Code Section Group

Insurance Code - INS

DIVISION 1. GENERAL RULES GOVERNING INSURANCE [100 - 1879.8]

  ( Division 1 enacted by Stats. 1935, Ch. 145. )

PART 2. THE BUSINESS OF INSURANCE [680 - 1879.8]

  ( Part 2 enacted by Stats. 1935, Ch. 145. )

CHAPTER 1. General Regulations [680 - 1113]

  ( Chapter 1 enacted by Stats. 1935, Ch. 145. )

ARTICLE 14. Proceedings in Cases of Insolvency and Delinquency [1010 - 1062]
  ( Article 14 amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291. )

1010.
  

(a) The provisions of this article shall apply to all persons, except the State Compensation Insurance Fund, subject to examination by the commissioner, or purporting to do insurance business in this state, or in the process of organization with intent to do such business therein, or from whom the commissioner’s certificate of authority is required for the transaction of business, or whose certificate of authority is revoked or suspended.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), if any of the conditions set forth in Section 1011 exists with respect to the State Compensation Insurance Fund, and the commissioner would otherwise file a verified application with the superior court or proceed under Section 1013 against the fund, the commissioner shall instead issue a report to the Governor, the President pro Tempore of the Senate, and the Speaker of the Assembly setting forth the conditions that exist and recommending a course to remedy those conditions. The Governor, in consultation with the Legislature, shall direct a course of action to be implemented by the fund’s board of directors, or if additional legislative action is necessary, recommend a course of action to the Legislature, or both.

(Amended by Stats. 2006, Ch. 740, Sec. 3.9. Effective January 1, 2007.)

1011.
  

The superior court of the county in which the principal office of a person described in Section 1010 is located, upon the filing by the commissioner of the verified application showing any of the conditions in this subdivision exist, or a filing by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation of the verified application showing that the conditions enumerated in subdivision (j) exist and the conditions set forth in Section 5383(e)(3) of Title 12 of the United States Code having been satisfied, shall issue its order vesting title to all of the assets of that person, wheresoever situated, in the commissioner or his or her successor in office, in his or her official capacity, and direct the commissioner forthwith to take possession of all of its books, records, property, real and personal, and assets, and to conduct, as conservator, the business of the person, or so much thereof as to the commissioner may seem appropriate, and enjoining the person and its officers, directors, agents, servants, and employees from the transaction of its business or disposition of its property until any of the following further order of the court:

(a) That the person has refused to submit its books, papers, accounts, or affairs to the reasonable inspection of the commissioner or his or her deputy or examiner.

(b) That the person has neglected or refused to observe an order of the commissioner to make good within the time prescribed by law any deficiency in its capital if it is a stock corporation, or in its reserve if it is a mutual insurer.

(c) That the person, without first obtaining the consent in writing of the commissioner, has transferred, or attempted to transfer, substantially its entire property or business or, without consent, has entered into any transaction the effect of which is to merge, consolidate, or reinsure substantially its entire property or business in or with the property or business of any other person.

(d) That the person is found, after an examination, to be in a condition that makes its further transaction of business hazardous to its policyholders, or creditors, or to the public.

(e) That the person has violated its charter or any law of the state.

(f) That any officer of the person refuses to be examined under oath, touching its affairs.

(g) That any officer or attorney in fact of the person has embezzled, sequestered, or wrongfully diverted any of the assets of the person.

(h) That a domestic insurer does not comply with the requirements for the issuance to it of a certificate of authority, or that its certificate of authority has been revoked.

(i) That the last report of examination of any person to whom the provisions of this article apply shows the person to be insolvent within the meaning of Article 13 (commencing with Section 980) of Chapter 1 of Part 2 of Division 1; or if a reciprocal or interinsurance exchange, within the applicable provisions of Section 1370.2, 1370.4, 1371, or 1372; or if a life insurer, within the applicable provisions of Sections 10510 and 10511.

(j) Notification is given by the United States Secretary of the Treasury that a determination has been made by the secretary, in accordance with and satisfying the provisions of Section 5383(b) of Title 12 of the United States Code, as to a person described in Section 1010 that is an insurance company as defined in Section 5381(a)(13) of Title 12 of the United States Code, and one of the following:

(1) The board of directors, or body performing similar functions, of the person acquiesces or consents to the appointment of a receiver as provided for in Section 5832(a)(1)(A)(i) of Title 12 of the United States Code, with that consent to be considered to be consent to issuance of an order under this section.

(2) The United States District Court for the District of Columbia issued an order for the appointment of a receiver of the person as provided for in Section 5382(a)(1)(A)(iv)(I) of Title 12 of the United States Code, without regard to whether an appeal of the order is pending.

(3) A petition by the United States Secretary of the Treasury for appointment of a receiver was made to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia and was granted by operation of the law as provided for in Section 5382(a)(1)(A)(v) of Title 12 of the United States Code, without regard to whether an appeal of the order is pending.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 321, Sec. 7. (AB 1391) Effective January 1, 2014.)

1011.1.
  

If a verified application is filed pursuant to Section 1011 that shows that the conditions set forth in subdivision (j) of Section 1011 exist and upon a showing that notice was provided to the person that is the subject of the verification application, all of the following apply:

(a) A superior court hearing shall be held in which the person may oppose the verified application solely on the grounds that the conditions set forth in subdivision (j) of Section 1101 do not exist. The hearing shall be completed within 24 hours after the verified application is filed with the court.

(b) The superior court shall issue an order as provided for in Section 1011 within 24 hours after the verified application was filed with the court.

(c) If the superior court does not issue an order within 24 hours as provided for in subdivision (b), then an order described in Section 1011 shall be deemed granted by operation of law upon expiration of the 24-hour period, without further notice.

(d) An order entered by the superior court pursuant to subdivision (b) or entered by operation of law pursuant to subdivision (c) shall not be subject to any stay or injunction pending appeal.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 321, Sec. 8. (AB 1391) Effective January 1, 2014.)

1011.5.
  

The consent described in subdivision (c) of Section 1011 shall be obtained by filing an application with the commissioner in a form to be prescribed by him or her accompanied by that additional information concerning the insurer, its condition and affairs, as the commissioner requires.

A fee of six thousand three hundred fifty dollars ($6,350) shall be paid to the commissioner for the filing of the application.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 534, Sec. 18. (AB 1699) Effective January 1, 2018.)

1012.
  

Except in the case of an order issued based on a verified application showing the conditions in subdivision (j) of Section 1011 to exist, the order shall continue in force and effect until, on the application either of the commissioner or of that person, it shall, after a full hearing, appear to the court that the ground for the order directing the commissioner to take title and possession does not exist or has been removed and that the person can properly resume title and possession of its property and the conduct of its business.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 321, Sec. 9. (AB 1391) Effective January 1, 2014.)

1013.
  

Whenever it appears to the commissioner that any of the conditions set forth in section 1011 exist or that irreparable loss and injury to the property and business of a person specified in section 1010 has occurred or may occur unless the commissioner so act immediately, the commissioner, without notice and before applying to the court for any order, forthwith shall take possession of the property, business, books, records and accounts of such person, and of the offices and premises occupied by it for the transaction of its business, and retain possession subject to the order of the court. Any person having possession of and refusing to deliver any of the books, records or assets of a person against whom a seizure order has been issued by the commissioner, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and punishable by fine not exceeding one thousand dollars or imprisonment not exceeding one year, or both such fine and imprisonment.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1014.
  

Whenever the commissioner makes any seizure as provided in section 1013, it shall, on the demand of the commissioner, be the duty of the sheriff of any county of this State, and of the police department of any municipal corporation therein, to furnish him with such deputies, patrolmen or officers as may be necessary to assist the commissioner in making and enforcing any such seizure.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1015.
  

Immediately after such seizure, the commissioner shall institute a proceeding as provided for in section 1011 and thereafter shall proceed in accordance with the provisions of this article.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1016.
  

(a) If at any time after the issuance of an order under Section 1011, or if at the time of instituting any proceeding under this article, including under Section 1011, it shall appear to the commissioner that it would be futile to proceed as conservator with the conduct of the business of that person, he or she may apply to the court for an order to liquidate and wind up the business of the person. Upon a full hearing of that application, the court may make an order directing the winding up and liquidation of the business of that person by the commissioner, as liquidator, for the purpose of carrying out the order to liquidate and wind up the business of that person.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), the court may issue an order to liquidate and wind up the business of a person as to whom a verified application is filed pursuant to subdivision (j) of Section 1011 based solely on the verified application and hearing as provided for in subdivision (a) of Section 1011.1, without further hearing, or may issue an order to liquidate and wind up the business of the person upon application by the commissioner after the issuance of an order under Section 1011. The court’s order may direct the winding up and liquidation of the business of the person by the commissioner, as liquidator, for the purpose of carrying out the order to liquidate and wind up the business of the person.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 321, Sec. 10. (AB 1391) Effective January 1, 2014.)

1017.
  

