any state, county, or local facility within the county on felony or misdemeanor charges to be present for noncritical portions of the trial when no testimonial evidence is taken, including, but not limited to, confirmation of the preliminary hearing, status conferences, trial readiness conferences, discovery motions, receipt of records, the setting of the trial date, a motion to vacate the trial date, and motions in limine, by two-way electronic audiovideo communication between the defendant and the courtroom in lieu of the physical presence of the defendant in the courtroom. If the defendant is represented by counsel, the attorney shall not be required to be personally present with the defendant for noncritical portions of the trial, if the audiovideo conferencing system or other technology allows for private communication between the defendant and the attorney prior to and during the noncritical portion of trial. Any private communication shall be confidential and privileged pursuant to Section 952 of the Evidence Code.

(B) This paragraph does not expand or limit the right of a defendant to be personally present with his or her counsel at a particular proceeding as required by Section 15 of Article 1 of the California Constitution.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 167, Sec. 1. (AB 2397) Effective January 1, 2015.)

977.1.
  

The resolution of questions of fact or issues of law by trial or hearing which can be made without the assistance or participation of the defendant is not prohibited by the existence of any pending proceeding to determine whether the defendant is or remains mentally incompetent or gravely disabled pursuant to the provisions of either this code or the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(Added by Stats. 1974, Ch. 1511.)

977.2.
  

(a) Notwithstanding Section 977 or any other law, in any case in which the defendant is charged with a misdemeanor or a felony and is currently incarcerated in the state prison, the Department of Corrections may arrange for all court appearances in superior court, except for the preliminary hearing, trial, judgment and sentencing, and motions to suppress, to be conducted by two-way electronic audiovideo communication between the defendant and the courtroom in lieu of the physical presence of the defendant in the courtroom. Nothing in this section shall be interpreted to eliminate the authority of the court to issue an order requiring the defendant to be physically present in the courtroom in those cases where the court finds circumstances that require the physical presence of the defendant in the courtroom. For those court appearances that the department determines to conduct by two-way electronic audiovideo communication, the department shall arrange for two-way electronic audiovideo communication between the superior court and any state prison facility located in the county. The department shall provide properly maintained equipment and adequately trained staff at the prison as well as appropriate training for court staff to ensure that consistently effective two-way communication is provided between the prison facility and the courtroom for all appearances that the department determines to conduct by two-way electronic audiovideo communication.

(b) If the defendant is represented by counsel, the attorney shall be present with the defendant at the initial court appearance and arraignment, and may enter a plea during the arraignment. However, if the defendant is represented by counsel at an arraignment on an information or indictment in a felony case, and if the defendant does not plead guilty or nolo contendere to any charge, the attorney shall be present with the defendant or if the attorney is not present with the defendant, the attorney shall be present in court during the hearing.

(c) In lieu of the physical presence of the defendant’s counsel at the institution with the defendant, the court and the department shall establish a confidential telephone and facsimile transmission line between the court and the institution for communication between the defendant’s counsel in court and the defendant at the institution. In this case, counsel for the defendant shall not be required to be physically present at the institution during any court appearance that is conducted via electronic audiovideo communication. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the physical presence of the defense counsel with the defendant at the state prison.

(Amended by Stats. 2007, Ch. 43, Sec. 19. Effective January 1, 2008.)

978.
  

When his personal appearance is necessary, if he is in custody, the Court may direct and the officer in whose custody he is must bring him before it to be arraigned.

(Enacted 1872.)

978.5.
  

(a) A bench warrant of arrest may be issued whenever a defendant fails to appear in court as required by law including, but not limited to, the following situations:

(1) If the defendant is ordered by a judge or magistrate to personally appear in court at a specific time and place.

(2) If the defendant is released from custody on bail and is ordered by a judge or magistrate, or other person authorized to accept bail, to personally appear in court at a specific time and place.

(3) If the defendant is released from custody on his own recognizance and promises to personally appear in court at a specific time and place.

(4) If the defendant is released from custody or arrest upon citation by a peace officer or other person authorized to issue citations and the defendant has signed a promise to personally appear in court at a specific time and place.

(5) If a defendant is authorized to appear by counsel and the court or magistrate orders that the defendant personally appear in court at a specific time and place.

(6) If an information or indictment has been filed in the superior court and the court has fixed the date and place for the defendant personally to appear for arraignment.

(7) If a defendant has been cited or arrested for misdemeanor or felony theft from a store or vehicle and has failed to appear in court in connection with that charge or those charges in the previous six months.

(b) The bench warrant may be served in any county in the same manner as a warrant of arrest.

(c) This section shall remain in effect only until January 1, 2021, and as of that date is repealed.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 803, Sec. 5. (AB 1065) Effective January 1, 2019. Repealed as of January 1, 2021, by its own provisions. See later operative version added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 803.)

978.5.
  

