Code Section Group

Labor Code - LAB

DIVISION 2. EMPLOYMENT REGULATION AND SUPERVISION [200 - 2699.5]

  ( Division 2 enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 90. )

PART 4. EMPLOYEES [1171 - 1408]

  ( Heading of Part 4 amended by Stats. 1972, Ch. 1122. )

CHAPTER 1. Wages, Hours and Working Conditions [1171 - 1206]
  ( Chapter 1 enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 90. )

1171.
  

The provisions of this chapter shall apply to and include men, women and minors employed in any occupation, trade, or industry, whether compensation is measured by time, piece, or otherwise, but shall not include any individual employed as an outside salesman or any individual participating in a national service program carried out using assistance provided under Section 12571 of Title 42 of the United States Code.

Any individual participating in a national service program pursuant to Section 12571 of Title 42 of the United States Code shall be informed by the nonprofit, educational institution or other entity using his or her service, prior to the commencement of service of the requirement, if any, to work hours in excess of eight hours per day, or 40 hours per week, or both, and shall have the opportunity to opt out of that national service program at that time. Individuals participating in a national service program pursuant to Section 12571 of Title 42 of the United States Code shall not be discriminated against or be denied continued participation in the program for refusing to work overtime for a legitimate reason.

(Amended by Stats. 2000, Ch. 365, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2001.)

1171.5.
  

The Legislature finds and declares the following:

(a) All protections, rights, and remedies available under state law, except any reinstatement remedy prohibited by federal law, are available to all individuals regardless of immigration status who have applied for employment, or who are or who have been employed, in this state.

(b) For purposes of enforcing state labor and employment laws, a person’s immigration status is irrelevant to the issue of liability, and in proceedings or discovery undertaken to enforce those state laws no inquiry shall be permitted into a person’s immigration status except where the person seeking to make this inquiry has shown by clear and convincing evidence that the inquiry is necessary in order to comply with federal immigration law.

(c) The provisions of this section are declaratory of existing law.

(d) The provisions of this section are severable. If any provision of this section or its application is held invalid, that invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications that can be given effect without the invalid provision or application.

(Added by Stats. 2002, Ch. 1071, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 2003.)

1173.
  

It is the continuing duty of the Industrial Welfare Commission, hereinafter referred to in this chapter as the commission, to ascertain the wages paid to all employees in this state, to ascertain the hours and conditions of labor and employment in the various occupations, trades, and industries in which employees are employed in this state, and to investigate the health, safety, and welfare of those employees.

The commission shall conduct a full review of the adequacy of the minimum wage at least once every two years. The commission may, upon its own motion or upon petition, amend or rescind any order or portion of any order or adopt an order covering any occupation, trade, or industry not covered by an existing order pursuant to this chapter.

Before adopting any new rules, regulations, or policies, the commission shall consult with the Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board to determine those areas and subject matters where the respective jurisdictions of the commission and the Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board overlap. This consultation need not take the form of a joint meeting. In the case of such overlapping jurisdiction, the Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board shall have exclusive jurisdiction, and rules, regulations, or policies of the commission on the same subject have no force or effect.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 150, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1999.)

1174.
  

Every person employing labor in this state shall:

(a) Furnish to the commission, at its request, reports or information that the commission requires to carry out this chapter. The reports and information shall be verified if required by the commission or any member thereof.

(b) Allow any member of the commission or the employees of the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement free access to the place of business or employment of the person to secure any information or make any investigation that they are authorized by this chapter to ascertain or make. The commission may inspect or make excerpts, relating to the employment of employees, from the books, reports, contracts, payrolls, documents, or papers of the person.

(c) Keep a record showing the names and addresses of all employees employed and the ages of all minors.

(d) Keep, at a central location in the state or at the plants or establishments at which employees are employed, payroll records showing the hours worked daily by and the wages paid to, and the number of piece-rate units earned by and any applicable piece rate paid to, employees employed at the respective plants or establishments. These records shall be kept in accordance with rules established for this purpose by the commission, but in any case shall be kept on file for not less than three years. An employer shall not prohibit an employee from maintaining a personal record of hours worked, or, if paid on a piece-rate basis, piece-rate units earned.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 655, Sec. 7. Effective January 1, 2012.)

1174.1.
  

(a) Any employer, or other person or entity, who may be liable for a violation of any provision of this code shall be precluded from introducing as evidence, in an administrative proceeding contesting a citation or writ proceeding under Section 558 or 1197.1, books, documents, or records, as specified in subdivision (b), that are not provided pursuant to a duly served written request by the Labor Commissioner under this section within the time the Labor Commissioner requests those books, documents, or records be produced, pursuant to either of the following:

(1) When the Labor Commissioner provides for no less than 15 days to respond, subject to the exceptions under subdivision (c), (d), (e), or (g).

(2) When the Labor Commissioner provides for less than 15 days to respond, subject to the exceptions under subdivision (c) or (e), if the Labor Commissioner, in his or her discretion, determines that circumstances exist that make it necessary to require a shorter period of production for the Labor Commissioner to conduct a complete investigation. In this instance, a statement indicating that determination of necessity shall be included with the written request from the Labor Commissioner.

(b) The books, documents, or records to which this section applies are payroll, time, and employment records that are required to be maintained at the place of employment or at a central location within the state by the employer, including, but not limited to, under Sections 226, 247.5, 1174, 2052, and 2673, and Section 6 or 7 (“Records”) of any order of the Industrial Welfare Commission.

(c) Subdivision (a) shall not apply in the event that the person or entity subject to the written request by the Labor Commissioner for the production of books, documents, or records opposes such a request in court, prior to the issuance of any citation under Section 558 or 1197.1, and a court determines that the books, documents, or records are not required to be produced.

(d) Paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) shall not apply to the failure to produce any books, documents, or records within the time requested by the Labor Commissioner if such failure is due to an inadvertent error, provided that such error is corrected and the books, documents, or records are produced to the Labor Commissioner no later than 20 days from the date originally requested. For purposes of this section, “inadvertent error” means any clerical mistake causing an unintended delay in production of the requested books, documents, or records.

(e) The Labor Commissioner shall take into consideration a reasonable request from the person or entity subject to subdivision (a) for an extension on the time for production of books, documents, or records. The commissioner shall determine the reasonableness of the request and may consider, among other things, the location of the books, documents, or records and the volume of production. The Labor Commissioner, in his or her discretion, may admit and consider books, documents, or records that are produced beyond the time limits provided for in this section upon a finding that both of the following conditions are satisfied:

(1) The person or entity cooperated with the underlying investigation and substantially complied with the request within the time limit prescribed.

(2) The person or entity made good faith efforts to comply with the request, including discovery of the late-produced books, documents, or records.

(f) Service of a written request for books, documents, or records on a corporation or limited liability company shall be in the same manner as provided for service of a summons as described in Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 413.10) of Title 5 of Part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

(g) For purposes of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) and notwithstanding subdivision (e), a person or entity that provides a timely good faith response to the Labor Commissioner that additional time is needed to gather requested books, documents, or records, shall be provided an automatic extension of 15 days.

(Added by Stats. 2017, Ch. 28, Sec. 11. Effective June 27, 2017.)

1174.5.
  

Any person employing labor who willfully fails to maintain the records required by subdivision (c) of Section 1174 or accurate and complete records required by subdivision (d) of Section 1174, or to allow any member of the commission or employees of the division to inspect records pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 1174, shall be subject to a civil penalty of five hundred dollars ($500).

(Amended by Stats. 2000, Ch. 135, Sec. 123. Effective January 1, 2001.)

1175.
  

Any person, or officer or agent thereof, is guilty of a misdemeanor who:

(a) Neglects or refuses to furnish the information requested under the provisions of Section 1174.

(b) Refuses access to his place of business or employment to any member of the commission or employee of the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement when administering or enforcing this chapter.

(c) Hinders such member, or employee in securing information authorized by Section 1174.

(d) Fails to keep any of the records required by Section 1174.

(Amended by Stats. 1979, Ch. 373.)

1176.
  

The commission or any members thereof may subpena witnesses and administer oaths. All witnesses subpenaed by the commission shall be paid the fees and mileage fixed by law in civil cases. In case of the failure of a person to comply with an order or subpena of the commission or any member thereof, or in the case of the refusal of a witness to testify to any matter regarding which he may lawfully be interrogated before any wage board or the commission, it shall be the duty of the superior court or judge thereof, on the application of a member of the commission, to compel obedience in a manner by which such obedience could be compelled in a proceeding pending before the court.

(Added by renumbering Section 1177 by Stats. 1949, Ch. 1454.)