(a) In the commissioner’s application for an order for the liquidation of a domestic corporation, or at any time thereafter, the commissioner may apply for, and the court shall make, an order dissolving the corporation.

(b) At any time during a proceeding for the liquidation of a domestic corporation authorized under Section 1016, the commissioner may apply for, and the court shall make, an order to permit the commissioner to sell the charter and license of that corporation while continuing to administer and distribute the remaining assets according to the provisions of this article. The order shall provide that the liabilities of the domestic corporation may not be transferred with the charter and license. In continuing the administration and distribution of assets the commissioner need not establish a liquidating trust or other, similar entity.

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 578, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1996.)

1018.
  

The recording in the office of a county recorder of any county in the State of an order entered pursuant to section 1011, 1016 or 1017 shall impart the same notice that would be imparted by the recordation of a deed, bill of sale or other evidence of title duly executed by such person.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1019.
  

Upon the issuance of an order of liquidation under section 1016, the rights and liabilities of any such person and of creditors, policyholders, shareholders and members, and all other persons interested in its assets, including the State of California, shall, unless otherwise directed by the court, be fixed as of the date of the entry of the order in the office of the clerk of the county wherein the application was made.

(Amended by Stats. 1939, Ch. 934.)

1020.
  

Upon the issuance of an order either under Section 1011 or 1016, or at any time thereafter, the court shall issue such other injunctions or orders as may be deemed necessary to prevent any or all of the following occurrences:

(a) Interference with the commissioner or the proceeding.

(b) Waste of assets of such person.

(c) The institution or prosecution of any actions or proceedings.

(d) The obtaining of preferences, judgments, attachments, or other liens against such person or its assets.

(e) The making of any levy against any such person or its assets.

(f) The sale or deed for nonpayment of taxes or assessments levied by any taxing agency of property:

(1) Owned by such person.

(2) Upon which such person holds an encumbrance.

(3) Upon which such person has prior thereto commenced an action to foreclose any deed of trust or mortgage or has exercised the power of sale under any trust deed or mortgage which sale or foreclosure proceedings have not yet been completed or upon which no trustee’s deed or judgment of court or sheriff’s certificate of sale has been issued. “Taxing agency” as used in this section has the meaning ascribed to it by Section 121 of the Revenue and Taxation Code. The injunctions or orders authorized by this subdivision may be modified, dissolved or rescinded by the court on motion of the commissioner, the State Controller, the person charged with the collection of taxes or assessments on such property, or any person beneficially interested in the property. The recording in the office of the county recorder of any county in the State of an order or injunction issued pursuant to this section, shall constitute service of such order or injunction upon any taxing agency with respect to property or interests therein located in such county.

(g) Any managing general agent or attorney in fact from withholding from the commissioner any books, records, accounts, documents or other writing relating to the business of such person; provided, however, that, if by contract or otherwise any of the same are the property of such an agent or attorney, the same shall be returned when no longer necessary to the commissioner or at any time the court after notice and hearing shall so direct.

(Amended by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1460.)

1021.
  

(a) Upon the making of an order to liquidate the business of such person, the commissioner shall publish notice to its policyholders, creditors, shareholders, and all other persons interested in its assets. The order and the notice shall require claimants to file their claims with the commissioner, together with proper proofs thereof, within six months to one year, at the commissioner’s discretion, after the date of first publication of such notice, in the manner specified in this article.

(b) The time period specified in subdivision (a) shall not apply to the California Insurance Guarantee Association or the California Life and Health Insurance Guarantee Association provided it files with the commissioner a notice of possible claim within such six-month period and files actual claim or claims within such periods of time as may be permitted by order of court.

(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (a), both of the following apply:

(1) If the commissioner determines that the business subject to liquidation order possesses, or is likely to possess, insufficient assets to permit significant distribution to a person interested in those assets, the commissioner may decline to handle a claim submitted pursuant to subdivision (a), as long as the notice requirements of subdivision (a) and Section 1022 are observed.

(2) If the commissioner reasonably determines that the business subject to liquidation order possesses, or is likely to possess, insufficient assets to permit significant distribution of funds to pay the expenses of administration under this article, as provided in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 1033, the commissioner may decline to continue, and may abandon, the insolvency proceeding upon providing notice pursuant to subdivision (a) and Section 1022.

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 578, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 1996.)

1022.
  

The notice shall be published in newspapers of general circulation in geographic areas pertinent to the liquidation. The notice shall reference a source, either the liquidated company’s or the liquidator’s Internet Web site, where ongoing information for creditors shall be provided. A copy of the notice, accompanied by an affidavit of due publication, including a statement of the date of publication, shall be filed with the clerk of the court.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 786, Sec. 13. (AB 2303) Effective January 1, 2013.)

1023.
  

A claim must set forth, under oath, on the form prescribed by the commissioner:

(a) The particulars thereof, and the consideration therefor.

(b) Whether said claim is secured or unsecured, and, if secured, the nature and amount of such security.

(c) The payments, if any, made thereon.

(d) That the sum claimed is justly owing from such person to the claimant.

(e) That there is no offset to the claim.

(f) Such other data or supporting documents as the commissioner requires.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1024.
  

Unless such claim is filed in the manner and within the time provided in section 1021, it shall not be entitled to filing or allowance, and no action may be maintained thereon. In the liquidation, pursuant to the provisions of this article, of any domestic insurer which has issued policies insuring the lives of persons, the commissioner shall, within thirty days after the last day set for the filing of claims, make a list of the persons who have not filed proofs of claim with him and to whom, according to the books of said insurer, there are amounts owing under such policies, and he shall set opposite the name of each person the amount so owing to such person. Each person whose name shall appear upon said list shall be deemed to have duly filed, prior to the last day set for the filing of claims, a claim for the amount set opposite his name on said list.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1025.
  

Claims founded upon unliquidated or undetermined demands must be filed within the time limit provided in this article for the filing of claims, but claims founded upon such demands shall not share in any distribution to creditors of a person proceeded against under section 1016 until such claims have been definitely determined, proved and allowed. Thereafter, such claims shall share ratably with other claims of the same class in all subsequent distributions.

An unliquidated or undetermined claim or demand within the meaning of this article shall be deemed to be any such claim or demand upon which a right of action has accrued at the date of the order of liquidation and upon which the liability has not been determined or the amount thereof liquidated.

(Amended by Stats. 1939, Ch. 934.)

1025.5.
  

Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 1021 to 1025, inclusive, the commissioner may, in lieu of requiring claimants to file separate claims:

(a) File a claim himself or herself on behalf of all claimants for return premiums.

(b) Permit any assignee of the right of the insured to a return premium by virtue of a valid assignment, as security or otherwise, made prior to an order under Section 1011 or a seizure under Section 1013, whichever is earlier in time in the particular case, to file one claim as assignee on behalf of all insureds having assigned rights to the assignee, which shall set forth such information as may be required under Section 1023.

(c) Permit the California Insurance Guarantee Association under subdivision (b) of Section 1063.4, or the California Life and Health Insurance Guarantee Association under paragraph (1) of subdivision (k) of Section 1067.07 to file one claim, for its association, combining all assigned claims and setting forth the information that the commissioner may require under Section 1023.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 334, Sec. 1. (SB 1408) Effective September 27, 2010.)

1026.
  

Whenever any person has a cause of action against an insured and such cause is covered by a liability policy, such person, if the insurer is adjudged insolvent, may file a claim in the liquidation proceeding even if the claim is undetermined or unliquidated.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1026.1.
  

Where a claim arising out of a policy of insurance has been filed by a third party and approved by the liquidator and such claim has subsequently been paid or satisfied, either wholly or in part, by the transfer of anything of value, either voluntarily or by process, from the insured of the person in liquidation to such third party, then upon the filing with the liquidator of proof of the making and value of such transfer, to the extent and in the manner required by the liquidator, the insured shall be subrogated to the rights of the third party claimant to the extent that the claim has been satisfied and discharged, but the rights of the insured shall not exceed the face value of such claim and if the insured has theretofore filed a claim covering the same subject matter, he is entitled to only one recovery.

(Added by Stats. 1941, Ch. 271.)

1027.
  

A claim by a third party founded upon an insurance policy may be allowed by the liquidator without requiring such claim to be reduced to judgment, provided it can be reasonably inferred from the proof presented that the claimant would be able to obtain a judgment upon his cause of action against the insured and that such judgment would represent a liability of the person in liquidation under the policy of insurance upon which such claim is founded.

In the event several claims founded upon one policy or bond are filed, and the aggregate amount of such claims exceeds the liability limit of said policy or bond, and one or more of such claims is unliquidated and undetermined, then all of such claims shall be deemed unliquidated and undetermined; provided, however, that should one or more of said claims become determined and proved within the time provided in this article, the liquidator, upon any distribution to creditors, shall impound the distribution percentage of the face amount of said claim or claims so determined and proved, not exceeding the policy or bond limit, and upon such claim or claims becoming liquidated as to amount, the liquidator shall release to such claimant the distribution percentage of the final liquidated value of such claims out of the funds so impounded.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1028.
  