(a) A bench warrant of arrest may be issued whenever a defendant fails to appear in court as required by law including, but not limited to, the following situations:

(1) If the defendant is ordered by a judge or magistrate to personally appear in court at a specific time and place.

(2) If the defendant is released from custody on bail and is ordered by a judge or magistrate, or other person authorized to accept bail, to personally appear in court at a specific time and place.

(3) If the defendant is released from custody on his own recognizance and promises to personally appear in court at a specific time and place.

(4) If the defendant is released from custody or arrest upon citation by a peace officer or other person authorized to issue citations and the defendant has signed a promise to personally appear in court at a specific time and place.

(5) If a defendant is authorized to appear by counsel and the court or magistrate orders that the defendant personally appear in court at a specific time and place.

(6) If an information or indictment has been filed in the superior court and the court has fixed the date and place for the defendant personally to appear for arraignment.

(b) The bench warrant may be served in any county in the same manner as a warrant of arrest.

(c) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2021.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 803, Sec. 6. (AB 1065) Effective January 1, 2019. Section operative January 1, 2021, by its own provisions.)

979.
  

If the defendant has been discharged on bail or has deposited money or other property instead thereof, and does not appear to be arraigned when his personal presence is necessary, the court, in addition to the forfeiture of the undertaking of bail or of the money or other property deposited, may order the issuance of a bench warrant for his arrest.

(Amended by Stats. 1951, Ch. 1674.)

980.
  

(a) At any time after the order for a bench warrant is made, whether the court is sitting or not, the clerk may issue a bench warrant to one or more counties.

(b) The clerk shall require the appropriate agency to enter each bench warrant issued on a private surety-bonded felony case into the national warrant system (National Crime Information Center (NCIC)). If the appropriate agency fails to enter the bench warrant into the national warrant system (NCIC), and the court finds that this failure prevented the surety or bond agent from surrendering the fugitive into custody, prevented the fugitive from being arrested or taken into custody, or resulted in the fugitive’s subsequent release from custody, the court having jurisdiction over the bail shall, upon petition, set aside the forfeiture of the bond and declare all liability on the bail bond to be exonerated.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 520, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1999.)

981.
  

The bench warrant must be substantially in the following form:

County of ____. The People of the State of California to any Sheriff, Marshal, or Policeman in this State: An accusatory pleading having been filed on the ____ day of ____, A.D. ____, in the Superior Court of the County of ____, charging C. D. with the crime of ____ (designating it generally); you are, therefore, commanded forthwith to arrest the above named C. D., and bring him or her before that Court (or if the accusatory pleading has been sent to another Court, then before that Court, naming it), to answer said accusatory pleading, or if the Court is not in session, that you deliver him or her into the custody of the Sheriff of the County of ____.

Given under my hand, with the seal of said Court affixed, this ____ day of ____, A.D. ____.

By order of said Court.

[seal.]

E. F., Clerk.

(Amended by Stats. 2003, Ch. 468, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2004.)

982.
  

The defendant, when arrested under a warrant for an offense not bailable, must be held in custody by the Sheriff of the county in which the indictment is found or information filed, unless admitted to bail after an examination upon a writ of habeas corpus; but if the offense is bailable, there must be added to the body of the bench warrant a direction to the following effect: “Or, if he requires it, that you take him before any magistrate in that county, or in the county in which you arrest him, that he may give bail to answer to the indictment (or information);” and the Court, upon directing it to issue, must fix the amount of bail, and an indorsement must be made thereon and signed by the Clerk, to the following effect: “The defendant is to be admitted to bail in the sum of ____ dollars.”

(Amended by Code Amendments 1880, Ch. 47.)

983.
  

The bench warrant may be served in any county in the same manner as a warrant of arrest.

(Amended by Stats. 1951, Ch. 1674.)

984.
  

If the defendant is brought before a magistrate of another county for the purpose of giving bail, the magistrate must proceed in respect thereto in the same manner as if the defendant had been brought before him upon a warrant of arrest, and the same proceedings must be had thereon.

(Enacted 1872.)

985.
  

When the information or indictment is for a felony, and the defendant, before the filing thereof, has given bail for his appearance to answer the charge, the Court to which the indictment or information is presented, or in which it is pending, may order the defendant to be committed to actual custody, unless he gives bail in an increased amount, to be specified in the order.

(Amended by Code Amendments 1880, Ch. 47.)

986.
  

If the defendant is present when the order is made, he must be forthwith committed. If he is not present, a bench warrant must be issued and proceeded upon in the manner provided in this chapter.

(Enacted 1872.)

987.
  

(a) In a noncapital case, if the defendant appears for arraignment without counsel, he or she shall be informed by the court that it is his or her right to have counsel before being arraigned, and shall be asked if he or she desires the assistance of counsel. If he or she desires and is unable to employ counsel the court shall assign counsel to defend him or her.