1176.1.
  

Any interested party may petition the commission requesting the adoption, amendment, or repeal of a regulation. The petition shall state clearly and concisely all of the following:

(a) The substance or nature of the regulation, amendment, or repeal that is requested.

(b) The reason for the request.

(c) Reference to the commission’s authority to take the action that is requested.

(Added by Stats. 1987, Ch. 863, Sec. 1.)

1176.3.
  

(a) Within 120 days of the receipt of a petition requesting the adoption, amendment, or repeal of a regulation, the commission shall notify the petitioner in writing of the receipt of the petition, set the matter for consideration at a public meeting, and issue a written decision taking one of the following actions:

(1) Setting the matter for public hearing pursuant to Section 1178 or 1178.5.

(2) Denying the petition. A decision denying a petition shall include a statement explaining the reasons for the denial.

(b) The petitioner may request reconsideration of any part or all of a decision denying a petition pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 1176.3. The commission’s reconsideration of any matter relating to a petition shall be subject to subdivision (a), except that a decision to deny reconsideration shall be final.

(c) In cases where a petition is referred to a wage board, the commission shall complete its final actions on the petition within 90 days after completion of the public hearing process pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 1178.5.

(Added by Stats. 1987, Ch. 863, Sec. 2.)

1177.
  

(a) The commission may make and enforce rules of practice and procedure and shall not be bound by the rules of evidence. Each order of the commission shall be concurred in by a majority of the commissioners.

(b) The commission shall prepare a statement as to the basis upon which an adopted or amended order is predicated. The statement shall be concurred in by a majority of the commissioners. The commission shall publish a copy of the statement with the order in the California Regulatory Notice Register. The commission also shall provide a copy of the statement to any interested party upon request.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 150, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1999.)

1178.
  

If after investigation the commission finds that in any occupation, trade, or industry, the wages paid to employees may be inadequate to supply the cost of proper living, or that the hours or conditions of labor may be prejudicial to the health, morals, or welfare of employees, the commission shall select a wage board to consider any of such matters and transmit to such wage board the information supporting its findings gathered in the investigation. Such investigation shall include at least one public hearing.

(Amended by Stats. 1980, Ch. 1083.)

1178.5.
  

(a) If the commission finds that wages paid to employees may be inadequate to supply the cost of proper living, it shall select one wage board composed of an equal number of representatives of employers and employees, and a nonvoting representative of the commission, designated by the commission, who shall act as chairperson. The wage board shall consider the findings of the commission and such other information it deems appropriate and report to the commission its recommendation of a minimum wage adequate to supply the necessary cost of proper living to, and maintain the health and welfare of employees in this state, and its recommendations on such other matters related to the minimum wage on which the commission has requested recommendations.

(b) If the commission finds that hours or conditions of labor may be prejudicial to the health or welfare of employees in any occupation, trade, or industry, it shall select a wage board composed of an equal number of representatives of employers and employees in the occupation, trade, or industry in question, and a nonvoting representative of the commission, designated by the commission, who shall act as chairperson. The wage board shall consider the findings of the commission and such other information it deems appropriate and report to the commission its recommendation as to what action should be taken by the commission with respect to the matter under consideration.

(c) Prior to amending or rescinding any existing order or adopting any new order, and after receipt of the wage board report and recommendation, the commission shall prepare proposed regulations with respect to the matter under consideration. The proposed regulations shall include any recommendation of the wage board which received the support of at least two-thirds of the members of the wage board. A public hearing on the proposed regulations shall be held in each of at least three cities in this state, except when the proposed regulations would affect only an occupation, trade, or industry which is not statewide in scope, in which case a public hearing shall be held in the locality in which the occupation, trade, or industry prevails. The proceedings shall be recorded and transcribed and shall thereafter be a matter of public record.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1980, Ch. 1083.)

1179.
  

The members of the wage board shall be allowed fifty dollars ($50) per diem and necessary traveling expenses while engaged in such conferences. The commission shall make rules governing the number and selection of the members and the mode of procedure of the wage board, and shall exercise exclusive jurisdiction over all questions as to the validity of the procedure.

(Amended by Stats. 1980, Ch. 1083.)

1180.
  

The proceedings and deliberations of the wage board shall be made a matter of record for the use of the commission, and shall be admissible as evidence in any proceedings before the commission.

(Added by renumbering Section 1181 by Stats. 1949, Ch. 1454.)

1181.
  

Upon the fixing of the time and place for the holding of a hearing for the purpose of considering and acting upon the proposed regulations or any matters referred to in Sections 1176 to 1180, inclusive, the commission shall:

(a) Give public notice thereof by advertisement in at least one newspaper published in each of the cities of Los Angeles, Oakland, Sacramento, San Jose, Fresno, Eureka, San Diego, Long Beach, Alameda, Berkeley, Stockton, San Bernardino, and San Francisco.

(b) Mail a copy of the notice and the proposed regulations to the clerk of the superior court of each county in the state to be posted at the courthouse; to each association of employers or employees which, in the opinion of the commission, would be affected by the hearing; and to any person or organization within this state filing with the commission a written request for notice of such hearing. Failure to mail such notice shall not invalidate any order of the commission issued after such hearing.

The notice shall also state the time and place fixed for the hearing, which shall not be less than 30 days from the date of publication and mailing of such notices.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 784, Sec. 523. Effective January 1, 2003.)

1182.
  

(a) After receipt of the wage board report and the public hearings on the proposed regulations, the commission may, upon its own motion, amend or rescind an existing order or promulgate a new order. However, with respect to proposed regulations based on recommendations supported by at least two-thirds of the members of the wage board, the commission shall adopt such proposed regulations, unless it finds there is no substantial evidence to support such recommendations.

(b) If at any time the federal minimum wage applicable to employees covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, prior to February 1, 1967, is scheduled to exceed the minimum wage fixed by the commission, the provisions of Sections 1178 and 1178.5 pertaining to wage boards shall be waived and the commission shall, in a public meeting, adopt an order fixing a new minimum wage at the scheduled higher federal minimum wage. The effective date of such order shall be the same as the effective date of the federal minimum wage, and such order shall not become operative in the event the scheduled increase in the federal minimum wage does not become operative.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1980, Ch. 1083.)

1182.1.
  

Any action taken by the commission pursuant to Sections 517 and 1182 shall be published in at least one newspaper in each of the Cities of Los Angeles, Sacramento, Oakland, San Jose, Fresno, San Diego, and San Francisco. A summary of the action taken and notice of where the complete text of the new or amended order may be obtained may be published in lieu of the complete text when the commission determines such summary and notice will adequately inform the public. The statement as to the basis of the order need not be published.

(Amended by Stats. 1999, Ch. 134, Sec. 15. Effective January 1, 2000.)

1182.4.
  

(a) No student employee, camp counselor, or program counselor of an organized camp shall be subject to a minimum wage or maximum hour order of the commission if the student employee, camp counselor, or program counselor receives a weekly salary of at least 85 percent of the minimum wage for a 40-hour week, regardless of the number of hours per week the student employee, camp counselor, or program counselor might work at the organized camp. If the student employee, camp counselor, or program counselor works less than 40 hours per week, the student employee, camp counselor, or program counselor shall be paid at least 85 percent of the minimum hourly wage for each hour worked.

(b) An organized camp may deduct the value of meals and lodging from the salary of a student employee, camp counselor, or program counselor pursuant to appropriate orders of the commission.

(c) As used in this section, “organized camp” means an organized camp, as defined in Section 18897 of the Health and Safety Code, which meets the standards of the American Camping Association.

(Amended by Stats. 1980, Ch. 379.)

1182.5.
  

(a) The Legislature finds that the time permitted the Industrial Welfare Commission to consider daily overtime compensation petitions that are to be given priority attention by the commission pursuant to Section 20 of Chapter 1083 of the Statutes of 1980, has created unanticipated delays in the review and possible modification of applicable commission orders for preexisting workweek arrangements, as defined in subdivision (b). The Legislature finds further that legislation is necessary to provide redress of hardships resulting from these unanticipated delays by the enactment of special commission review procedures that augment, and do not limit in any way, the rights and privileges of parties before the Industrial Welfare Commission under this chapter.

(b) For purposes of this section only, a “preexisting workweek arrangement” is defined as, and limited to, a workweek arrangement that existed before November 1980, and had to be modified or abandoned by an employer because the workweek arrangement did not qualify for any exemption provided by the Industrial Welfare Commission from its daily overtime requirements for collectively bargained arrangements, and did not otherwise comply with the daily overtime requirements of an applicable commission order.