A judgment taken by default, or by collusion, against an insured shall not be considered as evidence, in the liquidation proceeding, either of the liability of such insured to such claimant upon such cause of action or of the amount of damages to which such claimant is entitled.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1029.
  

A claim of a secured claimant shall not be allowed in a sum greater than the excess over the value of the security of the amount for which the claim would be allowable if unsecured, unless the claimant surrenders the security to the liquidator. Upon such surrender the claim may be allowed in the full amount for which it is valued.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1030.
  

The value of the security to be credited upon such claim shall be determined by an appraiser appointed by the liquidator and approved by the court. Such claimant shall elect to accept the security or to release it to the liquidator.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1030.5.
  

(a) The liquidator may require, as a condition of payment of the final liquidation dividend to a lender, or his assignee, who has filed a claim for an unearned premium as an assignee of the insured for valuable consideration, that such assignee of the insured shall assign to the liquidator all his right, title, and interest in any unsatisfied debt of the insured to such assignee, pertaining to policies of the insolvent insurer, remaining unpaid after crediting the final liquidation dividend, if the amount of such unsatisfied debt is less than one hundred dollars and one cent ($100.01).

The liquidator may also require, as condition precedent, the delivery to him of all the documents giving rise to such debt.

The liquidator, in his sole discretion, may determine whether or not it will be feasible to attempt to collect any such assigned debt. If he determines not to pursue collection of any such debt, he shall file a declaration to that effect with the liquidation court and be relieved of any further responsibility in respect to such debt.

(b) As used in this section, “insured” means a natural person who purchased insurance from the insolvent insurer for personal, family, or household purposes.

(Added by Stats. 1970, Ch. 1205.)

1030.6.
  

In any proceeding under this article, no agent shall be liable to the liquidator or conservator for unearned premiums uncollected by the agent, or unearned commissions uncollected by the agent, arising from an insolvency of an insurer.

(Added by Stats. 1989, Ch. 672, Sec. 1.)

1031.
  

Mutual debts or mutual credits, whether arising out of one or more contracts between the person in liquidation under Section 1016 and any other person, shall be set off and the balance only shall be allowed or paid, except with respect to any of the following obligations as described in subdivisions (a) to (d), inclusive:

(a) The obligation of the person in liquidation to such other person does not entitle such other person claiming such set-off to share as a claimant in the assets of the person in liquidation.

(b) The obligation of the person in liquidation to the other person was purchased by, or transferred to, the other person.

(c) The obligation of the other person to the person in liquidation is to pay an assessment levied against the other person or to pay a balance upon a subscription for shares of the capital stock of the person in liquidation.

(d) The obligations between the other person and the person in liquidation arise from business where either the person in liquidation or the other person has assumed risks and obligations from the other party and then has ceded back to that party substantially the same risks and obligations.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, a set-off of amounts due on obligations arising from those contracts shall be allowed if the balance arises from contracts that were entered into, renewed, or extended with the express written approval of the commissioner.

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 580, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 1996.)

1032.
  

When a claim is rejected by the commissioner, written notice of rejection shall be given by mail, addressed to the claimant at the address set forth in his claim. Within thirty days after the mailing of the notice the claimant may apply to the court in which the liquidation proceeding is pending for an order to show cause why the claim should not be allowed.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1033.
  

(a) Claims allowed in a proceeding under this article shall be given preference in the following order:

(1) Expense of administration.

(2) All claims of the California Insurance Guarantee Association or the California Life and Health Insurance Guarantee Association, and associations or entities performing a similar function in other states, together with claims for refund of unearned premiums and all claims under insurance and annuity policies or contracts, including funding agreements, of an insolvent insurer that are not covered claims.

The following claims are excluded from this priority:

(A) Any obligations of the insolvent insurer arising out of any reinsurance contracts, as well as obligations incurred after the expiration date of the policy or after the insurance policy has been replaced by the insured or canceled at the insured’s request, or after the policy has been canceled by the California Insurance Guarantee Association, the California Life and Health Insurance Guarantee Association, or another association or entity performing a similar function in another state.

(B) Any obligations to insurers, insurance pools, or underwriting associations, and their claims for contribution, indemnity, or subrogation, equitable or otherwise, except as otherwise provided in this chapter.

(C) Any amount awarded as punitive or exemplary damages, and any damages in excess of the liability limits of the policies or contracts that represent damages for contractual bad faith.

(D) Any amount that is a surplus deposit of a subscriber as defined in Section 1374.1.

(E) Any judgments against or obligations or liabilities of the insolvent insurer otherwise arising from alleged or proven torts, and any default, collusive, or stipulated judgment against either the insured or the person subject to proceedings under this article, as well as any judgment taken in violation of Section 1020. Nothing in this subparagraph shall prohibit the commissioner from considering the underlying claims as a claim entitled to priority under this section, provided that the claimant shall provide to the commissioner a written election that the judgment shall in all things be disregarded in determining the liability for and valuation of the underlying claim.

(F) Any loss adjustment expenses, including adjustment fees and expenses, attorneys’ fees and expenses, court costs, interest, bond premiums, expert witness fees, and other claims of a similar nature incurred prior to the appointment of a liquidator.

(G) Claims arising from any self-insured program of the insurer, including employee life, health and annuity plans, and self-funded employee benefit plans, however denominated, as well as claims arising from a multiple employer welfare arrangement as defined in Section 514 of the federal Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, a minimum premium group insurance plan, a stop-loss group insurance plan, or an administrative services-only plan.

(H) Any portion of a policy or contract to the extent that it provides experience rating credits or refunds, dividends, or for the payment of fees or allowances to any person, including the policyholder or contractholder, in connection with the service to or administration of the policy or contract.

(I) Any annuity issued by a charitable organization for which the person subject to these proceedings did not have or utilize a certificate of authority to issue the policy or contract.

(3) Claims having preference by the laws of the United States.

(4) Unpaid charges due under the provisions of Section 736.

(5) Taxes due to the State of California.

(6) Claims having preference by the laws of this state.

(7) Claims of creditors not included in paragraphs (1) to (6), inclusive.

(8) Certificates of contribution, surplus notes, or similar obligations, and premium refunds on assessable policies.

(9) The interests of shareholders or other owners in any residual value in the estate.

(b) (1) Every claim allowed under a separate account policy, contract, or agreement providing, in effect, that the assets allocated to the separate account are not chargeable with liabilities arising out of any other business of the insurer, shall be satisfied out of the assets properly allocated to and maintained in the separate account, excluding amounts allocated or transferred to the separate account by the insurer pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 10506, equal to the reserves maintained in the separate account for the policies, contracts, or agreements. No liabilities of the insurer arising out of any other business of the insurer shall be satisfied from assets properly allocated to and maintained in a separate account except (A) from amounts allocated or transferred to the separate account pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 10506 and (B) from any assets allocated to the separate account that exceed the reserves under the separate account policies, contracts, or agreements. For the purposes of this subdivision, “separate account policies, contracts, or agreements” means any policies, contracts, or agreements that provide for separate accounts as contemplated by Section 10506, 10506.3, 10506.4, or 10541. Any valid and allowed claim for contractual benefits that cannot be satisfied out of the assets properly allocated to and maintained in a separate account for obligations authorized by subdivision (a) of Section 10506.3 shall be included as a claim against the general account within paragraph (2) of subdivision (a). Any valid and allowed claim against the general account for contractual benefits under an obligation authorized by Section 10506.4 shall be included as a claim within paragraph (2) of subdivision (a).

(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, to the extent that any assets of a life insurer, other than those assets properly allocated to, and maintained in, a separate account, have been used to fund or pay any expenses, taxes, or policyholder benefits that are attributable to a separate account policy, contract, or agreement that should have been paid by a separate account prior to the commencement of delinquency proceedings, then upon the commencement of delinquency proceedings, the separate accounts that benefited from this payment or funding shall first be used to repay or reimburse the company’s general assets or account for any unreimbursed net sums due at the commencement of delinquency proceedings prior to the application of the separate account assets to the satisfaction of liabilities of the corresponding separate account policies, contracts, and agreements.

(c) Upon the issuance of an order appointing a conservator or liquidator for any person under either Section 1011 or 1016 or both these sections, the lien of taxes due to the State of California imposed by Article 4 (commencing with Section 12491) of Chapter 4 of Part 7 of Division 2 of the Revenue and Taxation Code shall become subordinate to the reasonable administrative expenses of the proceeding under the order.

(d) The following definitions are for purposes of this section only and shall not be used to determine coverage under the California Life and Health Insurance Guarantee Association Act (Article 14.7 (commencing with Section 1067)):

(1) “Funding agreements” means those agreements authorized to be delivered or issued pursuant to Section 10541.

(2) “Annuity” means only those annuity contracts, including period-certain annuities issued by a life insurer, that require for their lawful issuance a certificate of authority from the commissioner, and excludes without limitation all instruments for which the commissioner’s certificate of authority is not required, such as promissory notes, installment loans, negotiable instruments, mortgages, and debentures.