(b) In a capital case, if the defendant appears for arraignment without counsel, the court shall inform him or her that he or she shall be represented by counsel at all stages of the preliminary and trial proceedings and that the representation is at his or her expense if he or she is able to employ counsel or at public expense if he or she is unable to employ counsel, inquire of him or her whether he or she is able to employ counsel and, if so, whether he or she desires to employ counsel of his or her choice or to have counsel assigned, and allow him or her a reasonable time to send for his or her chosen or assigned counsel. If the defendant is unable to employ counsel, the court shall assign counsel to defend him or her. If the defendant is able to employ counsel and either refuses to employ counsel or appears without counsel after having had a reasonable time to employ counsel, the court shall assign counsel.

The court shall at the first opportunity inform the defendant’s trial counsel, whether retained by the defendant or court-appointed, of the additional duties imposed upon trial counsel in any capital case as set forth in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 1240.1.

(c) In order to assist the court in determining whether a defendant is able to employ counsel in any case, the court may require a defendant to file a financial statement or other financial information under penalty of perjury with the court or, in its discretion, order a defendant to appear before a county officer designated by the court to make an inquiry into the ability of the defendant to employ his or her own counsel. If a county officer is designated, the county officer shall provide to the court a written recommendation and the reason or reasons in support of the recommendation. The determination by the court shall be made on the record. Except as provided in Section 1214, the financial statement or other financial information obtained from the defendant shall be confidential and privileged and shall not be admissible in evidence in any criminal proceeding except the prosecution of an alleged offense of perjury based upon false material contained in the financial statement. The financial statement shall be made available to the prosecution only for purposes of investigation of an alleged offense of perjury based upon false material contained in the financial statement at the conclusion of the proceedings for which the financial statement was required to be submitted. The financial statement and other financial information obtained from the defendant shall not be confidential and privileged in a proceeding under Section 987.8.

(d) In a capital case, the court may appoint an additional attorney as a cocounsel upon a written request of the first attorney appointed. The request shall be supported by an affidavit of the first attorney setting forth in detail the reasons why a second attorney should be appointed. Any affidavit filed with the court shall be confidential and privileged. The court shall appoint a second attorney when it is convinced by the reasons stated in the affidavit that the appointment is necessary to provide the defendant with effective representation. If the request is denied, the court shall state on the record its reasons for denial of the request.

(e) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2000.

(Repealed (in Sec. 3) and added by Stats. 1998, Ch. 587, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 1999. Section operative January 1, 2000, by its own provisions.)

987.05.
  

In assigning defense counsel in felony cases, whether it is the public defender or private counsel, the court shall only assign counsel who represents, on the record, that he or she will be ready to proceed with the preliminary hearing or trial, as the case may be, within the time provisions prescribed in this code for preliminary hearings and trials, except in those unusual cases where the court finds that, due to the nature of the case, counsel cannot reasonably be expected to be ready within the presecribed period if he or she were to begin preparing the case forthwith and continue to make diligent and constant efforts to be ready. In the case where the time of preparation for preliminary hearing or trial is deemed greater than the statutory time, the court shall set a reasonable time period for preparation. In making this determination, the court shall not consider counsel’s convenience, counsel’s calendar conflicts, or counsel’s other business. The court may allow counsel a reasonable time to become familiar with the case in order to determine whether he or she can be ready. In cases where counsel, after making representations that he or she will be ready for preliminary examination or trial, and without good cause is not ready on the date set, the court may relieve counsel from the case and may impose sanctions upon counsel, including, but not limited to, finding the assigned counsel in contempt of court, imposing a fine, or denying any public funds as compensation for counsel’s services. Both the prosecuting attorney and defense counsel shall have a right to present evidence and argument as to a reasonable length of time for preparation and on any reasons why counsel could not be prepared in the set time.

(Added June 5, 1990, by initiative Proposition 115, Sec. 20.)

987.1.
  

Counsel at the preliminary examination shall continue to represent a defendant who has been ordered to stand trial for a felony until the date set for arraignment on the information unless relieved by the court upon the substitution of other counsel or for cause.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 931, Sec. 377. Effective September 28, 1998.)

987.2.
  

(a) In any case in which a person, including a person who is a minor, desires but is unable to employ counsel, and in which counsel is assigned in the superior court to represent the person in a criminal trial, proceeding, or appeal, the following assigned counsel shall receive a reasonable sum for compensation and for necessary expenses, the amount of which shall be determined by the court, to be paid out of the general fund of the county:

(1) In a county or city and county in which there is no public defender.

(2) In a county of the first, second, or third class where there is no contract for criminal defense services between the county and one or more responsible attorneys.

(3) In a case in which the court finds that, because of a conflict of interest or other reasons, the public defender has properly refused.

(4) In a county of the first, second, or third class where attorneys contracted by the county are unable to represent the person accused.