(c) An employer who has had in operation an established preexisting workweek arrangement may, prior to July 1, 1985, file a verified petition with the commission for review and modification of an applicable order and, upon filing this petition, shall simultaneously file a copy with the Labor Commissioner. Upon receipt of the petition by the Labor Commissioner a stay of enforcement of the applicable commission order as it would affect the workweek arrangement shall take effect. The Labor Commissioner may reject a petition that, on its face, cannot qualify as a preexisting workweek arrangement. Within three months of commencement of the stay the Labor Commissioner shall certify the preexisting workweek arrangement to the commission if, upon examination, the Labor Commissioner finds that all of the following conditions are met by the workweek arrangement:

(1) It was established by the petitioning employer and was in operation prior to November 1980.

(2) It had to be abandoned or modified by the employer because of noncompliance with the applicable order of the commission.

(3) It was established on a nondiscriminatory basis with the support of affected employees and it continues to have the support of two-thirds of the employees in the covered work group.

(4) It complied with all applicable standards of the commission, other than daily overtime requirements.

(5) It is found, after consultation with the Director of Industrial Relations when appropriate, not to be adverse to the health and welfare of affected employees.

In the course of examining a preexisting workweek arrangement and following certification, the Labor Commissioner shall not divert any of the resources of the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement for the purpose of investigating, prosecuting, or otherwise acting upon any alleged violations of the daily overtime provisions of an applicable commission order during any period in 1980 in which a court-issued stay of enforcement was in effect for these provisions; provided, the workweek arrangement involved was in operation during that period in good faith reliance by the employer upon the court-issued stay of enforcement and with the approval of two-thirds of the employer’s affected employees.

(d) In the course of examining a petition for certification to the commission, the Labor Commissioner shall have access to all pertinent records of the petitioning employer and shall have the authority to converse with affected employees of the employer without the presence of management. Until the commission takes action on a petition, the Labor Commissioner shall retain the authority to withdraw a certification to the commission for cause.

(e) Upon receipt by the commission of the Labor Commissioner’s certification of a preexisting workweek arrangement, the stay of enforcement shall continue as hereinafter provided beyond the three-month period for certification until modified or rescinded by the commission. The modification or rescission shall not be made without an appropriate hearing and findings regarding the applicable order. If the commission undertakes review of the applicable order, the stay of enforcement shall continue through the review process and until any resulting modification of the applicable order, in which case, the modified order shall become applicable to the preexisting workweek arrangement.

(Amended by Stats. 1984, Ch. 869, Sec. 1.)

1182.6.
  

(a) No employer who continuously operates a manufacturing facility 24 hours a day for seven days a week, and who has had in operation an established preexisting workweek arrangement, as defined in subdivision (b), shall be in violation of this code or any applicable wage order of the commission by instituting, pursuant to an agreement voluntarily executed by the employer and at least two-thirds of the affected employees before the performance of the work, a regularly scheduled workweek that includes three working days of not more than 12 hours a day, or regularly scheduled workweeks that include three working days of not more than 12 hours a day one week and four working days of not more than 12 hours a day in the following week for an average workweek of 42 hours over a two-week period.

(b) For purposes of this section only, a “preexisting workweek arrangement” is defined as, and limited to, a workweek arrangement that existed before November 1980, and had to be modified or abandoned by an employer because the workweek arrangement did not qualify for any exemption provided by the Industrial Welfare Commission from its daily overtime requirements for collectively bargained arrangements, and did not otherwise comply with the daily overtime requirements of an applicable commission order.

(c) The agreement described in subdivision (a) shall be confirmed by an affirmative vote by secret ballot by at least two-thirds of the affected employees, and may be rescinded at any time by a two-thirds vote of the affected employees. A new vote on whether the agreement described in subdivision (a) shall be continued shall be held every three years, and an affirmative vote by at least two-thirds of the affected employees shall be necessary to continue the agreement.

(d) The employer shall not be required to pay premium wage rates to employees working a schedule described in subdivision (a) unless the employee is required or permitted to work more than 12 hours in any workday, more than the scheduled three or four days in any workweek, or more than 40 hours in any workweek.

(e) This section shall not apply to any employer who is now, or in the future becomes, a party to a collective-bargaining agreement covering employees who would otherwise be covered by this section.

(f) No employee working a schedule described in subdivision (a) shall be required to work more than four consecutive days within seven consecutive days.

(Amended by Stats. 2006, Ch. 538, Sec. 482. Effective January 1, 2007.)

1182.7.
  

(a) The Legislature finds that the time permitted the Industrial Welfare Commission to consider petitions, including, but not limited to, daily overtime compensation petitions that are to be given priority attention by the commission pursuant to Section 20 of Chapter 1083 of the Statutes of 1980, has created unanticipated and unwarranted delays in the review and possible modification of applicable commission orders. The Legislature finds further that legislation is necessary to provide redress of hardships resulting from these delays by the enactment of special commission review procedures that augment, and do not limit in any way, the rights and privileges of parties before the Industrial Welfare Commission under this chapter.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter to the contrary, if a labor organization or a trade association recognized in the health care industry files or has filed a petition with the commission that requests an amendment to an order of the commission that would directly regulate only the health care industry, the petitioner may request that the ordinary procedure established by this chapter for the review of petitions of this nature not be used and that the procedure specified in subdivisions (c) and (d) be followed instead. If the request is made by the petitioner, the commission shall be required to follow the procedure specified in subdivisions (c) and (d).

(c) Upon the filing of a request under subdivision (b), the procedure to revise an order of the commission provided in Sections 1178 to 1182, inclusive, shall be waived. In lieu of that procedure, the commission shall propose the adoption of or may reject the petition, in whole or in part, without appointing a wage board. The commission shall act on the petition within 45 days of the date the petition is originally filed. If the commission rejects the petition, it shall state its reasons for rejection.

The commission shall thereafter conduct hearings on any proposal to adopt the petition in whole or in part in the manner specified in subdivision (c) of Section 1178.5 and publish the proposed action in the manner provided in Section 1181. However, the hearings shall be conducted within 90 days of the date the petition is originally filed.

(d) Not more than 30 days following the hearings specified in subdivision (c), the commission shall take final action with respect to its proposal. No later than 15 days following final action, notice of the action taken shall be given in the manner provided for in Sections 1182.1 and 1183. Any action adopting, amending, or repealing an order of the commission pursuant to this section shall take effect 60 days following the date of this notice.

(e) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, the commission shall not adopt, amend, or repeal a proposal which has been changed from that which has originally been made available to the public, unless the change is nonsubstantive in nature and the commission complies with the procedure specified in this subdivision.

If a substantive change is made to the original proposal after the close of the public hearing, the full text of the resulting change shall be noticed within five days and made available to the public for comments for at least 10 days before the commission adopts, amends, or repeals the regulation. No later than 10 days following the close of the public comment period, the commission shall take final action with respect to its modified proposal, and give notice of that action within 10 days in the manner provided in Sections 1182.1 and 1183. In no case shall any action adopting, amending, or repealing an order take effect more than 60 days following the close of the public comment period.

(Amended by Stats. 1987, Ch. 460, Sec. 1.)

1182.8.
  

No employer shall be in violation of any provision of any applicable order of the Industrial Welfare Commission relating to credit or charges for lodging for charging, pursuant to a voluntary written agreement, a resident apartment manager up to two-thirds of the fair market rental value of the apartment supplied to the manager, if no credit for the apartment is used to meet the employer’s minimum wage obligation to the manager.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 913, Sec. 1.)

1182.11.
  

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, on and after March 1, 1997, the minimum wage for all industries shall not be less than five dollars ($5.00) per hour; on and after March 1, 1998, the minimum wage for all industries shall not be less than five dollars and seventy-five cents ($5.75) per hour. The Industrial Welfare Commission shall, at a public meeting, adopt minimum wage orders consistent with this section without convening wage boards, which wage orders shall be final and conclusive for all purposes.

(Added November 5, 1996, by initiative Proposition 210, Sec. 2. Note: Prop. 210 is titled the Living Wage Act of 1996.)

1182.12.
  

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, on and after July 1, 2014, the minimum wage for all industries shall be not less than nine dollars ($9) per hour, and on and after January 1, 2016, the minimum wage for all industries shall be not less than ten dollars ($10) per hour.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), the minimum wage for all industries shall not be less than the amounts set forth in this subdivision, except when the scheduled increases in paragraphs (1) and (2) are temporarily suspended under subdivision (d).

(1) For any employer who employs 26 or more employees, the minimum wage shall be as follows:

(A) From January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2017, inclusive,—ten dollars and fifty cents ($10.50) per hour.