(3) Reinsurance contracts shall not be included as insurance or annuity policies or contracts, or funding agreements. However, any insurance or annuity policy or contract, including any funding agreement, that is assumed by an insurer under an assumption reinsurance agreement pursuant to a plan of liquidation, rehabilitation, or reorganization shall, unless the plan provided otherwise, be deemed to retain the issue date of the original insurance or annuity policy or contract, or funding agreement that is assumed.

(e) The provisions of this section are severable. If any portion of this section is held invalid or is preempted by federal law, the remainder of the section and its application shall not be affected. Specifically, should any of paragraphs (1) to (6), inclusive, of subdivision (a) be held to be invalid or preempted by federal law, the claims included within the invalid paragraph shall be included within paragraph (7) of subdivision (a), and the remaining paragraphs shall not be affected thereby.

(f) No payment shall be made to any creditor in paragraphs (8) or (9) of subdivision (a), unless all claims in paragraphs (3) to (7), inclusive, of subdivision (a) have been paid in full, together with interest at the legal rate of the date of the order commencing the proceeding or the date on which the claim became liquidated, whichever date is later. In proceedings involving life insurance companies, no payment shall be made for any claim in paragraph (7), (8), or (9) of subdivision (a) unless and until all claims in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) have been paid in full, together with interest at the legal rate, all claims in paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) have been paid the full value of the policy or contract upon which the claim is based, as of the time of distribution to claimants, and all claims in paragraphs (3) to (6), inclusive, of subdivision (a) have been paid in full, together with interest at the legal rate from the date of the order commencing the proceeding. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subdivision, no payment of interest shall be made to any insurance guaranty association that receives early access disbursements from the estate pursuant to Section 1035.5.

(Amended by Stats. 1999, Ch. 868, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2000.)

1033.5.
  

(a) The purpose of this section is to clarify the rights and obligations of policyholders, claimants, guaranty funds, including the California Insurance Guarantee Association, and the liquidator with respect to a deductible agreement entered into between a policyholder and an insurer subject to liquidation proceedings under this article. These arrangements are commonly referred to as “large deductible” policies or programs, even though the actual amount of the deductible can vary significantly and may not be in fact large in amount. Deductible amounts under these arrangements may vary from as little as five thousand dollars ($5,000) to as much as $1,000,000 or more. This section shall be construed such that the claim payment obligations of the guaranty associations, including the California Insurance Guarantee Association, in total arising from deductible agreements will be substantially equivalent to those of the insurer, except as provided otherwise in each guaranty association’s enabling statute, including that of the California Insurance Guarantee Association, had the insurer continued in business and not become subject to a liquidation proceeding.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law or contract to the contrary, any collateral held by or for the benefit of, or assigned to, the insurer or the liquidator to secure the obligations of a policyholder under a deductible agreement and any reimbursement payments to the liquidator under a deductible agreement shall be considered property of the liquidated company, but shall not be general assets of the liquidated company. The liquidator shall maintain, administer, and distribute all such collateral and deductible reimbursement payments only as provided in this section.

(c) If a claim that is subject to a deductible agreement and secured by collateral is not covered by a guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association and the policyholder is unwilling or unable to take over the handling and payment of the noncovered claims, the liquidator shall adjust and pay the noncovered claims utilizing the collateral, but only to the extent the available collateral, after allocation under subdivision (d), is sufficient to pay all outstanding and anticipated claims. If the collateral is exhausted and the policyholder is not able to provide funds to pay the remaining claims within the deductible after all reasonable means of collection against the policyholder have been exhausted, the remaining claims shall be claims against the insurer’s estate, subject to the other provisions of this article regarding the filing and allowance of claims. When the liquidator determines that the collateral is insufficient to pay all additional and anticipated claims, the liquidator may file a plan for equitably allocating the collateral among claimants, subject to court approval.

(d) (1) To the extent that the liquidator holds collateral provided by a policyholder that was obtained to secure a deductible agreement and to secure other obligations of the policyholder to pay the insurer, directly or indirectly, amounts that become assets of the estate, such as reinsurance obligations under a captive reinsurance program or adjustable premium obligations under a retrospectively rated insurance policy or where the premium due is subject to adjustment based upon actual loss experience, the liquidator shall equitably allocate the collateral among those obligations and administer the collateral allocated to the deductible agreement pursuant to this section.

(2) With respect to the collateral allocated to obligations under the deductible agreement, if the collateral secured reimbursement obligations under more than one line of insurance, then the collateral shall be equitably allocated among the various lines based upon the estimated ultimate exposure within the deductible amount for each line.

(3) The liquidator shall inform the guaranty associations or the California Insurance Guarantee Association that is or may be obligated for claims against the insurer of the method and details of each allocation made pursuant to this subdivision.

(4) The liquidator shall be entitled to deduct from the collateral or from the deductible reimbursements reasonable and actual expenses incurred in connection with the collection of the collateral and deductible reimbursements under this section.

(e) (1) Regardless of whether there is collateral, if the insolvent insurer has contractually agreed to allow the policyholder to fund its own claims within the deductible amount pursuant to a deductible agreement, either through the policyholder’s own administration of its claims or through its provision of funds directly to a third-party administrator who administers the claims, the liquidator shall allow the funding arrangement to continue and, where applicable, shall enforce the arrangement to the fullest extent possible. The funding of any of these claims by the policyholder within the deductible amount, including, but not limited to, any of these claims by the policyholder or the third-party claimant, shall bar a claim for that amount in the liquidation proceeding.

(2) The funding of claims pursuant to paragraph (1) shall extinguish the obligation, if any, of a guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association to pay the claims within the deductible amount, as well as the obligation, if any, of the policyholder or third-party administrator to reimburse the guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association. No charge of any kind shall be made by the liquidator against any guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association on the basis of the policyholder funding of claims payment made pursuant to the mechanism set forth in this subdivision. The funding of these claims by the policyholders shall not limit or prejudice any right the guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association may have with respect to these claims under state law. Any policyholder that funds its own claims under the provisions of this subdivision shall provide to the guaranty association or to the California Insurance Guarantee Association all relevant information concerning the claim whenever the policyholder’s reserved liability for the claim equals or exceeds 50 percent of the deductible amount on the claim.

(f) (1) If the insurer has not contractually agreed to allow the policyholder to fund its own claims within the deductible amount, to the extent a guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association is required by applicable state law to pay any claims for which the insurer would be or would have been entitled to reimbursement from the policyholder under the terms of the deductible agreement, and to the extent the claims have not been paid by a policyholder or third party, the liquidator shall promptly bill the policyholder for the reimbursement. The policyholder shall pay that amount to the liquidator for the benefit of the California Insurance Guarantee Association or the guaranty association that paid the claims. Neither the insolvency of the insurer, nor its inability to perform any of its obligations under the deductible agreement, shall be a defense to the policyholder’s reimbursement obligation under the deductible agreement.

(2) When the policyholder reimbursements pursuant to paragraph (1) are collected, the liquidator shall promptly reimburse the guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association for claims paid that were subject to the deductible. If the policyholder fails to pay the amounts due within 60 days after the bill for the reimbursements is due, the liquidator shall use the collateral to the extent necessary to reimburse the guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association, and, at the same time, may pursue other collections efforts against the policyholder. If more than one guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association has a claim against the same collateral, and the available collateral, after allocation under subdivision (d), along with billing and collection efforts, are together insufficient to pay each guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association in full, then the liquidator shall prorate payments to each guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association based upon the relationship the amount of claims each guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association has paid bears to the total of all claims paid by the guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association.

(g) (1) With respect to claim payments made by any guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association, the liquidator shall promptly provide the court, with a copy to the guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association, with a complete report of the liquidator’s deductible billing and collection activities, including copies of the policyholder billings when rendered, the reimbursements collected, the available amounts and use of collateral for each policyholder, and any proration of payments when it occurs. If the liquidator fails to make a good faith effort, within 120 days of receiving a claims payment report, to collect reimbursements due from a policyholder under a deductible agreement based on claim payments made by one or more guaranty associations or the California Insurance Guarantee Association, then the guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association may pursue collection from the policyholders directly on the same basis as the liquidator, and with the same rights and remedies, and shall report any amounts so collected from each policyholder to the liquidator. To the extent that the guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association pays claims within the deductible amount, but is not reimbursed by the liquidator under this section or by policyholder payments from the collection efforts of the guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association, the guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association shall have a claim against the insolvent insurer’s estate for the unreimbursed claims payments.

(2) The liquidator shall periodically adjust the collateral being held as the claims subject to the deductible agreement are satisfied, provided that adequate collateral is maintained to secure the entire estimated ultimate obligation of the policyholder plus a reasonable safety factor, and provided further that the liquidator shall not be required to adjust the collateral more than once a year. The guaranty associations or the California Insurance Guarantee Association shall be informed of any collateral adjustment, including but not limited to, the basis for the adjustment. Once all claims covered by the collateral have been paid and the liquidator is satisfied that no new claims can be presented, the liquidator shall release any remaining collateral to the policyholder.