(b) The sum provided for in subdivision (a) may be determined by contract between the court and one or more responsible attorneys after consultation with the board of supervisors as to the total amount of compensation and expenses to be paid, which shall be within the amount of funds allocated by the board of supervisors for the cost of assigned counsel in those cases.

(c) In counties that utilize an assigned private counsel system as either the primary method of public defense or as the method of appointing counsel in cases where the public defender is unavailable, the county, the courts, or the local county bar association working with the courts are encouraged to do all of the following:

(1) Establish panels that shall be open to members of the State Bar of California.

(2) Categorize attorneys for panel placement on the basis of experience.

(3) Refer cases to panel members on a rotational basis within the level of experience of each panel, except that a judge may exclude an individual attorney from appointment to an individual case for good cause.

(4) Seek to educate those panel members through an approved training program.

(5) Establish a cost-efficient plan to ensure maximum recovery of costs pursuant to Section 987.8.

(d) In a county of the first, second, or third class, the court shall first utilize the services of the public defender to provide criminal defense services for indigent defendants. In the event that the public defender is unavailable and the county and the courts have contracted with one or more responsible attorneys or with a panel of attorneys to provide criminal defense services for indigent defendants, the court shall utilize the services of the county-contracted attorneys prior to assigning any other private counsel. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to require the appointment of counsel in any case in which the counsel has a conflict of interest. In the interest of justice, a court may depart from that portion of the procedure requiring appointment of a county-contracted attorney after making a finding of good cause and stating the reasons therefor on the record.

(e) In a county of the first, second, or third class, the court shall first utilize the services of the public defender to provide criminal defense services for indigent defendants. In the event that the public defender is unavailable and the county has created a second public defender and contracted with one or more responsible attorneys or with a panel of attorneys to provide criminal defense services for indigent defendants, and if the quality of representation provided by the second public defender is comparable to the quality of representation provided by the public defender, the court shall next utilize the services of the second public defender and then the services of the county-contracted attorneys prior to assigning any other private counsel. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to require the appointment of counsel in any case in which the counsel has a conflict of interest. In the interest of justice, a court may depart from that portion of the procedure requiring appointment of the second public defender or a county-contracted attorney after making a finding of good cause and stating the reasons therefor on the record.

(f) In any case in which counsel is assigned as provided in subdivision (a), that counsel appointed by the court and any court-appointed licensed private investigator shall have the same rights and privileges to information as the public defender and the public defender investigator. It is the intent of the Legislature in enacting this subdivision to equalize any disparity that exists between the ability of private, court-appointed counsel and investigators, and public defenders and public defender investigators, to represent their clients. This subdivision is not intended to grant to private investigators access to any confidential Department of Motor Vehicles’ information not otherwise available to them. This subdivision is not intended to extend to private investigators the right to issue subpoenas.

(g) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, where an indigent defendant is first charged in one county and establishes an attorney-client relationship with the public defender, defense services contract attorney, or private attorney, and where the defendant is then charged with an offense in a second or subsequent county, the court in the second or subsequent county may appoint the same counsel as was appointed in the first county to represent the defendant when all of the following conditions are met:

(1) The offense charged in the second or subsequent county would be joinable for trial with the offense charged in the first if it took place in the same county, or involves evidence which would be cross-admissible.

(2) The court finds that the interests of justice and economy will be best served by unitary representation.

(3) Counsel appointed in the first county consents to the appointment.

(h) The county may recover costs of public defender services under Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 4750) of Title 5 of Part 3 for any case subject to Section 4750.

(i) Counsel shall be appointed to represent, in a misdemeanor case, a person who desires but is unable to employ counsel, when it appears that the appointment is necessary to provide an adequate and effective defense for the defendant. Appointment of counsel in an infraction case is governed by Section 19.6.

(j) As used in this section, “county of the first, second, or third class” means the county of the first class, county of the second class, and county of the third class as provided by Sections 28020, 28022, 28023, and 28024 of the Government Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 784, Sec. 540. Effective January 1, 2003.)

987.3.
  

Whenever in this code a court-appointed attorney is entitled to reasonable compensation and necessary expenses, the judge of the court shall consider the following factors, no one of which alone shall be controlling:

(a) Customary fee in the community for similar services rendered by privately retained counsel to a nonindigent client.

(b) The time and labor required to be spent by the attorney.

(c) The difficulty of the defense.

(d) The novelty or uncertainty of the law upon which the decision depended.

(e) The degree of professional ability, skill, and experience called for and exercised in the performance of the services.

(f) The professional character, qualification, and standing of the attorney.

(Added by Stats. 1973, Ch. 101.)

987.4.
  

When the public defender or an assigned counsel represents a person who is a minor in a criminal proceeding, at the expense of a county, the court may order the parent or guardian of such minor to reimburse the county for all or any part of such expense, if it determines that the parent or guardian has the ability to pay such expense.

(Added by Stats. 1970, Ch. 723.)

987.5.
  