(B) From January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018, inclusive,—eleven dollars ($11) per hour.

(C) From January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019, inclusive,—twelve dollars ($12) per hour.

(D) From January 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020, inclusive,—thirteen dollars ($13) per hour.

(E) From January 1, 2021, to December 31, 2021, inclusive,—fourteen dollars ($14) per hour.

(F) From January 1, 2022, and until adjusted by subdivision (c)—fifteen dollars ($15) per hour.

(2) For any employer who employs 25 or fewer employees, the minimum wage shall be as follows:

(A) From January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018, inclusive,—ten dollars and fifty cents ($10.50) per hour.

(B) From January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019, inclusive,—eleven dollars ($11) per hour.

(C) From January 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020, inclusive,—twelve dollars ($12) per hour.

(D) From January 1, 2021, to December 31, 2021, inclusive,—thirteen dollars ($13) per hour.

(E) From January 1, 2022, to December 31, 2022, inclusive,—fourteen dollars ($14) per hour.

(F) From January 1, 2023, and until adjusted by subdivision (c)—fifteen dollars ($15) per hour.

(3) For purposes of this subdivision, “employer” means any person who directly or indirectly, or through an agent or any other person, employs or exercises control over the wages, hours, or working conditions of any person. For purposes of this subdivision, “employer” includes the state, political subdivisions of the state, and municipalities.

(4) Employees who are treated as employed by a single qualified taxpayer under subdivision (h) of Section 23626 of the Revenue and Taxation Code, as it read on the effective date of this section, shall be considered employees of that taxpayer for purposes of this subdivision.

(c) (1) Following the implementation of the minimum wage increase specified in subparagraph (F) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (b), on or before August 1 of that year, and on or before each August 1 thereafter, the Director of Finance shall calculate an adjusted minimum wage. The calculation shall increase the minimum wage by the lesser of 3.5 percent and the rate of change in the averages of the most recent July 1 to June 30, inclusive, period over the preceding July 1 to June 30, inclusive, period for the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics nonseasonally adjusted United States Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (U.S. CPI-W). The result shall be rounded to the nearest ten cents ($0.10). Each adjusted minimum wage increase calculated under this subdivision shall take effect on the following January 1.

(2) If the rate of change in the averages of the most recent July 1 to June 30, inclusive, period over the preceding July 1 to June 30, inclusive, period for the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics nonseasonally adjusted U.S. CPI-W is negative, there shall be no increase or decrease in the minimum wage pursuant to this subdivision on the following January 1.

(3) (A) Notwithstanding the implementation timing described in paragraph (1) of this subdivision, if the rate of change in the averages of the most recent July 1 to June 30, inclusive, period over the preceding July 1 to June 30, inclusive, period for the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics nonseasonally adjusted U.S. CPI-W exceeds 7 percent in the first year that the minimum wage specified in subparagraph (F) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) is implemented, the indexing provisions described in paragraph (1) of this subdivision shall be implemented immediately, such that the indexing will be effective on the following January 1.

(B) If the rate of change in the averages of the most recent July 1 to June 30, inclusive, period over the preceding July 1 to June 30, inclusive, period for the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics nonseasonally adjusted U.S. CPI-W exceeds 7 percent in the first year that the minimum wage specified in subparagraph (F) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) is implemented, notwithstanding any other law, for employers with 25 or fewer employees the minimum wage shall be set equal to the minimum wage for employers with 26 or more employees, effective on the following January 1, and the minimum wage increase specified in subparagraph (F) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) shall be considered to have been implemented for purposes of this subdivision.

(d) (1) On or before July 28, 2017, and on or before every July 28 thereafter until the minimum wage is fifteen dollars ($15) per hour pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (b), to ensure that economic conditions can support a minimum wage increase, the Director of Finance shall annually make a determination and certify to the Governor and the Legislature whether each of the following conditions is met:

(A) Total nonfarm employment for California, seasonally adjusted, decreased over the three-month period from April to June, inclusive, prior to the July 28 determination. This calculation shall compare seasonally adjusted total nonfarm employment in June to seasonally adjusted total nonfarm employment in March, as reported by the Employment Development Department.

(B) Total nonfarm employment for California, seasonally adjusted, decreased over the six-month period from January to June, inclusive, prior to the July 28 determination. This calculation shall compare seasonally adjusted total nonfarm employment in June to seasonally adjusted total nonfarm employment in December, as reported by the Employment Development Department.

(C) Retail sales and use tax cash receipts from a 3.9375-percent tax rate for the July 1 to June 30, inclusive, period ending one month prior to the July 28 determination is less than retail sales and use tax cash receipts from a 3.9375-percent tax rate for the July 1 to June 30, inclusive, period ending 13 months prior to the July 28 determination. The calculation for the condition specified in this subparagraph shall be made as follows:

(i) The State Board of Equalization shall publish by the 10th of each month on its Internet Web site the total retail sales (sales before adjustments) for the prior month derived from their daily retail sales and use tax reports.

(ii) The State Board of Equalization shall publish by the 10th of each month on its Internet Web site the monthly factor required to convert the prior month’s retail sales and use tax total from all tax rates to a retail sales and use tax total from a 3.9375-percent tax rate.

(iii) The Department of Finance shall multiply the monthly total from clause (i) by the monthly factor from clause (ii) for each month.

(iv) The Department of Finance shall sum the monthly totals calculated in clause (iii) to calculate the 12-month July 1 to June 30, inclusive, totals needed for the comparison in this subparagraph.

(2) (A) On or before July 28, 2017, and on or before every July 28 thereafter until the minimum wage is fifteen dollars ($15) per hour pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (b), to ensure that the state General Fund fiscal condition can support the next scheduled minimum wage increase, the Director of Finance shall annually make a determination and certify to the Governor and the Legislature whether the state General Fund would be in a deficit in the current fiscal year, or in either of the following two fiscal years.

(B) For purposes of this subdivision, deficit is defined as a negative balance in the Special Fund for Economic Uncertainties, as provided for in Section 16418 of the Government Code, that exceeds, in absolute value, 1 percent of total state General Fund revenue and transfers, based on the most recent Department of Finance estimates required by Section 12.5 of Article IV of the California Constitution. For purposes of this subdivision, the estimates shall include the assumption that only the minimum wage increases scheduled for the following calendar year pursuant to subdivision (b) will be implemented.

(3) (A)  (i) If, for any year, the condition in either subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1) is met, and if the condition in subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) is met, the Governor may, on or before August 1 of that year, notify the Legislature of an initial determination to temporarily suspend the minimum wage increases scheduled pursuant to subdivision (b) for the following year.

(ii) If the Director of Finance certifies under paragraph (2) that the state General Fund would be in a deficit in the current fiscal year, or in either of the following two fiscal years, the Governor may, on or before August 1 of that fiscal year, notify the Legislature of an initial determination to temporarily suspend the minimum wage increases scheduled pursuant to subdivision (b) for the following year.

(B) If the Governor provides notice to the Legislature pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Governor shall, on September 1 of any such year, make a final determination whether to temporarily suspend the minimum wage increases scheduled pursuant to subdivision (b) for the following year. The determination to temporarily suspend the minimum wage increases scheduled pursuant to subdivision (b) for the following year shall be made by proclamation.

(C) The Governor may temporarily suspend scheduled minimum wage increases pursuant to clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) no more than two times.

(D) If the Governor makes a final determination to temporarily suspend the scheduled minimum wage increases pursuant to subdivision (b) for the following year, all dates specified in subdivision (b) that are subsequent to the September 1 final determination date shall be postponed by an additional year.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 4, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2017.)

1182.13.
  

(a) The Department of Industrial Relations shall adjust upwards the permissible meals and lodging credits by the same percentage as the increase in the minimum wage made pursuant to Section 1182.12.

(b) The Department of Industrial Relations shall amend and republish the Industrial Welfare Commission’s wage orders to be consistent with this section and Section 1182.12. The department shall make no other changes to the wage orders of the Industrial Welfare Commission that are in existence on the effective date of this section. The department shall meet the requirements set forth in Section 1183.

(c) Every employer that is subject to an amended republished order under this section shall post a copy of the order and keep it posted in a conspicuous location frequented by employees during the hours of the workday as required by Section 1183.

(d) Wage orders that are amended and republished as required under this section shall be final and conclusive for all purposes and dispositive of all pending petitions before the Industrial Welfare Commission as of the effective date of the act adding this section. Any amendment and republication pursuant to this section shall be exempt from the rulemaking provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act (Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 11340) of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code), and from the procedures set forth in Sections 1177, 1178.5, 1181, 1182, and 1182.1.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 230, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2007.)