(h) The court having jurisdiction over the liquidation proceedings shall have jurisdiction to resolve disputes arising under this provision.

(i) Nothing in this section is intended to limit or adversely affect any right a guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association may have under applicable state law to obtain reimbursement from certain classes of policyholders for claims payments made by the guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association under policies of the insolvent insurer, or for related expenses the guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association incur.

(j) This section shall apply only with respect to insolvencies occurring on or after January 1, 2006.

(k) For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) “Collateral” means any form of security held to secure the obligations of a policyholder under a deductible agreement with an insurer subject to an order of liquidation under this article.

(2) “Deductible agreement” means any policy, endorsement, contract, or security agreement, or a combination of any of those items, that provides for the policyholder to bear the risk of loss within a specified amount per claim or occurrence covered under a policy of insurance, and may be subject to the aggregate limit of policyholder reimbursement obligations.

(3) “Noncovered claim” means a claim that is subject to a deductible agreement and is not covered by a guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association.

(l) This section shall apply to claims funded by a guaranty association or the California Insurance Guarantee Association in excess of the deductible only if subdivision (e) is applicable.

(Added by Stats. 2005, Ch. 95, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2006.)

1034.
  

(a) A preference is a transfer of any of the property of the person proceeded against to or for the benefit of a creditor, for or on account of an antecedent debt, made or suffered by the person proceeded against within one year before the filing of a petition for liquidation pursuant to Section 1016, the effect of which transfer may be to enable the creditor to obtain a greater percentage of this debt than another creditor of the same class would receive. The following transactions shall be among those that may be considered a preference:

(1) A transfer of property of the person proceeded against.

(2) The creation of a lien on the property of the person proceeded against.

(3) The entry of a judgment against the person proceeded against.

(4) The transfers or other payments by the person proceeded against pursuant to subdivision (f) of Section 10506 in support of guarantees contemplated by Section 10506.4.

(b) If a liquidation order is entered pursuant to Section 1016 while the person proceeded against is already subject to a conservation order, then the transfers described in subdivision (a) shall be deemed preferences if made or suffered within one year before the filing of the successful petition for conservation, or within two years before the filing of the successful petition for liquidation, whichever time is shorter.

(c) Any preference may be avoided by the liquidator if any of the following is applicable:

(1) The transfer was made within four months before the filing of the petition.

(2) The creditor receiving the transfer or to be benefited thereby or his or her agent acting with reference thereto had, at the time when the transfer was made, reasonable cause to believe that the person proceeded against was insolvent or was about to become insolvent.

(3) The creditor receiving the transfer was an officer, or any employee or attorney or other person who was in fact in a position of comparable influence in the person proceeded against to an officer, whether or not the person held that position, or any shareholder holding directly or indirectly more than 5 percent of any class of any equity security issued by the person proceeded against, or any other person, firm, corporation, association, or aggregation of persons with whom the person proceeded against did not deal at arm’s length.

(d) Where the preference is voidable, the liquidator may recover the property or, if it has been converted, its value from any person who has received or converted the property; except where a bona fide purchaser or lienor has given less than fair equivalent value, the purchaser or lienor shall have a lien upon the property to the extent of the consideration actually given. Where a preference by way of lien or security title is voidable, the court may on due notice order the lien or title to be preserved for the benefit of the estate, in which event the lien or title shall pass to the liquidator.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1995, Ch. 580, Sec. 6. Effective January 1, 1996.)

1034.1.
  

(a) Every transfer made or suffered and every obligation incurred by a person proceeded against within one year prior to the filing of a successful petition for conservation or liquidation under this article is fraudulent as to then existing and future creditors if made or incurred without fair consideration, or with actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud either existing or future creditors.

(b) A transfer made or an obligation incurred by a person proceeded against under this article, which is fraudulent under this section, may be avoided by the commissioner, except as to a person who in good faith is a purchaser, lienor, or obligee for a present fair equivalent value, and except that any purchaser, lienor, or obligee, who in good faith has given a consideration less than fair for that transfer, lien, or obligation, may retain the property, lien, or obligation as security for repayment. The court may, on due notice, order any such transfer or obligation to be preserved for the benefit of the estate, and in that event, the commissioner shall succeed to and may enforce the rights of the purchaser, lienor, or obligee.

(1) A transfer of property other than real property shall be deemed to be made or suffered when it becomes so far perfected that no subsequent lien obtainable by legal or equitable proceedings on a simple contract could become superior to the rights of the transferee.

(2) A transfer of real property shall be deemed to be made or suffered when it becomes so far perfected that no subsequent bona fide purchaser from the person proceeded against could obtain rights superior to the rights of the transferee.

(3) A transfer that creates an equitable lien shall not be deemed to be perfected if there are available means by which a legal lien could be created.

(4) Any transfer not perfected prior to the filing of a petition for liquidation shall be deemed to be made immediately before the filing of the successful petition.

(5) The provisions of this subdivision apply whether or not there are or were creditors who might have obtained any liens or persons who might have become bona fide purchasers.

(c) Every person receiving any property from the person proceeded against or any benefit thereof that is a fraudulent transfer under subdivision (a) shall be personally liable therefor and shall be bound to account to the commissioner.

(d) Any transaction of the person proceeded against with a reinsurer shall be subject to avoidance by the commissioner under subdivision (b) if both of the following are applicable:

(1) The transaction consists of the termination, adjustment, or settlement of a reinsurance contract in which the reinsurer is released from any part of its duty to pay the originally specified share of losses that had occurred prior to the time of the transaction, unless the reinsurer gives a present fair equivalent value for the release.

(2) Any part of the transaction took place within one year prior to the date of filing of the petition through which the conservation or liquidation was commenced.

The commissioner may avoid the transaction at any time within two years after the effective date of the transaction. If the transaction is so avoided, the parties shall be returned to their respective position as if the transaction had not occurred, and the commissioner may enforce the reinsurance contract as it existed prior to the transfer.

(Added by Stats. 1995, Ch. 580, Sec. 7. Effective January 1, 1996.)

1035.
  

(a) In any proceeding under this article, the commissioner may appoint and employ under his or her hand and official seal, special deputy commissioners, as his or her agents, and to employ clerks and assistants and to give to each of them those powers that he or she deems necessary. Upon appointing or employing special deputy commissioners or executive officers, the commissioner shall notify the Chair of the Joint Legislative Budget Committee, by letter, of the action. The costs of employing special deputy commissioners, clerks, and assistants appointed to carry out this article, and all expenses of taking possession of, conserving, conducting, liquidating, disposing of, or otherwise dealing with the business and property of that person under this article, shall be fixed by the commissioner, subject to the approval of the court, and shall be paid out of the assets of that person to the department. In the event the property of that person does not contain cash or liquid assets sufficient to defray the cost of the services required to be performed under the terms of this article, the commissioner may at any time or from time to time pay the cost of those services out of the appropriation for the maintenance of the department, but not out of the assets of other estates. Any amounts so paid shall be deemed expenses of administration and shall be repaid to the fund out of the first available moneys in the estate.

(b) Any person appointed by the commissioner to serve in the capacity of chief executive officer of the department’s Conservation and Liquidation Office shall be subject to confirmation by the Senate.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 786, Sec. 14. (AB 2303) Effective January 1, 2013.)

1035.2.
  

(a) The officers and employees of the Conservation and Liquidation Office are subject to all conflict-of-interest provisions and financial disclosure requirements that would apply if they were employees of the department.

(b) (1) Prior to February 1, 2002, the department shall determine, pursuant to the provisions of Section 19990 of the Government Code, those activities of the officers and employees of the Conservation and Liquidation Office that are inconsistent, incompatible, or in conflict with their duties as officers or employees of that office.

(2) Prior to February 1, 2002, the department shall adopt and promulgate a Conflict of Interest Code pursuant to the provisions of Article 3 (commencing with Section 87300) of Chapter 7 of Title 9 of the Government Code, pertaining to the officers and employees of the Conservation and Liquidation Office. The Conflict of Interest Code and any other regulations necessary to implement this section shall be promulgated by the department as emergency regulations.

(c) The provisions of Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 87100) of Title 9 of the Government Code shall apply to a person who contracts with the Conservation and Liquidation Office to the same extent as would apply if that person were entering into the same or similar contractual relationship with the department.

(d) The department shall ensure that the officers and employees of the Conservation and Liquidation Office and persons who contract with that office comply with all provisions of this section.

(Added by Stats. 2001, Ch. 630, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2002.)

1035.5.
  