(a) Every defendant shall be assessed a registration fee not to exceed fifty dollars ($50) when represented by appointed counsel. Notwithstanding this subdivision, no fee shall be required of any defendant that is financially unable to pay the fee.

(b) At the time of appointment of counsel by the court, or upon commencement of representation by the public defender, if prior to court appointment, the defendant shall be asked if he or she is financially able to pay the registration fee or any portion thereof. If the defendant indicates that he or she is able to pay the fee or a portion thereof, the court or public defender shall make an assessment in accordance with ability to pay. No fee shall be assessed against any defendant who asserts that he or she is unable to pay the fee or any portion thereof. No other inquiry concerning the defendant’s ability to pay shall be made until proceedings are held pursuant to Section 987.8.

(c) No defendant shall be denied the assistance of appointed counsel due solely to a failure to pay the registration fee. An order to pay the registration fee may be enforced in the manner provided for enforcement of civil judgments generally, but may not be enforced by contempt.

(d) The fact that a defendant has or has not been assessed a fee pursuant to this section shall have no effect in any later proceedings held pursuant to Section 987.8, except that the defendant shall be given credit for any amounts paid as a registration fee toward any lien or assessment imposed pursuant to Section 987.8.

(e) This section shall be operative in a county only upon the adoption of a resolution or ordinance by the board of supervisors electing to establish the registration fee and setting forth the manner in which the funds shall be collected and distributed. Collection procedures, accounting measures, and the distribution of the funds received pursuant to this section shall be within the discretion of the board of supervisors.

(Amended by Stats. 2009, Ch. 606, Sec. 4. (SB 676) Effective January 1, 2010.)

987.6.
  

(a) From any state moneys made available to it for such purpose, the Department of Finance shall, pursuant to this section, pay to the counties an amount not to exceed 10 percent of the amounts actually expended by the counties in providing counsel in accordance with the law whether by public defender, assigned counsel, or both, for persons charged with violations of state criminal law or involuntarily detained under the Lanterman-Petris-Short Act, Division 5 (commencing with Section 5000) of the Welfare and Institutions Code, who desire, but are unable to afford, counsel.

(b) Application for payment shall be made in such manner and at such times as prescribed by the Department of Finance and the department may adopt rules necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section.

(Added by renumbering Section 987b by Stats. 1970, Ch. 723.)

987.8.
  

(a) If the court finds that a defendant is entitled to counsel but is unable to employ counsel, the court may hold a hearing or, in its discretion, order the defendant to appear before a county officer designated by the court, to determine whether the defendant owns or has an interest in real property or other assets subject to attachment and not otherwise exempt by law. The court may impose a lien on any real property owned by the defendant, or in which the defendant has an interest to the extent permitted by law. The lien shall contain a legal description of the property, shall be recorded with the county recorder in the county or counties in which the property is located, and shall have priority over subsequently recorded liens or encumbrances. The county shall have the right to enforce its lien for the payment of providing legal assistance to an indigent defendant in the same manner as other lienholders by way of attachment, except that a county shall not enforce its lien on a defendant’s principal place of residence pursuant to a writ of execution. No lien shall be effective as against a bona fide purchaser without notice of the lien.

(b) If a defendant is provided legal assistance, either through the public defender or private counsel appointed by the court, upon conclusion of the criminal proceedings in the trial court or upon the withdrawal of the public defender or appointed private counsel, the court may, after notice and a hearing, make a determination of the present ability of the defendant to pay all or a portion of the cost thereof. The court may, in its discretion, hold one such additional hearing within six months of the conclusion of the criminal proceedings. The court may, in its discretion, order the defendant to appear before a county officer designated by the court to make an inquiry into the ability of the defendant to pay all or a portion of the legal assistance provided.

(c) (1) If the defendant hires counsel replacing a publicly provided attorney; in which the public defender or appointed counsel was required by the court to proceed with the case after a determination by the public defender that the defendant is not indigent; or, in which the defendant, at the conclusion of the case, appears to have sufficient assets to repay, without undue hardship, all or a portion of the cost of the legal assistance provided to him or her, by monthly installments or otherwise; the court shall make a determination of the defendant’s ability to pay as provided in subdivision (b), and may, in its discretion, make other orders as provided in that subdivision.

(2) This subdivision applies to a county only upon the adoption of a resolution by the board of supervisors to that effect.

(d) If the defendant, after having been ordered to appear before a county officer, has been given proper notice and fails to appear before a county officer within 20 working days, the county officer shall recommend to the court that the full cost of the legal assistance be ordered to be paid by the defendant. The notice to the defendant shall contain all of the following:

(1) A statement of the cost of the legal assistance provided to the defendant as determined by the court.

(2) The defendant’s procedural rights under this section.

(3) The time limit within which the defendant’s response is required.