1183.
  

(a) So far as practicable, the commission, by mail, shall send a copy of the order authorized by Section 1182 to each employer in the occupation or industry in question, and each employer shall post a copy of the order in the building in which employees affected by the order are employed. The commission shall also send a copy of the order to each employer registering his or her name with the commission for that purpose, but failure to mail the order or notice of the order to any employer affected by the order shall not relieve the employer from the duty of complying with the order.

(b) The commission shall prepare a summary of the regulations contained in its orders. The summary shall be printed on the first page of the document containing the full text of the order. The summary shall include a brief description of the following subjects of the orders: minimum wage, hours and days of work, reporting time, pay records, cash shortages and breakage, uniforms and equipment, meals and lodging, meal and rest periods, and seats. The summary shall also include information as to how to contact the field office of the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement, how to obtain a copy of the full text of the order and the statement as to the basis for the order, and any other information the commission deems necessary. The commission, at its discretion, may prepare a separate summary for each order or any combination of orders, or it may incorporate the regulations of all its orders into a single summary.

(c) A finding by the commission that there has been publication of any action taken by the commission as required by Section 1182.1 is conclusive as to the obligation of an employer to comply with the order.

(d) Every employer who is subject to an order of the commission shall post a copy of the order and keep it posted in a conspicuous location frequented by employees during the hours of the workday.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1998, Ch. 150, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 1999.)

1184.
  

Any action taken by the commission pursuant to Section 1182 shall be effective on the first day of the succeeding January or July and not less than 60 days from the date of publication pursuant to Section 1182.1.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 150, Sec. 5. Effective January 1, 1999.)

1185.
  

The orders of the commission fixing minimum wages, maximum hours, and standard conditions of labor for all employees, when promulgated in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, shall be valid and operative and such orders are hereby expressly exempted from the provisions of Article 5 (commencing with Section 11346) of Chapter 3.5 of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code.

(Amended by Stats. 1980, Ch. 676.)

1186.
  

A person employed in the practice of pharmacy is not exempt from coverage under any provision of the orders of the Industrial Welfare Commission unless he or she individually meets the criteria established for exemption as executive or administrative employees. No person employed in the practice of pharmacy may be subject to any exemption from coverage under the orders of the Industrial Welfare Commission established for professional employees.

(Added by Stats. 1999, Ch. 190, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2000.)

1186.5.
  

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, pharmacists engaged in the practice of pharmacy who are employed in the mercantile industry, as defined by Wage Order 7 of the Industrial Welfare Commission, shall be permitted to adopt alternative workweek schedules allowed by the provisions of Wage Order 4, including the provisions for alternative workweeks that can be adopted by employees working in the health care industry.

(Added by Stats. 2007, Ch. 480, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2008.)

1187.
  

The findings of fact made by the commission are, in the absence of fraud, conclusive.

(Enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 90.)

1188.
  

Any person aggrieved directly or indirectly by any final rule or regulation of the commission made under this chapter may apply to the commission for a rehearing in respect to any matters determined or covered therein and specified in the application for rehearing within twenty days after the publication thereof. The application for rehearing shall be verified and shall state fully the grounds upon which the application for rehearing is based. The commission upon considering an application for rehearing may grant the same by order and notice thereof given by mail to the party applying for the rehearing, and fix a time for the rehearing and reconsider its order, rule, or regulation. The commission may redetermine the matter upon the record before it and give notice of its redetermination in the same manner as provided for service of an original order, rule, or regulation. The commission may deny such rehearing upon the record before it, giving notice of its decision by mail to the applicant therefor. Such rehearing is deemed to be denied unless acted upon by the commission within thirty days after being filed.

(Enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 90.)

1190.
  

Nothing in this chapter shall prevent a review or other action permitted by the Constitution and laws of this State by a court of competent jurisdiction with reference to any order, rule, or regulation of the commission under this chapter.

(Enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 90.)

1191.
  

For any occupation in which a minimum wage has been established, the commission may issue to an employee who is mentally or physically handicapped, or both, a special license authorizing the employment of the licensee for a period not to exceed one year from date of issue, at a wage less than the legal minimum wage. The commission shall fix a special minimum wage for the licensee. Such license may be renewed on a yearly basis.

(Amended by Stats. 1972, Ch. 1122.)

1191.5.
  

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 1191, the commission may issue a special license to a nonprofit organization such as a sheltered workshop or rehabilitation facility to permit the employment of employees who have been determined by the commission to meet the requirements in Section 1191 without requiring individual licenses of such employees. The commission shall fix a special minimum wage for such employees. The special license for the nonprofit corporation shall be renewed on a yearly basis, or more frequently as determined by the commission.

(Amended by Stats. 1973, Ch. 1007.)

1192.
  

For any occupation in which a minimum wage has been established, the commission may issue to an apprentice or learner a special license authorizing the employment of such apprentice or learner for the time and under the conditions which the commission determines and at a wage less than the legal minimum wage. The commission shall fix a special wage for such apprentice or learner.

(Enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 90.)

1193.
  

The commission may fix the maximum number of employees to be employed under the licenses provided for in Sections 1191 and 1192 in any occupation, trade, industry, or establishment in which a minimum wage has been established.

(Amended by Stats. 1972, Ch. 1122.)

1193.5.
  

The provisions of this chapter shall be administered and enforced by the division. Any authorized representative of the division shall have authority to:

(a) Investigate and ascertain the wages of all employees, and the hours and working conditions of all employees employed in any occupation in the state;

(b) Supervise the payment of unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime compensation owing to any employee under the provisions of this chapter or the orders of the commission. Acceptance of payment of sums found to be due on demand of the division shall constitute a waiver on the part of the employee of his or her cause of action under Section 1194.

Unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime wages recovered by the division under the provisions of this section which for any reason cannot be delivered within six months from date of collection to the employee for whom such wages were collected shall be deposited into the Industrial Relations Unpaid Wage Fund in the State Treasury.

(Amended by Stats. 1980, Ch. 1083.)

1193.6.
  

(a) The department or division may, with or without the consent of the employee or employees affected, commence and prosecute a civil action to recover unpaid minimum wages or unpaid overtime compensation, including interest thereon, owing to any employee under this chapter or the orders of the commission, and, in addition to these wages, compensation, and interest, shall be awarded reasonable attorney’s fees, and costs of suit. The consent of any employee to the bringing of this action shall constitute a waiver on the part of the employee of his or her cause of action under Section 1194 unless the action is dismissed without prejudice by the department or the division.

(b) The amendments made to this section by Chapter 825 of the Statutes of 1991 shall apply only to civil actions commenced on or after January 1, 1992.

(Amended by Stats. 1992, Ch. 427, Sec. 119. Effective January 1, 1993.)

1194.
  

(a) Notwithstanding any agreement to work for a lesser wage, any employee receiving less than the legal minimum wage or the legal overtime compensation applicable to the employee is entitled to recover in a civil action the unpaid balance of the full amount of this minimum wage or overtime compensation, including interest thereon, reasonable attorney’s fees, and costs of suit.

(b) The amendments made to this section by Chapter 825 of the Statutes of 1991 shall apply only to civil actions commenced on or after January 1, 1992.

(Amended by Stats. 1992, Ch. 427, Sec. 120. Effective January 1, 1993.)

1194.2.
  

(a) In any action under Section 98, 1193.6, 1194, or 1197.1 to recover wages because of the payment of a wage less than the minimum wage fixed by an order of the commission or by statute, an employee shall be entitled to recover liquidated damages in an amount equal to the wages unlawfully unpaid and interest thereon. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to authorize the recovery of liquidated damages for failure to pay overtime compensation. A suit may be filed for liquidated damages at any time before the expiration of the statute of limitations on an action for wages from which the liquidated damages arise.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), if the employer demonstrates to the satisfaction of the court or the Labor Commissioner that the act or omission giving rise to the action was in good faith and that the employer had reasonable grounds for believing that the act or omission was not a violation of any provision of the Labor Code relating to minimum wage, or an order of the commission, the court or the Labor Commissioner may, as a matter of discretion, refuse to award liquidated damages or award any amount of liquidated damages not exceeding the amount specified in subdivision (a).

(c) This section applies only to civil actions commenced on or after January 1, 1992.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 211, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2015.)

1194.3.
  

An employee may recover attorney’s fees and costs incurred to enforce a court judgment for unpaid wages due pursuant to this code.

(Added by Stats. 2011, Ch. 655, Sec. 8. Effective January 1, 2012.)

1194.5.
  