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 14 (commencing with Section 1010), with regard only to those insurers subject to this article:

(a) Within 120 days of the issuance of an order directing the winding up and liquidation of the business of an insolvent insurer under Section 1016, the commissioner shall make application to the court for approval of a proposal to disburse the insurer’s assets, from time to time as such assets become available, to the California Insurance Guarantee Association, or the California Life and Health Insurance Guarantee Association, and to any entity or person performing a similar function in another state.

(b) The proposal shall at least include the following provisions for:

(1) Reserving amounts for the payment of expenses of administration and the payment of claims of secured creditors (to the extent of the value of the security held) and claims falling within the priorities established in paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive, of subdivision (a) of Section 1033.

(2) Disbursement of the assets marshaled to date and subsequent disbursements of assets as they become available.

(3) Equitable allocation of disbursements to each of the associations entitled thereto.

(4) The securing by the commissioner from each of the associations entitled to disbursements pursuant to this section of an agreement to return to the commissioner such assets previously disbursed as may be required to pay claims of secured creditors and claims falling within the priorities established in paragraphs (1) to (5), inclusive, of subdivision (a) of Section 1033 in accordance with the priorities. No bond shall be required of any association.

(5) A full report to be made by the association to the commissioner accounting for all assets so disbursed to the association, all disbursements made therefrom, any interest earned by the association on the assets, and any other matter as the court may direct.

(c) The commissioner’s proposal shall provide for disbursements to the associations in amounts estimated at least equal to the claim payments made or to be made by the associations for which such associations could assert a claim against the commissioner, and shall further provide that if the assets available for disbursement from time to time do not equal or exceed the amount of the claim payments made or to be made by the associations, then disbursements shall be in the amount of available assets. The reserves of the insolvent insurer on the date of the order of liquidation shall be used for purposes of determining the pro rata allocation of funds among eligible associations.

(d) The commissioner shall offset the amount disbursed to any entity or person performing a function in any other state similar to that function performed by the California Insurance Guarantee Association, or the California Life and Health Insurance Guarantee Association, by the amount of any statutory deposit, premiums, or any other asset of the insolvent insurer held in that state.

(e) Notice of such application shall be given to the associations in and to the commissioners of insurance of each of the states. Any such notice shall be deemed to have been given when deposited in the United States certified mails, first-class postage prepaid, at least 30 days prior to submission of such application to the court. Action on the application may be taken by the court provided the above required notice has been given and provided further that the commissioner’s proposal complies with paragraphs (1) and (4) of subdivision (b).

(Amended by Stats. 1993, Ch. 974, Sec. 1.4. Effective January 1, 1994.)

1036.
  

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the provisions of Article 4 (commencing with Section 11040) of Chapter 1 of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code, pertaining to legal services, shall apply in the institution and prosecution of all insurance delinquency proceedings under this code. The compensation of any counsel outside of California state service who is employed pursuant to these provisions to represent the commissioner as receiver shall be fixed by the commissioner, subject to the approval of the court. Compensation of counsel representing the commissioner as receiver shall be paid from the assets of the person against whom the commissioner has proceeded under this article. It is the intent of the Legislature and the Legislature finds it is in the best interest of the people of the State of California that the Attorney General and the Insurance Commissioner consult and cooperate in regard to utilizing agency counsel of the Department of Insurance as the commissioner’s legal counsel in delinquency proceedings, judicial and otherwise, to the extent appropriate and consistent with the interests of the parties beneficially interested in those proceedings and if that use would result in the savings of costs to the parties beneficially interested in those proceedings.

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 893, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1996.)

1037.
  

Upon taking possession of the property and business of any person in any proceeding under this article, the commissioner, exclusively and except as otherwise expressly provided by this article, either as conservator or liquidator:

(a) Shall have authority to collect all moneys due that person, and to do such other acts as are necessary or expedient to collect, conserve, or protect its assets, property, and business, and to carry on and conduct the business and affairs of that person or so much thereof as to him or her may seem appropriate.

(b) Shall collect all debts due and claims belonging to that person, and shall have the authority to sell, compound, compromise, or assign, for the purpose of collection upon such terms and conditions as the commissioner deems best, any bad or doubtful debts.

(c) Shall have authority to compound, compromise or in any other manner negotiate settlements of claims against that person upon such terms and conditions as the commissioner shall deem to be most advantageous to the estate of the person being administered or liquidated or otherwise dealt with under this article.

(d) Shall have authority without notice, to acquire, hypothecate, encumber, lease, improve, sell, transfer, abandon, or otherwise dispose of or deal with, any real or personal property of that person at its reasonable market value, or, in cases other than acquisition, sale, or transfer on the basis of reasonable market value, upon such terms and conditions as the commissioner may deem proper. However, no transaction involving real or personal property shall be made where the market value of the property involved exceeds the sum of twenty thousand dollars ($20,000) without first obtaining permission of the court, and then only in accordance with any terms that court may prescribe.

(e) Shall have authority to transfer to a trustee or trustees, under a voting trust agreement, the stock of an insurer heretofore or hereafter issued to the commissioner as conservator or as liquidator in connection with a rehabilitation or reinsurance agreement, or any other proceeding under this article. This voting trust agreement shall confer upon the trustee or trustees the right to vote or otherwise represent that stock, and shall not be irrevocable for a period of more than 21 years.

(f) May, for the purpose of executing and performing any of the powers and authority conferred upon the commissioner under this article, in the name of the person affected by the proceeding or in the commissioner’s own name, prosecute and defend any and all suits and other legal proceedings, and execute, acknowledge and deliver any and all deeds, assignments, releases and other instruments necessary and proper to effectuate any sale of any real and personal property or other transaction in connection with the administration, liquidation, or other disposition of the assets of the person affected by that proceeding; and any deed or other instrument executed pursuant to the authority hereby given shall be valid and effectual for all purposes as though it had been executed by the person affected by any proceeding under this article or by its officers pursuant to the direction of its governing board or authority. In cases where any real property sold by the commissioner under this article is located in a county other than the county wherein the proceeding is pending, the commissioner shall cause a certified copy of the order of his or her appointment, or order authorizing or ratifying the sale, to be filed in the office of the county recorder of the county in which that property is located.

(g) Shall have authority to invest and reinvest, in such manner as the commissioner may deem suitable for the best interests of the creditors of that person, such portions of the funds and assets of that person in his or her possession as do not exceed the amount of the reserves required by law to be maintained by that person as reserves for life insurance policies, annuity contracts, supplementary agreements incidental to life business, and reserves for noncancellable disability policies, and which funds and assets are not immediately distributable to creditors. However, no investment or reinvestment shall be made which exceeds the sum of one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) without first obtaining permission of the court, and then only in accordance with any terms that court may prescribe. That permission shall not be required for any investment or reinvestment of those funds or assets in funds administered by the Treasurer.

The enumeration, in this article, of the duties, powers and authority of the commissioner in proceedings under this article shall not be construed as a limitation upon the commissioner, nor shall it exclude in any manner his or her right to perform and to do such other acts not herein specifically enumerated, or otherwise provided for, which the commissioner may deem necessary or expedient for the accomplishment or in aid of the purpose of such proceedings.

(Amended by Stats. 1988, Ch. 356, Sec. 1.)

1038.
  

Any application under section 1011 or 1016 shall be served upon the person named in such application in the manner prescribed by law for personal service of summons or as provided by section 1039.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1039.
  

In lieu of the service required by section 1038, service may, upon application to said court, be made in such manner as the court directs whenever it is satisfactorily shown by affidavit (a) in the case of a corporation, that the officers of the corporation upon whom service is required to be made as above provided, have departed from the State or keep themselves concealed therein with intent to avoid the service, or, (b) in the case of a Lloyd’s association or interinsurance exchange, that the individual attorney in fact or the officers of the corporate attorney in fact can not be served because of such departure or concealment, or, (c) in the case of a natural person, that the natural person upon whom service is required to be made as above provided, has departed from the State or keeps himself concealed therein with intent to avoid the service.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1040.
  

At any time after an order is made under section 1011 or 1016, the commissioner may remove the principal office of the person proceeded against to the City and County of San Francisco or to the city of Los Angeles. In event of such removal, the court wherein the proceeding was commenced shall, upon the application of the commissioner, direct its clerk to transmit all of the papers filed therein with such clerk to the clerk of the City and County of San Francisco or of the county of Los Angeles as the case may require. The proceeding shall thereafter be conducted in the same manner as though it had been commenced in the county to which it had been transferred.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1041.
  

The commissioner shall be the custodian of all moneys collected by him or her or coming into his or her possession in the course of any proceeding under this article, but the commissioner may deposit those moneys, or any part thereof, without court approval in a bank which is a member of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), so long as the total deposit did not exceed those federal insurance limits; in a centralized State Treasury system bank account; or in funds administered by the Treasurer.