(4) A warning that if the defendant fails to appear before the designated officer, the officer will recommend that the court order the defendant to pay the full cost of the legal assistance provided to him or her.

(e) (1) At a hearing, the defendant shall be entitled to, but shall not be limited to, all of the following rights:

(A) The right to be heard in person.

(B) The right to present witnesses and other documentary evidence.

(C) The right to confront and cross-examine adverse witnesses.

(D) The right to have the evidence against him or her disclosed to him or her.

(E) The right to a written statement of the findings of the court.

(2) If the court determines that the defendant has the present ability to pay all or a part of the cost, the court shall set the amount to be reimbursed and order the defendant to pay the sum to the county in the manner in which the court believes reasonable and compatible with the defendant’s financial ability. Failure of a defendant who is not in custody to appear after due notice is a sufficient basis for an order directing the defendant to pay the full cost of the legal assistance determined by the court. The order to pay all or a part of the costs may be enforced in the manner provided for enforcement of money judgments generally but may not be enforced by contempt.

(3) An order entered under this subdivision is subject to relief under Section 473 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

(f) Prior to the furnishing of counsel or legal assistance by the court, the court shall give notice to the defendant that the court may, after a hearing, make a determination of the present ability of the defendant to pay all or a portion of the cost of counsel. The court shall also give notice that, if the court determines that the defendant has the present ability, the court shall order him or her to pay all or a part of the cost. The notice shall inform the defendant that the order shall have the same force and effect as a judgment in a civil action and shall be subject to enforcement against the property of the defendant in the same manner as any other money judgment.

(g) As used in this section:

(1) “Legal assistance” means legal counsel and supportive services including, but not limited to, medical and psychiatric examinations, investigative services, expert testimony, or any other form of services provided to assist the defendant in the preparation and presentation of his or her case.

(2) “Ability to pay” means the overall capability of the defendant to reimburse the costs, or a portion of the costs, of the legal assistance provided to him or her, and shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following:

(A) The defendant’s present financial position.

(B) The defendant’s reasonably discernible future financial position. In no event shall the court consider a period of more than six months from the date of the hearing for purposes of determining the defendant’s reasonably discernible future financial position. Unless the court finds unusual circumstances, a defendant sentenced to state prison, or to county jail for a period longer than 364 days, including, but not limited to, a sentence imposed pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170, shall be determined not to have a reasonably discernible future financial ability to reimburse the costs of his or her defense.

(C) The likelihood that the defendant shall be able to obtain employment within a six-month period from the date of the hearing.

(D) Any other factor or factors that may bear upon the defendant’s financial capability to reimburse the county for the costs of the legal assistance provided to the defendant.

(h) At any time during the pendency of the judgment rendered according to the terms of this section, a defendant against whom a judgment has been rendered may petition the rendering court to modify or vacate its previous judgment on the grounds of a change in circumstances with regard to the defendant’s ability to pay the judgment. The court shall advise the defendant of this right at the time it renders the judgment.

(i) This section shall apply to all proceedings, including contempt proceedings, in which the party is represented by a public defender or appointed counsel and is convicted of a felony or a misdemeanor.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 62, Sec. 1. (SB 355) Effective January 1, 2018.)

987.81.
  

(a) If a defendant is provided legal assistance, either through the public defender or private counsel appointed by the court, upon conclusion of the criminal proceedings in the trial court, or upon the withdrawal of the public defender or appointed private counsel, the court shall consider the available information concerning the defendant’s ability to pay the costs of legal assistance and may, after notice, as provided in subdivision (b), hold a hearing to make a determination of the present ability of the defendant to pay all or a portion of the cost thereof. Notwithstanding the above, if the court has ordered the probation officer to investigate and report to the court pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 1203, the court may hold such a hearing. The court may, in its discretion, hold one such additional hearing within six months of the conclusion of the criminal proceedings.

(b) Concurrent with counsel or legal assistance being furnished by the court, the court may order the defendant to appear before a county officer designated by the court to make an inquiry into the ability of the defendant to pay all or a portion of the legal assistance provided. Prior to the furnishing of counsel or legal assistance by the court, the court shall give notice to the defendant that the court may, after a hearing, make a determination of the present ability of the defendant to pay all or a portion of the cost of counsel. The court shall also give notice that, if the court determines that the defendant has the present ability, the court shall order him or her to pay all or a part of the cost. The notice shall inform the defendant that the order shall have the same force and effect as a judgment in a civil action and shall be subject to enforcement against the property of the defendant in the same manner as any other money judgment.

(c) The provisions of this section shall apply only in a county in which the board of supervisors adopts a resolution which elects to proceed under this section.

(d) This section shall apply only when the defendant is convicted of a felony or a misdemeanor.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 62, Sec. 2. (SB 355) Effective January 1, 2018.)

987.9.
  