In any case in which a person employing an employee has willfully violated any of the laws, regulations, or orders governing the wages, hours of work, or working conditions of such employee, the division may seek, in a court of competent jurisdiction, and the court may grant, an injunction against any further violations of any such laws, regulations, or orders by such person.

(Amended by Stats. 1972, Ch. 1122.)

1195.
  

Any person may register with the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement a complaint that the wage paid to an employee for whom a minimum wage has been fixed by the commission is less than that rate. The division shall investigate the matter and take all proceedings necessary to enforce the payment of a wage not less than the minimum wage.

(Amended by Stats. 1979, Ch. 373.)

1195.5.
  

The Division of Labor Standards Enforcement shall determine, upon request, whether the wages of employees, which exceed the minimum wages fixed by the commission, have been correctly computed and paid. For this purpose, the division may examine the books, reports, contracts, payrolls and other documents of the employer relative to the employment of employees. The division shall enforce the payment of any sums found, upon examination, to be due and unpaid to the employees.

(Amended by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1184.)

1197.
  

The minimum wage for employees fixed by the commission or by any applicable state or local law, is the minimum wage to be paid to employees, and the payment of a lower wage than the minimum so fixed is unlawful. This section does not change the applicability of local minimum wage laws to any entity.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 783, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2016.)

1197.1.
  

(a) Any employer or other person acting either individually or as an officer, agent, or employee of another person, who pays or causes to be paid to any employee a wage less than the minimum fixed by an applicable state or local law, or by an order of the commission shall be subject to a civil penalty, restitution of wages, liquidated damages payable to the employee, and any applicable penalties imposed pursuant to Section 203 as follows:

(1) For any initial violation that is intentionally committed, one hundred dollars ($100) for each underpaid employee for each pay period for which the employee is underpaid. This amount shall be in addition to an amount sufficient to recover underpaid wages, liquidated damages pursuant to Section 1194.2, and any applicable penalties imposed pursuant to Section 203.

(2) For each subsequent violation for the same specific offense, two hundred fifty dollars ($250) for each underpaid employee for each pay period for which the employee is underpaid regardless of whether the initial violation is intentionally committed. This amount shall be in addition to an amount sufficient to recover underpaid wages, liquidated damages pursuant to Section 1194.2, and any applicable penalties imposed pursuant to Section 203.

(3) Wages, liquidated damages, and any applicable penalties imposed pursuant to Section 203, recovered pursuant to this section shall be paid to the affected employee.

(b) If, upon inspection or investigation, the Labor Commissioner determines that a person has paid or caused to be paid a wage less than the minimum under applicable law, the Labor Commissioner may issue a citation to the person in violation. The citation may be served personally, in the same manner as provided for service of a summons as described in Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 413.10) of Title 5 of Part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure, by certified mail with return receipt requested, or by registered mail in accordance with subdivision (c) of Section 11505 of the Government Code. Each citation shall be in writing and shall describe the nature of the violation, including reference to the statutory provision alleged to have been violated. The Labor Commissioner shall promptly take all appropriate action, in accordance with this section, to enforce the citation and to recover the civil penalty assessed, wages, liquidated damages, and any applicable penalties imposed pursuant to Section 203 in connection with the citation.

(c) (1) If a person desires to contest a citation or the proposed assessment of a civil penalty, wages, liquidated damages, and any applicable penalties imposed pursuant to Section 203 therefor, the person shall, within 15 business days after service of the citation, notify the office of the Labor Commissioner that appears on the citation of his or her appeal by a request for an informal hearing. The Labor Commissioner or his or her deputy or agent shall, within 30 days, hold a hearing at the conclusion of which the citation or proposed assessment of a civil penalty, wages, liquidated damages, and any applicable penalties imposed pursuant to Section 203 shall be affirmed, modified, or dismissed.

(2) The decision of the Labor Commissioner shall consist of a notice of findings, findings, and an order, all of which shall be served on all parties to the hearing within 15 days after the hearing by regular first-class mail at the last known address of the party on file with the Labor Commissioner. Service shall be completed pursuant to Section 1013 of the Code of Civil Procedure. Any amount found due by the Labor Commissioner as a result of a hearing shall become due and payable 45 days after notice of the findings and written findings and order have been mailed to the party assessed. A writ of mandate may be taken from this finding to the appropriate superior court. The party shall pay any judgment and costs ultimately rendered by the court against the party for the assessment. The writ shall be taken within 45 days of service of the notice of findings, findings, and order thereon.

(3) As a condition to filing a petition for a writ of mandate, the petitioner seeking the writ shall first post a bond with the Labor Commissioner equal to the total amount of any minimum wages, liquidated damages, and overtime compensation that are due and owing as determined pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 558, as specified in the citation being challenged. The bond amount shall not include amounts for penalties. The bond shall be issued by a surety duly authorized to do business in this state, shall be issued in favor of unpaid employees, and shall ensure that the petitioner makes payments as set forth in this paragraph. If a decision is entered which affirms or modifies the amounts for minimum wages, liquidated damages, or overtime compensation, the petitioner shall pay the amounts owed for the specified items included in a clerk’s judgment entered under subdivision (f) based on the decision, or pursuant to a court judgment in a writ of mandate proceeding under paragraph (2). If the request for a writ is withdrawn or dismissed without entry of judgment, the petitioner shall pay the amounts owed for the specified items pursuant to the citation, or the administrative decision if a pending writ of mandate is dismissed prior to a court decision, unless the parties have executed a settlement agreement for payment of some other amount. In the case of a settlement agreement, the petitioner shall pay the amount he or she is obligated to pay under the terms of the settlement.

(4) If the employer fails to pay the amount of minimum wages, liquidated damages, or overtime compensation owed within 10 days of the entry of judgment, dismissal or withdrawal of writ, or the execution of a settlement agreement, a portion of the undertaking, described in paragraph (3), equal to the amount owed, or the entire undertaking if the amount owed exceeds the undertaking, shall be forfeited to the employee.

(d) A person to whom a citation has been issued shall, in lieu of contesting a citation pursuant to this section, transmit to the office of the Labor Commissioner designated on the citation the amount specified for the violation within 15 business days after issuance of the citation.

(e) When no petition objecting to a citation or the proposed assessment of a civil penalty, wages, liquidated damages, and any applicable penalties imposed pursuant to Section 203 is filed, a certified copy of the citation or proposed civil penalty, wages, liquidated damages, and any applicable penalties imposed pursuant to Section 203 may be filed by the Labor Commissioner in the office of the clerk of the superior court in any county in which the person assessed has or had a place of business. The clerk, immediately upon the filing, shall enter judgment for the state against the person assessed in the amount shown on the citation or proposed assessment of a civil penalty, wages, liquidated damages, and any applicable penalties imposed pursuant to Section 203.

(f) When findings and the order thereon are made affirming or modifying a citation or proposed assessment of a civil penalty, wages, liquidated damages, and any applicable penalties imposed pursuant to Section 203 after hearing, a certified copy of these findings and the order entered thereon may be entered by the Labor Commissioner in the office of the clerk of the superior court in any county in which the person assessed has property or in which the person assessed has or had a place of business. The clerk, immediately upon the filing, shall enter judgment for the state against the person assessed in the amount shown on the certified order.

(g) A judgment entered pursuant to this section shall bear the same rate of interest and shall have the same effect as other judgments and be given the same preference allowed by the law on other judgments rendered for claims for taxes. The clerk shall make no charge for the service provided by this section to be performed by him or her.

(h) In a jurisdiction where a local entity has the legal authority to issue a citation against an employer for a violation of any applicable local minimum wage law, the Labor Commissioner, pursuant to a request from the local entity, may issue a citation against an employer for a violation of any applicable local minimum wage law if the local entity has not cited the employer for the same violation. If the Labor Commissioner issues a citation, the local entity shall not cite the employer for the same violation.

(i) The civil penalties provided for in this section are in addition to any other penalty provided by law.

(j) This section shall not apply to any order of the commission relating to household occupations.

(k) This section does not change the applicability of local minimum wage laws to any entity.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 28, Sec. 12. Effective June 27, 2017.)

1197.2.
  