Provided further, any money which is deposited by the commissioner pursuant to this section, which the commissioner determines is available for investment, may be invested or reinvested by the Treasurer in any of the securities which are described in Article 1 (commencing with Section 16430) of Chapter 3 of Part 2 of Division 4 of Title 2 of the Government Code, or placed in a bank as provided in Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 16500) of Part 2 of Division 4 of Title 2 of the Government Code, and handled in the same manner as money in the State Treasury. Any increment which is received from that investment or reinvestment or deposit shall be remitted to the commissioner for allocation, upon a proper and equitable basis, to each estate participating in the investment, reinvestment, or deposit and deposited and disbursed as provided in Section 1037. The Treasurer may deduct from that remittance an amount equal to the reasonable costs incurred in carrying out this section or may bill the commissioner for those costs and the commissioner shall pay those costs from money which is collected pursuant to this chapter.

(Amended by Stats. 1988, Ch. 356, Sec. 2.)

1042.
  

The commissioner and a special deputy commissioner appointed pursuant to section 1035 shall have the power to subpoena witnesses and examine them under oath upon any subject relating to the affairs and business of any person affected by proceedings under this article. The penalties provided in Chapter II, Title III, Part IV of the Code of Civil Procedure shall apply to any witness who fails or refuses to appear in accordance with such subpoena, or to testify in connection therewith.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1043.
  

In any proceeding under this article, the commissioner, as conservator or as liquidator, may, subject to the approval of said court, and subject to such liens as may be necessary mutualize or reinsure the business of such person, or enter into rehabilitation agreements. No commissioner who acts as conservator of such person or who mutualizes, merges or reinsures the business of such person or who enters into rehabilitation agreements affecting such person, and no deputy commissioner who has participated in the administration of the affairs of such person for the commissioner as conservator shall for a period of two years from and after the effective date of such mutualization, reinsurance or rehabilitation become an officer or director of, or serve as an officer or director of, or serve in any position of gain or profit in, any company formed in whole or in part of the assets or funds, or any part of the assets or funds of such mutualized, merged, reinsured or rehabilitated person.

Every person violating this provision is guilty of a public offense and shall be punished by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code, or in a county jail not exceeding one year, or by a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment.

Such rehabilitation or reinsurance agreements shall provide that, subsequent to the date thereof and for such period of time as the commissioner may determine, no investment or reinvestment of the assets of the person rehabilitated or reinsured shall be made without first obtaining the written approval of the commissioner.

Every party to such agreement, and every director, officer, agent and employee of such person, and every other person who knowingly in violation thereof directs or aids or assists in causing to be made an investment or reinvestment of any of said assets without first having obtained the written approval of the commissioner, or who makes such investment or reinvestment in nonconformity with the written approval of the commissioner then in effect authorizing such investment or reinvestment, is guilty of a public offense and shall be punished by imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code, or in a county jail or by a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 15, Sec. 208. (AB 109) Effective April 4, 2011. Operative October 1, 2011, by Sec. 636 of Ch. 15, as amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 39, Sec. 68.)

1044.
  

In connection with a rehabilitation agreement under section 1043, which affects a life insurer, and in an agreement made for the reinsurance of the business of a life insurer under said section, there may be included in such rehabilitation or reinsurance agreement a provision for, and the commissioner shall have authority to impose and declare, a moratorium against the provisions of the life insurance policies therein involved calling for the making of loans on the security of such policies and for the payment of money upon the surrender of such policies, such moratorium to continue for such period and to such extent as may be directed by said court.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1045.
  

If at any time after the issuance of an order under section 1011 affecting a life insurer issuing nonassessable policies on a reserve basis and organized with a capital stock evidenced by shares thereof it shall appear to the commissioner that the purposes of section 1011 can be best attained by the mutualization of such life insurer, the commissioner may formulate a plan for the mutualization of such insurer.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1046.
  

Said mutualization plan shall include provisions for:

(a) The acquisition by such insurer of all outstanding shares of its capital stock at a price and upon terms and conditions to be fixed as hereinafter provided.

(b) The retirement of said shares of stock when acquired by such insurer.

(c) The amendment of the charter of such insurer so as to enable it to transact its business as a mutual insurer issuing nonassessable policies on a reserve basis.

(d) The manner in which and the time within which, after mutualization is effected, matured and maturing claims against such insurer shall be paid to the lawful holders thereof.

(e) The submission of said mutualization plan to the policyholders of such insurer under such procedure as shall be set forth in the plan or prescribed by said court, for their approval or rejection.

(f) Notice to the shareholders of such insurer, in such manner and at such time after the approval of said mutualization plan by said policyholders, as the court may direct.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1047.
  

Said mutualization plan may include provisions:

(a) Imposing a moratorium against the provisions of the life insurance policies issued by such insurer and then in force calling for the making of loans on the security of such policies and for the payment of money upon the surrender of such policies, for a period and to an extent to be named in such provisions imposing such moratorium, and subject to extension, change or prior termination only upon the written approval of the commissioner.

(b) Imposing liens upon, or otherwise adjusting, the policies of the insurer so as to create or make available the minimum paid-in capital required of such an insurer to be admitted and such additional paid-in capital as will be reasonably sufficient to enable such insurer to carry on its business.

No lien or adjustment of such insurer’s policies shall be made or imposed which has the effect of creating or making available for distribution to the shareholders of such insurer assets otherwise unavailable therefor.

(c) Regulating and adjusting the respective rights of holders of policies of different classes to participate in the profits or savings which may be made by such insurer when mutualized.

(d) Regulating the manner in which and the time at which the shareholders of such insurer shall be compensated for their proprietary interest, then existing, in the assets of such insurer other than goodwill.

(e) Regulating the manner in which the shareholders of such insurer shall be compensated for their proprietary interest in the goodwill, if then existing, of such insurer; provided, however, that no shareholder shall be compensated for his proprietary interest in such goodwill while any moratorium imposed under subdivision (a) of this section is in effect, nor while any lien imposed under subdivision (b) of this section exists, nor until all other indebtedness of such insurer existing at the time of mutualization has been fully paid and discharged or full provision made for its payment, nor otherwise than out of surplus earnings.

(f) Regulating such other matters as may, in the opinion of the commissioner, require regulation in the interest of expediency or otherwise.

(Amended by Stats. 1937, Ch. 932.)

1048.
  

Upon formulation of said mutualization plan the commissioner shall submit the same to said court with his application for an order of said court directing the commissioner to submit said mutualization plan to the persons named in subdivision (e) of section 1046, under such procedure as shall be set forth in the plan or prescribed by said court, for their approval or rejection, and the court shall issue such order.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1049.
  

Each policyholder of such insurer shall be entitled to one vote, regardless of the amount for which, or the number of policies under which, he is insured. Such mutualization plan shall be deemed approved by the said policyholders if a majority of the policyholders voting for and against it shall have approved it, and shall be deemed rejected if a majority of the policyholders voting for and against it shall have rejected it. In the event that said plan of mutualization is rejected by the policyholders of such insurer, the commissioner shall certify the fact of such rejection to said court, whereupon he may proceed further as hereinbefore provided in this article.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1050.
  

In the event that said plan of mutualization is approved by said policyholders, the commissioner shall certify to the said court the fact of such approval and the number of votes cast for and against such mutualization plan. Said court shall thereupon issue its order directing the commissioner to give notice, as provided in said mutualization plan or as the court may otherwise prescribe, to the shareholders of such insurer of the approval of said mutualization plan by said policyholders. Said order shall direct the commissioner to transmit to each such shareholder by mail addressed to his address as it appears upon the records of such insurer, a true copy of said order and of said mutualization plan approved by said policyholders, and shall fix a time, not less than thirty nor more than sixty days from the date of such order, within which any such shareholder may file with said court a petition for the disapproval of said mutualization plan or for its modification in such manner as shall be set forth in such petition, and within which any such shareholder and the commissioner may file with said court a petition for the appointment of one or more appraisers to appraise the value of the then outstanding shares of capital stock of such insurer.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1051.
  

After the expiration of the time fixed in the order provided for in section 1050, and upon the filing of such petition, said court shall direct notice of a hearing of said petitions to be given to the commissioner and to such petitioners as are shareholders of such insurer. At such hearing, all petitions for the disapproval and all petitions for the modification of said mutualization plan shall be given precedence over all petitions for the appointment of one or more appraisers. Upon hearing of all such petitions for the disapproval and for the modification of said mutualization plan, said court shall either approve said mutualization plan or disapprove it or modify it in such manner and to such extent, not inconsistent with the provisions of this article, as to said court shall seem appropriate. In the event of the disapproval of said mutualization plan the court shall deny all petitions for the appointment of one or more appraisers. In the event of the approval or modification of said mutualization plan, the court shall, upon hearing of the petitions for the appointment of appraisers, appoint one or more appraisers, who shall appraise the then outstanding shares of the capital stock of such insurer, without regard to any appreciation or depreciation arising out of said mutualization plan as so approved or modified. Such appraisement shall fix the reasonable value of such shares of capital stock, including the goodwill, if any, of such insurer, and shall state the value, if any, assigned to such goodwill; and if the appraisers shall have found that such insurer has no goodwill, such finding shall be stated. Such appraisement, when confirmed by said court, shall be final and conclusive.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1052.
  