(a) In the trial of a capital case or a case under subdivision (a) of Section 190.05, the indigent defendant, through the defendant’s counsel, may request the court for funds for the specific payment of investigators, experts, and others for the preparation or presentation of the defense. The application for funds shall be by affidavit and shall specify that the funds are reasonably necessary for the preparation or presentation of the defense. The fact that an application has been made shall be confidential and the contents of the application shall be confidential. Upon receipt of an application, a judge of the court, other than the trial judge presiding over the case in question, shall rule on the reasonableness of the request and shall disburse an appropriate amount of money to the defendant’s attorney. The ruling on the reasonableness of the request shall be made at an in camera hearing. In making the ruling, the court shall be guided by the need to provide a complete and full defense for the defendant.

(b) (1) The Controller shall not reimburse any county for costs that exceed Department of General Services’ standards for travel and per diem expenses. The Controller may reimburse extraordinary costs in unusual cases if the county provides sufficient documentation of the need for those expenditures.

(2) At the termination of the proceedings, the attorney shall furnish to the court a complete accounting of all moneys received and disbursed pursuant to this section.

(c) The Controller shall adopt regulations pursuant to Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 11340) of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code, controlling reimbursements under this section. The regulations shall consider compensation for investigators, expert witnesses, and other expenses that may or may not be reimbursable pursuant to this section. Notwithstanding the provisions of Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 11340) of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code, the Controller shall follow any regulations adopted until final approval by the Office of Administrative Law.

(d) The confidentiality provided in this section shall not preclude any court from providing the Attorney General with access to documents protected by this section when the defendant raises an issue on appeal or collateral review where the recorded portion of the record, created pursuant to this section, relates to the issue raised. When the defendant raises that issue, the funding records, or relevant portions thereof, shall be provided to the Attorney General at the Attorney General’s request. In this case, the documents shall remain under seal and their use shall be limited solely to the pending proceeding.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 31, Sec. 237. (SB 836) Effective June 27, 2016.)

988.
  

The arraignment must be made by the court, or by the clerk or prosecuting attorney under its direction, and consists in reading the accusatory pleading to the defendant and delivering to the defendant a true copy thereof, and of the endorsements thereon, if any, including the list of witnesses, and asking the defendant whether the defendant pleads guilty or not guilty to the accusatory pleading; provided, that where the accusatory pleading is a complaint charging a misdemeanor, a copy of the same need not be delivered to any defendant unless requested by the defendant.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 931, Sec. 379. Effective September 28, 1998.)

989.
  

When the defendant is arraigned, he must be informed that if the name by which he is prosecuted is not his true name, he must then declare his true name, or be proceeded against by the name in the accusatory pleading. If he gives no other name, the court may proceed accordingly; but if he alleges that another name is his true name, the court must direct an entry thereof in the minutes of the arraignment, and the subsequent proceedings on the accusatory pleading may be had against him by that name, referring also to the name by which he was first charged therein.

(Amended by Stats. 1951, Ch. 1674.)

990.
  

If on the arraignment, the defendant requires it, the defendant must be allowed a reasonable time to answer, which shall be not less than one day in a felony case and not more than seven days in a misdemeanor or infraction case.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 931, Sec. 380. Effective September 28, 1998.)

991.
  

(a) If the defendant is in custody at the time he appears before the magistrate for arraignment and, if the public offense is a misdemeanor to which the defendant has pleaded not guilty, the magistrate, on motion of counsel for the defendant or the defendant, shall determine whether there is probable cause to believe that a public offense has been committed and that the defendant is guilty thereof.

(b) The determination of probable cause shall be made immediately unless the court grants a continuance for good cause not to exceed three court days.

(c) In determining the existence of probable cause, the magistrate shall consider any warrant of arrest with supporting affidavits, and the sworn complaint together with any documents or reports incorporated by reference thereto, which, if based on information and belief, state the basis for such information, or any other documents of similar reliability.

(d) If, after examining these documents, the court determines that there exists probable cause to believe that the defendant has committed the offense charged in the complaint, it shall set the matter for trial.

If the court determines that no such probable cause exists, it shall dismiss the complaint and discharge the defendant.

(e) Within 15 days of the dismissal of a complaint pursuant to this section the prosecution may refile the complaint.

A second dismissal pursuant to this section is a bar to any other prosecution for the same offense.

(Added by Stats. 1980, Ch. 1379, Sec. 1.)

991.5.
  

(a) On or before July 1, 2017, three counties shall be selected to participate in a three-year pilot project that would require a court, upon request by the defendant in the case of a defendant charged with a misdemeanor who is not in custody, to make a finding at the arraignment as to whether probable cause exists to believe that a public offense has been committed and that the defendant is guilty thereof.