(a) In addition to any other penalty imposed by law, an employer who willfully fails to pay and has the ability to pay a final court judgment or final order issued by the Labor Commissioner for all wages due to an employee who has been discharged or who has quit within 90 days of the date that the judgment was entered or the order became final is guilty of a misdemeanor. For purposes of this section, “final court judgment or final order” means a court judgment or order as to which the time to appeal has expired and there is no appeal pending. If the total amount of wages due is one thousand dollars ($1,000) or less, upon conviction therefor, the employer shall be fined not less than one thousand dollars ($1,000) nor more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000) or imprisoned in a county jail for not more than six months, for each offense. If the total amount of wages due is more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) upon conviction therefor, the employer shall be fined not less than ten thousand dollars ($10,000) nor more than twenty thousand dollars ($20,000), or imprisoned in a county jail for not less than six months, nor more than one year, or both the fine and imprisonment, for each offense. If there are multiple failures to pay wages involving more than one employee, the total amount of wages due to all employees shall be aggregated together for purposes of determining the level of fine and the term of imprisonment.

(b) As used in this section, “willfully” has the same meaning as provided in Section 7 of the Penal Code.

(c) Nothing in this section precludes prosecution under any other provision of law.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 867, Sec. 13. Effective January 1, 2013.)

1197.5.
  

(a) An employer shall not pay any of its employees at wage rates less than the rates paid to employees of the opposite sex for substantially similar work, when viewed as a composite of skill, effort, and responsibility, and performed under similar working conditions, except where the employer demonstrates:

(1) The wage differential is based upon one or more of the following factors:

(A) A seniority system.

(B) A merit system.

(C) A system that measures earnings by quantity or quality of production.

(D) A bona fide factor other than sex, such as education, training, or experience. This factor shall apply only if the employer demonstrates that the factor is not based on or derived from a sex-based differential in compensation, is job related with respect to the position in question, and is consistent with a business necessity. For purposes of this subparagraph, “business necessity” means an overriding legitimate business purpose such that the factor relied upon effectively fulfills the business purpose it is supposed to serve. This defense shall not apply if the employee demonstrates that an alternative business practice exists that would serve the same business purpose without producing the wage differential.

(2) Each factor relied upon is applied reasonably.

(3) The one or more factors relied upon account for the entire wage differential. Prior salary shall not, by itself, justify any disparity in compensation.

(b) An employer shall not pay any of its employees at wage rates less than the rates paid to employees of another race or ethnicity for substantially similar work, when viewed as a composite of skill, effort, and responsibility, and performed under similar working conditions, except where the employer demonstrates:

(1) The wage differential is based upon one or more of the following factors:

(A) A seniority system.

(B) A merit system.

(C) A system that measures earnings by quantity or quality of production.

(D) A bona fide factor other than race or ethnicity, such as education, training, or experience. This factor shall apply only if the employer demonstrates that the factor is not based on or derived from a race- or ethnicity-based differential in compensation, is job related with respect to the position in question, and is consistent with a business necessity. For purposes of this subparagraph, “business necessity” means an overriding legitimate business purpose such that the factor relied upon effectively fulfills the business purpose it is supposed to serve. This defense shall not apply if the employee demonstrates that an alternative business practice exists that would serve the same business purpose without producing the wage differential.

(2) Each factor relied upon is applied reasonably.

(3) The one or more factors relied upon account for the entire wage differential. Prior salary shall not, by itself, justify any disparity in compensation.

(c) Any employer who violates subdivision (a) or (b) is liable to the employee affected in the amount of the wages, and interest thereon, of which the employee is deprived by reason of the violation, and an additional equal amount as liquidated damages.

(d) The Division of Labor Standards Enforcement shall administer and enforce this section. If the division finds that an employer has violated this section, it may supervise the payment of wages and interest found to be due and unpaid to employees under subdivision (a) or (b). Acceptance of payment in full made by an employer and approved by the division shall constitute a waiver on the part of the employee of the employee’s cause of action under subdivision (h).

(e) Every employer shall maintain records of the wages and wage rates, job classifications, and other terms and conditions of employment of the persons employed by the employer. All of the records shall be kept on file for a period of three years.

(f) Any employee may file a complaint with the division that the wages paid are less than the wages to which the employee is entitled under subdivision (a) or (b) or that the employer is in violation of subdivision (k). The complaint shall be investigated as provided in subdivision (b) of Section 98.7. The division shall keep confidential the name of any employee who submits to the division a complaint regarding an alleged violation of subdivision (a), (b), or (k) until the division establishes the validity of the complaint, unless the division must abridge confidentiality to investigate the complaint. The name of the complaining employee shall remain confidential if the complaint is withdrawn before the confidentiality is abridged by the division. The division shall take all proceedings necessary to enforce the payment of any sums found to be due and unpaid to these employees.

(g) The department or division may commence and prosecute, unless otherwise requested by the employee or affected group of employees, a civil action on behalf of the employee and on behalf of a similarly affected group of employees to recover unpaid wages and liquidated damages under subdivision (a) or (b), and in addition shall be entitled to recover costs of suit. The consent of any employee to the bringing of any action shall constitute a waiver on the part of the employee of the employee’s cause of action under subdivision (h) unless the action is dismissed without prejudice by the department or the division, except that the employee may intervene in the suit or may initiate independent action if the suit has not been determined within 180 days from the date of the filing of the complaint.

(h) An employee receiving less than the wage to which the employee is entitled under this section may recover in a civil action the balance of the wages, including interest thereon, and an equal amount as liquidated damages, together with the costs of the suit and reasonable attorney’s fees, notwithstanding any agreement to work for a lesser wage.

(i) A civil action to recover wages under subdivision (a) or (b) may be commenced no later than two years after the cause of action occurs, except that a cause of action arising out of a willful violation may be commenced no later than three years after the cause of action occurs.

(j) If an employee recovers amounts due the employee under subdivision (c), and also files a complaint or brings an action under subdivision (d) of Section 206 of Title 29 of the United States Code which results in an additional recovery under federal law for the same violation, the employee shall return to the employer the amounts recovered under subdivision (c), or the amounts recovered under federal law, whichever is less.

(k) (1) An employer shall not discharge, or in any manner discriminate or retaliate against, any employee by reason of any action taken by the employee to invoke or assist in any manner the enforcement of this section. An employer shall not prohibit an employee from disclosing the employee’s own wages, discussing the wages of others, inquiring about another employee’s wages, or aiding or encouraging any other employee to exercise his or her rights under this section. Nothing in this section creates an obligation to disclose wages.

(2) Any employee who has been discharged, discriminated or retaliated against, in the terms and conditions of his or her employment because the employee engaged in any conduct delineated in this section may recover in a civil action reinstatement and reimbursement for lost wages and work benefits caused by the acts of the employer, including interest thereon, as well as appropriate equitable relief.

(3) A civil action brought under this subdivision may be commenced no later than one year after the cause of action occurs.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 866, Sec. 1.5. Effective January 1, 2017.)

1198.
  

The maximum hours of work and the standard conditions of labor fixed by the commission shall be the maximum hours of work and the standard conditions of labor for employees. The employment of any employee for longer hours than those fixed by the order or under conditions of labor prohibited by the order is unlawful.

(Amended by Stats. 1973, Ch. 1007.)

1198.3.
  

(a) The Chief of the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement may, when in his or her judgment hardship will result, exempt any employer or employees from any mandatory day or days off requirement contained in any order of the commission. Any exemption granted by the chief pursuant to this section shall be only of sufficient duration to permit the employer or employees to comply with the requirements contained in the order of the commission, but not more than one year. The exemption may be renewed by the chief only after he or she has investigated and is satisfied that a good faith effort is being made to comply with the order of the commission.

(b) No employer shall discharge or in any other manner discriminate against any employee who refuses to work hours in excess of those permitted by the order of the commission.

(Amended by Stats. 1985, Ch. 620, Sec. 1.)

1198.4.
  

Upon request, the Chief of the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement shall make available to the public any enforcement policy statements or interpretations of orders of the Industrial Welfare Commission. Copies of such policy statements shall be furnished to the Industrial Welfare Commission.

(Added by Stats. 1980, Ch. 1083.)

1198.5.
  

(a) Every current and former employee, or his or her representative, has the right to inspect and receive a copy of the personnel records that the employer maintains relating to the employee’s performance or to any grievance concerning the employee.

(b) (1) The employer shall make the contents of those personnel records available for inspection to the current or former employee, or his or her representative, at reasonable intervals and at reasonable times, but not later than 30 calendar days from the date the employer receives a written request, unless the current or former employee, or his or her representative, and the employer agree in writing to a date beyond 30 calendar days to inspect the records, and the agreed-upon date does not exceed 35 calendar days from the employer’s receipt of the written request. Upon a written request from a current or former employee, or his or her representative, the employer shall also provide a copy of the personnel records, at a charge not to exceed the actual cost of reproduction, not later than 30 calendar days from the date the employer receives the request, unless the current or former employee, or his or her representative, and the employer agree in writing to a date beyond 30 calendar days to produce a copy of the records, as long as the agreed-upon date does not exceed 35 calendar days from the employer’s receipt of the written request. Except as provided in paragraph (2) of subdivision (c), the employer is not required to make those personnel records or a copy thereof available at a time when the employee is actually required to render service to the employer, if the requester is the employee.