Thereupon the commissioner shall:

(a) Pay to each of such shareholders or his assignee or nominee, upon surrender of the shares held by such shareholder, the value of said shares so ascertained; subject, however, to the restrictions of subdivisions (d) and (e) of section 1047, and subject, also, to the terms and conditions of the mutualization plan as approved or modified.

(b) Appoint, with the approval of the court, the requisite number of directors in whom shall thereafter be vested the control and management of the assets and business of such insurer until their successors shall have been elected and qualified.

(c) Transfer, upon the order of said court, to the appropriate officers appointed by such directors, the property, real and personal, and the books, records, accounts and papers of such insurer; provided, however, that the commissioner may retain, as a deposit, so much of such property as he deems necessary to defray additional costs and expenses incurred or to be incurred in connection with any proceeding under this article affecting such property or business.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1053.
  

Immediately upon the appointment of the directors as provided in subdivision (b) of section 1052, the directors theretofore holding office shall cease to hold office, and all rights of the shareholders of such insurer to vote at any meeting of such insurer shall absolutely cease and such shareholders shall retain only such interest in such corporation or in the property or assets thereof as shall be provided in said mutualization plan, and such insurer shall thereupon be and become a mutual life insurer under such corporate name as may have been set forth in its charter, as amended, to be conducted not for profit, but solely for the mutual benefit, ratably, of all its policyholders, and shall, upon issuance to it by the commissioner of a certificate of authority, have power to issue nonassessable policies on a reserve basis subject to all provisions of law applicable to incorporated life insurers issuing nonassessable policies on a reserve basis, but shall be exempt from the provisions of Chapter 7, Part 2, Division 2 of this code.

(Amended by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1054.
  

Such insurer, after mutualization, shall be a continuation of the original insurer, and such mutualization shall not affect existing suits, rights or contracts except as provided in said mutualization plan as approved. Such insurer, after mutualization, shall exercise all the rights and powers and perform all the duties conferred or imposed by law upon insurers writing the classes of insurance written by it, and to protect rights and contracts existing prior to mutualization, subject to the effect of said mutualization plan.

(Added by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1055.
  

The commissioner shall exercise the powers and discharge the duties, concerning any insurer so mutualized, that are applicable to domestic insurers issuing policies of the same class. He shall issue a certificate of authority to transact the proper classes of insurance in this State to any insurer so mutualized which is solvent under Article 13, Chapter 1, Part 2, Division 1 of this code and which has fully complied with the laws of this State.

(Added by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1056.
  

All costs and expenses connected with proceedings for the mutualization of such insurer shall be paid by the commissioner out of the funds of such insurer, whether or not mutualized, subject to the approval of said court.

(Added by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1056.5.
  

Whenever money or other property is payable to any claimant out of the assets of any person under the provisions of Sections 1021 to 1033, but such person cannot be located or for any other reason the payment of such money or other property to such person cannot be made, although assets are available for such payment, such money or other property shall be deposited in the State Treasury by the commissioner. Such deposits shall be deemed to have been received under the provisions of Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 1500) of Title 10 of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure, and shall be subject to claim or other disposition as provided in said Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 1500) of Title 10. The commissioner may pay over the money or other property held by him to the persons respectively entitled thereto at any time prior to such deposit, upon being furnished satisfactory evidence of their right to the same.

(Amended by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1762.)

1057.
  

In all proceedings under this article, the commissioner shall be deemed to be a trustee for the benefit of all creditors and other persons interested in the estate of the person against whom the proceedings are pending.

(Added by Stats. 1935, Ch. 291.)

1058.
  

In any proceeding pending under the provisions of this article, the court in which such proceeding is pending shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine, in such proceeding, all actions or proceedings then pending or thereafter instituted by or against the person affected by a proceeding under this article.

(Amended by Stats. 1939, Ch. 934.)

1059.
  

The commissioner, in the performance of any of his duties under this article, shall be deemed to be a public officer acting in his official capacity on behalf of the State, and the provisions of Chapter 2, Division 7, Title 1 of the Government Code shall apply to him.

(Amended by Stats. 1957, Ch. 386.)

1060.
  

The commissioner shall transmit all of the following to the Governor, the Legislature, and to the committees of the Senate and Assembly having jurisdiction over insurance in the annual report submitted pursuant to Section 12922:

(a) The names of the persons proceeded against under this article.

(b) Whether such persons have resumed business or have been liquidated or have been mutualized.

(c) Such other facts on the operations of the Conservation & Liquidation Office as will acquaint the Governor, the policyholders, creditors, shareholders and the public with his or her proceedings under this article, including, but not limited to:

(1) An itemization of the number of staff, total salaries of staff, a description of the compensation methodology, and an organizational flowchart.

(2) Annual operating goals and results.

(3) A summary of all Conservation and Liquidation Office costs, including an itemization of internal and external costs, and a description of the methodology used to allocate those costs among insurer estates.

(4) A list of all current insolvencies not closed within ten years of a court ordered liquidation, and a narrative explaining why each insolvency remains open.

(5) An accounting of total claims by estate.

(6) A list of current year and cumulative distributions by class of creditor for each estate.

(7) For each proceeding, the net value of the estate at the time of conservation or liquidation and the net value at the end of the preceding calendar year.

(d) Other facts on the operations of the individual estates as will acquaint the Governor, Legislature, policyholders, creditors, shareholders, and the public with his or her proceedings under this article, including, but not limited to:

(1) The annual operating goals and results.

(2) The status of the conservation and liquidation process.

(3) Financial statements, including current and cumulative distributions, comparing current calendar year to prior year.

(Amended by Stats. 2008, Ch. 751, Sec. 58. Effective September 30, 2008.)

1061.
  

In verification of the matters set forth in Section 1060 of this code, the Department of Finance shall, at least every two years or more often if requested by the commissioner, examine the commissioner’s books and accounts relating to all proceedings under this article, and shall file a report of each examination with the court in which the respective proceeding is pending and shall furnish the commissioner a certified copy of each report. The expense of examining the books and accounts of the commissioner as conservator or liquidator under this article shall be paid out of the support appropriation for the Department of Insurance current at the date of billing for the expense and shall, upon order of the court or courts before which the proceedings under the articles are pending, be ratably reimbursed to that appropriation out of the assets of the estates administered by the commissioner as conservator or liquidator under this article.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 786, Sec. 15. (AB 2303) Effective January 1, 2013.)

1062.
  

In the event of the entry of an order under Section 1011 or 1016 of this article affecting any person having members, subscribers or policyholders, hereinafter referred to as “members” who are liable for assessment by law or by the provisions of their policies or contracts, and in which the termination of the policy or contract does not relieve the member from such liability, where the commissioner in his discretion decides that an assessment would be in order, the liability of such members shall be determined, and the assessment therefor levied in the following manner:

1. Within one year from the date of the entry of the order under the provisions of Section 1011 or 1016 of this article, the commissioner shall make a report to the court setting forth: (a) the reasonable value of the assets of such person; (b) its probable liabilities, including reasonable costs of liquidation; and (c) the probable necessary assessment, if any, to pay all claims in full.

2. Upon the basis of such report, including any amendments thereof, the court shall determine the basis for calculating the liability of each member, subscriber or policyholder and shall order the commissioner to determine the amount of liability of each of the members.

3. Thereafter the commissioner shall give notice to each member, subscriber or policyholder of the amount of his liability by inclosing notice thereof in a sealed envelope, addressed and mailed, postage prepaid, to each member, subscriber or policyholder at his last known address as the same appears upon the books of the insurer.

4. Not less than 20 days after the mailing of said notice, as provided in paragraph 3 of this section, the commissioner shall report to the court the names of the members, subscribers or policyholders who have failed to pay their assessment in accordance with said notice, whereupon the court shall issue an order directing each of said members, subscribers or policyholders to appear in said court and show cause in the proceedings pending against such person, why he should not be held liable to pay such assessment, and why the commissioner should not have judgment therefor.

5. The commissioner shall cause a notice of such order setting forth a brief summary of the contents thereof: (a) to be published in such manner as shall be directed by the court; and (b) to be inclosed in a sealed envelope, addressed and mailed by registered mail with return receipt requested, postage prepaid, to each of said members whose liability for assessment remains unpaid, at his last known address, at least 20 days before the return day of such order to show cause.

6. On the return day of such order to show cause, (a) if such member shall not appear and serve verified objections on the commissioner, the court shall make an order adjudicating that such member is liable for the amount of such assessment, and that the commissioner may have a judgment against such member therefor; (b) if such member shall appear and serve verified objections upon the commissioner, there shall be a full hearing before the court, and if the court affirms his liability to pay the whole or some part of said assessment, the commissioner may have judgment therefor.

7. A judgment upon any such order, shall have the same force and effect, and may be entered and may be appealed from as if it were a judgment in an original action brought in the court in which the proceeding is pending.

(Amended by Stats. 1970, Ch. 1205.)

INSInsurance Code - INS14.