(b) The pilot counties shall be selected by a three-member committee. One member of the committee shall be selected by the California Public Defenders Association, one member of the committee shall be selected by the California District Attorneys Association, and one member of the committee shall be selected by the Judicial Council. The committee shall be convened by the California Public Defenders Association and the California District Attorneys Association. The committee shall select one small county, one medium county, and one large county to participate in the pilot project. The committee shall consult with the relevant local officials in the eligible counties in making its selections. A county selected for the pilot project shall have a county public defender’s office. For purposes of this section, the following terms have the following meanings:

(1) A “small county” means a county with a population of not less than 250,000 residents and not more than 750,000 residents.

(2) A “medium county” means a county with a population of not less than 750,001 residents and not more than 2,600,000 residents.

(3) A “large county” means a county with a population of not less than 2,600,001 residents.

(c) The following arraignment procedure applies in the pilot project counties:

(1) When the defendant is out of custody at the time he or she appears before the magistrate for arraignment and the public offense is a misdemeanor to which the defendant has pleaded not guilty, the magistrate, on motion of counsel for the defendant or the defendant, shall determine whether there is probable cause to believe that a public offense has been committed and that the defendant is guilty thereof.

(2) The determination of probable cause shall be made immediately, unless the court grants a continuance for good cause not to exceed 15 court days.

(3) In determining the existence of probable cause, the magistrate shall consider any warrant of arrest with supporting affidavits, and the sworn complaint together with any documents or reports incorporated by reference thereto, which, if based on information and belief, state the basis for that information, or any other documents of similar reliability.

(4) If, after examining these documents, the court determines that there exists probable cause to believe that the defendant has committed the offense charged in the complaint, it shall maintain the trial date already calendared for the defendant.

(5) If the court determines that no probable cause exists, it shall dismiss the complaint and discharge the defendant.

(6) The prosecution may refile the complaint within 15 days of the dismissal of a complaint pursuant to this section.

(7) A second dismissal pursuant to this section is a bar to any other prosecution for the same offense.

(d) (1) No later than July 1, 2020, the Department of Justice shall provide information to the Assembly Committee on Budget, the Senate Committee on Budget and Fiscal Review, and the appropriate policy committees of the Legislature regarding the implementation of this section, including, but not limited to, the number of instances that a prompt probable cause determination made to an Out of Custody defendant facing a misdemeanor charge resulted in the defendant’s early dismissal.

(2) A report submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be submitted in compliance with Section 9795 of the Government Code.

(e) This section shall become inoperative on July 1, 2020, and, as of January 1, 2021, is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that becomes operative on or before January 1, 2021, deletes or extends the dates on which it becomes inoperative and is repealed.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 561, Sec. 185. (AB 1516) Effective January 1, 2018. Inoperative July 1, 2020. Repealed as of January 1, 2021, by its own provisions.)

992.
  

(a) (1) In any case in which the defendant is charged with a felony, the court shall require the defendant to provide a right thumbprint on a form developed for this purpose. Unless the court has obtained the thumbprint at an earlier proceeding, it shall do so at the arraignment on the information or indictment, or upon entry of a guilty or no contest plea under Section 859a. The fingerprint form shall include the name and superior court case number of the defendant, the date, and the printed name, position, and badge or serial number of the court bailiff who imprints the defendant’s thumbprint. In the event the defendant is physically unable to provide a right thumbprint, the defendant shall provide a left thumbprint. In the event the defendant is physically unable to provide a left thumbprint, the court shall make a determination as to how the defendant might otherwise provide a suitable identifying characteristic to be imprinted on the judgment of conviction. The clerk shall note on the fingerprint form which digit, if any, of the defendant’s was imprinted thereon. In the event that the defendant is convicted, this fingerprint form shall be attached to the minute order reflecting the defendant’s sentence. The fingerprint form shall be permanently maintained in the superior court file.

(2) This thumbprint or fingerprint shall not be used to create a database. The Judicial Council shall develop a form to implement this section.

(b) In the event that a county implements a countywide policy in which every felony defendant’s photograph and fingerprints are permanently maintained in the superior court file, the presiding judge of that county may elect, after consultation with the district attorney, to continue compliance with this section.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 304, Sec. 8. (SB 428) Effective January 1, 2012.)

993.
  

(a) At the arraignment of a defendant who is charged with a felony and who is, or whom the court reasonably deems to be, the sole custodial parent of one or more minor children, the court shall provide the following to the defendant:

(1) Judicial Council Form GC-250, the “Guardianship Pamphlet.”

(2) Information regarding a power of attorney for a minor child.

(3) Information regarding trustline background examinations pertaining to child care providers as provided in Chapter 3.35 (commencing with Section 1596.60) of Division 2 of the Health and Safety Code.

(b) If the defendant states, orally or in writing, at the arraignment that he or she is a sole custodial parent of one or more minor children, the court may reasonably deem the defendant to be a sole custodial parent of one or more minor children without further investigation. The court may, but is not required to, make that determination on the basis of information other than the defendant’s statement.

(Added by Stats. 2016, Ch. 882, Sec. 1. (AB 2380) Effective January 1, 2017.)

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