(2) (A) For purposes of this section, a request to inspect or receive a copy of personnel records shall be made in either of the following ways:

(i) Written and submitted by the current or former employee or his or her representative.

(ii) Written and submitted by the current or former employee or his or her representative by completing an employer-provided form.

(B) An employer-provided form shall be made available to the employee or his or her representative upon verbal request to the employee’s supervisor or, if known to the employee or his or her representative at the time of the request, to the individual the employer designates under this section to receive a verbal request for the form.

(c) The employer shall do all of the following:

(1) With regard to all employees, maintain a copy of each employee’s personnel records for a period of not less than three years after termination of employment.

(2) With regard to current employees, make a current employee’s personnel records available for inspection, and, if requested by the employee or his or her representative, provide a copy thereof, at the place where the employee reports to work, or at another location agreeable to the employer and the requester. If the employee is required to inspect or receive a copy at a location other than the place where he or she reports to work, no loss of compensation to the employee is permitted.

(3) (A) With regard to former employees, make a former employee’s personnel records available for inspection, and, if requested by the employee or his or her representative, provide a copy thereof, at the location where the employer stores the records, unless the parties mutually agree in writing to a different location. A former employee may receive a copy by mail if he or she reimburses the employer for actual postal expenses.

(B) (i) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), if a former employee seeking to inspect his or her personnel records was terminated for a violation of law, or an employment-related policy, involving harassment or workplace violence, the employer may comply with the request by doing one of the following:

(I) Making the personnel records available to the former employee for inspection at a location other than the workplace that is within a reasonable driving distance of the former employee’s residence.

(II) Providing a copy of the personnel records by mail.

(ii) Nothing in this subparagraph shall limit a former employee’s right to receive a copy of his or her personnel records.

(d) An employer is required to comply with only one request per year by a former employee to inspect or receive a copy of his or her personnel records.

(e) The employer may take reasonable steps to verify the identity of a current or former employee or his or her authorized representative. For purposes of this section, “representative” means a person authorized in writing by the employee to inspect, or receive a copy of, his or her personnel records.

(f) The employer may designate the person to whom a request is made.

(g) Prior to making records specified in subdivision (a) available for inspection or providing a copy of those records, the employer may redact the name of any nonsupervisory employee contained therein.

(h) The requirements of this section do not apply to:

(1) Records relating to the investigation of a possible criminal offense.

(2) Letters of reference.

(3) Ratings, reports, or records that were:

(A) Obtained prior to the employee’s employment.

(B) Prepared by identifiable examination committee members.

(C) Obtained in connection with a promotional examination.

(4) Employees who are subject to the Public Safety Officers Procedural Bill of Rights (Chapter 9.7 (commencing with Section 3300) of Division 4 of Title 1 of the Government Code).

(5) Employees of agencies subject to the Information Practices Act of 1977 (Title 1.8 (commencing with Section 1798) of Part 4 of Division 3 of the Civil Code).

(i) If a public agency has established an independent employee relations board or commission, an employee shall first seek relief regarding any matter or dispute relating to this section from that board or commission before pursuing any available judicial remedy.

(j) In enacting this section, it is the intent of the Legislature to establish minimum standards for the inspection and the receipt of a copy of personnel records by employees. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the establishment of additional rules for the inspection and the receipt of a copy of personnel records that are established as the result of agreements between an employer and a recognized employee organization.

(k) If an employer fails to permit a current or former employee, or his or her representative, to inspect or copy personnel records within the times specified in this section, or times agreed to by mutual agreement as provided in this section, the current or former employee or the Labor Commissioner may recover a penalty of seven hundred fifty dollars ($750) from the employer.

(l) A current or former employee may also bring an action for injunctive relief to obtain compliance with this section, and may recover costs and reasonable attorney’s fees in such an action.

(m) Notwithstanding Section 1199, a violation of this section is an infraction. Impossibility of performance, not caused by or resulting from a violation of law, may be asserted as an affirmative defense by an employer in any action alleging a violation of this section.

(n) If an employee or former employee files a lawsuit that relates to a personnel matter against his or her employer or former employer, the right of the employee, former employee, or his or her representative to inspect or copy personnel records under this section ceases during the pendency of the lawsuit in the court with original jurisdiction.

(o) For purposes of this section, a lawsuit “relates to a personnel matter” if a current or former employee’s personnel records are relevant to the lawsuit.

(p) An employer is not required to comply with more than 50 requests under this section to inspect and receive a copy of personnel records filed by a representative or representatives of employees in one calendar month.

(q) This section does not apply to an employee covered by a valid collective bargaining agreement if the agreement expressly provides for all of the following:

(1) The wages, hours of work, and working conditions of employees.

(2) A procedure for the inspection and copying of personnel records.

(3) Premium wage rates for all overtime hours worked.

(4) A regular rate of pay of not less than 30 percent more than the state minimum wage rate.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 842, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2013.)

1199.
  

Every employer or other person acting either individually or as an officer, agent, or employee of another person is guilty of a misdemeanor and is punishable by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100) or by imprisonment for not less than 30 days, or by both, who does any of the following:

(a) Requires or causes any employee to work for longer hours than those fixed, or under conditions of labor prohibited by an order of the commission.

(b) Pays or causes to be paid to any employee a wage less than the minimum fixed by an order of the commission.

(c) Violates or refuses or neglects to comply with any provision of this chapter or any order or ruling of the commission.

(Amended by Stats. 1983, Ch. 1092, Sec. 205. Effective September 27, 1983. Operative January 1, 1984, by Sec. 427 of Ch. 1092.)

1199.5.
  

Every employer or other person acting either individually or as an officer, agent, or employee of another person is guilty of a misdemeanor and is punishable by a fine of not more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or by imprisonment for not more than six months, or by both, who willfully does any of the following:

(a) Pays or causes to be paid any employee a wage less than the rate paid to an employee of another sex, race, or ethnicity, as required by Section 1197.5.

(b) Reduces the wages of any employee in order to comply with Section 1197.5.

No person shall be imprisoned pursuant to this section except for an offense committed after the conviction of the person for a prior offense pursuant to this section.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 866, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2017.)

1200.
  

In every prosecution for violation of any provision of this chapter, the minimum wage, the maximum hours of work, and the standard conditions of labor fixed by the commission shall be presumed to be reasonable and lawful.

(Enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 90.)

1201.
  

The commission shall not act as a board of arbitration during a strike or lockout.

(Enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 90.)

1202.
  

Upon the request of the commission, the department shall cause such statistics and other data and information to be gathered, and investigations made, as the commission may require. The cost thereof shall be paid out of the appropriations made for the expenses of the commission.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 46, Sec. 92. Effective June 27, 2012.)

1203.
  

The commission may publish and distribute from time to time reports and bulletins covering its operations and proceedings under this chapter and such other matters relative thereto which it deems advisable.

(Enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 90.)

1204.
  

No order made by the commission under the provisions of Sections 1182 or 1184 of this chapter shall be effective unless and until compliance is had with the provisions of Section 1178 of this code.

(Amended by Stats. 1953, Ch. 208.)

1205.
  

(a) As used in this section:

(1) “Local jurisdiction” means any city, county, district, or agency, or any subdivision or combination thereof.

(2) “State agency” means any state office, officer, department, division, bureau, board, commission, or agency, or any subdivision thereof.

(3) “Labor standards” means any legal requirements regarding wages paid, hours worked, and other conditions of employment.

(b) Nothing in this part shall be deemed to restrict the exercise of local police powers in a more stringent manner.

(c) When a local jurisdiction expends funds that have been provided to it by a state agency, operates a program that has received assistance from a state agency, or engages in an activity that has received assistance from a state agency, labor standards established by the local jurisdiction through exercise of local police powers or spending powers shall take effect with regard to that expenditure, program, or activity, so long as those labor standards are not in explicit conflict with, or explicitly preempted by, state law. A state agency may not require as a condition to the receipt of state funds or assistance that a local jurisdiction refrain from applying labor standards established by the local jurisdiction to expenditures, programs, or activities supported by the state funds or assistance in question.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 298, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2003.)

1206.
  

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, this code establishes minimum penalties for failure to comply with wage-related statutes and regulations.

(Added by Stats. 2011, Ch. 655, Sec. 11. Effective January 1, 2012.)

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