Code Section Group

Government Code - GOV

TITLE 1. GENERAL [100 - 7914]

  ( Title 1 enacted by Stats. 1943, Ch. 134. )

DIVISION 3.6. CLAIMS AND ACTIONS AGAINST PUBLIC ENTITIES AND PUBLIC EMPLOYEES [810 - 998.3]

  ( Division 3.6 added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681. )

PART 2. LIABILITY OF PUBLIC ENTITIES AND PUBLIC EMPLOYEES [814 - 895.8]

  ( Part 2 added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681. )

CHAPTER 1. General Provisions Relating to Liability [814 - 827]

  ( Chapter 1 added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681. )

ARTICLE 2. Liability of Public Entities [815 - 818.9]
  ( Article 2 added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681. )

815.
  

Except as otherwise provided by statute:

(a) A public entity is not liable for an injury, whether such injury arises out of an act or omission of the public entity or a public employee or any other person.

(b) The liability of a public entity established by this part (commencing with Section 814) is subject to any immunity of the public entity provided by statute, including this part, and is subject to any defenses that would be available to the public entity if it were a private person.

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681.)

815.2.
  

(a) A public entity is liable for injury proximately caused by an act or omission of an employee of the public entity within the scope of his employment if the act or omission would, apart from this section, have given rise to a cause of action against that employee or his personal representative.

(b) Except as otherwise provided by statute, a public entity is not liable for an injury resulting from an act or omission of an employee of the public entity where the employee is immune from liability.

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681.)

815.3.
  

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, unless the elected official and the public entity are named as codefendants in the same action, a public entity is not liable to a plaintiff under this part for any act or omission of an elected official employed by or otherwise representing that public entity, which act or omission constitutes an intentional tort, including, but not limited to, harassment, sexual battery, and intentional infliction of emotional distress. For purposes of this section, harassment in violation of state or federal law constitutes an intentional tort, to the extent permitted by federal law. This section shall not apply to defamation.

(b) If the elected official is held liable for an intentional tort other than defamation in such an action, the trier of fact in reaching the verdict shall determine if the act or omission constituting the intentional tort arose from and was directly related to the elected official’s performance of his or her official duties. If the trier of fact determines that the act or omission arose from and was directly related to the elected official’s performance of his or her official duties, the public entity shall be liable for the judgment as provided by law. For the purpose of this subdivision, employee managerial functions shall be deemed to arise from, and to directly relate to, the elected official’s official duties. However, acts or omissions constituting sexual harassment shall not be deemed to arise from, and to directly relate to, the elected official’s official duties.

(c) If the trier of fact determines that the elected official’s act or omission did not arise from and was not directly related to the elected official’s performance of his or her official duties, upon a final judgment, including any appeal, the plaintiff shall first seek recovery of the judgment against the assets of the elected official. If the court determines that the elected official’s assets are insufficient to satisfy the total judgment, including plaintiff’s costs as provided by law, the court shall determine the amount of the deficiency and the plaintiff may seek to collect that remainder of the judgment from the public entity. The public entity may pay that deficiency if the public entity is otherwise authorized by law to pay that judgment.

(d) To the extent the public entity pays any portion of the judgment against the elected official pursuant to subdivision (c) or has expended defense costs in an action in which the trier of fact determines the elected official’s action did not arise from and did not directly relate to his or her performance of official duties, the public entity shall pursue all available creditor’s remedies against the elected official in indemnification, including garnishment, until the elected official has fully reimbursed the public entity.

(e) If the public entity elects to appeal the judgment in an action brought pursuant to this section, the entity shall continue to provide a defense for the official until the case is finally adjudicated, as provided by law.

(f) It is the intent of the Legislature that elected officials assume full fiscal responsibility for their conduct which constitutes an intentional tort not directly related to their official duties committed for which the public entity they represent may also be liable, while maintaining fair compensation for those persons injured by such conduct.

(g) This section shall not apply to a criminal or civil enforcement action brought on behalf of the state by an elected district attorney, city attorney, or Attorney General.

(h) If any provision of this section or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, that invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications of the section which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this section are severable.

(Added by Stats. 1994, Ch. 796, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1995.)

815.4.
  

A public entity is liable for injury proximately caused by a tortious act or omission of an independent contractor of the public entity to the same extent that the public entity would be subject to such liability if it were a private person. Nothing in this section subjects a public entity to liability for the act or omission of an independent contractor if the public entity would not have been liable for the injury had the act or omission been that of an employee of the public entity.

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681.)

815.6.
  

Where a public entity is under a mandatory duty imposed by an enactment that is designed to protect against the risk of a particular kind of injury, the public entity is liable for an injury of that kind proximately caused by its failure to discharge the duty unless the public entity establishes that it exercised reasonable diligence to discharge the duty.

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681.)

816.
  

A public entity is not liable for injury arising out of any activity conducted by a member of the California National Guard pursuant to Section 316, 502, 503, 504, or 505 of Title 32 of the United States Code and compensated pursuant to the Federal Tort Claims Act.

It is the intent of the Legislature, in enacting this section, to conform state law regarding liability for activities of the National Guard to federal law as expressed in Public Law 97-124.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 616, Sec. 1.)

818.
  

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a public entity is not liable for damages awarded under Section 3294 of the Civil Code or other damages imposed primarily for the sake of example and by way of punishing the defendant.

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681.)

818.2.
  

A public entity is not liable for an injury caused by adopting or failing to adopt an enactment or by failing to enforce any law.

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681.)

818.4.
  

A public entity is not liable for an injury caused by the issuance, denial, suspension or revocation of, or by the failure or refusal to issue, deny, suspend or revoke, any permit, license, certificate, approval, order, or similar authorization where the public entity or an employee of the public entity is authorized by enactment to determine whether or not such authorization should be issued, denied, suspended or revoked.

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681.)

818.5.
  

The Department of Motor Vehicles is liable for any injury to a lienholder or good faith purchaser of a vehicle proximately caused by the department’s negligent omission of the lienholder’s name from an ownership certificate issued by the department. The liability of the department under this section shall not exceed the actual cash value of the vehicle.

(Added by Stats. 1985, Ch. 437, Sec. 2.)

818.6.
  

A public entity is not liable for injury caused by its failure to make an inspection, or by reason of making an inadequate or negligent inspection, of any property, other than its property (as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 830), for the purpose of determining whether the property complies with or violates any enactment or contains or constitutes a hazard to health or safety.

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681.)

818.7.
  

No board, commission, or any public officer or employee of the state or of any district, county, city and county, or city is liable for any damage or injury to any person resulting from the publication of any reports, records, prints, or photographs of or concerning any person convicted of violation of any law relating to the use, sale, or possession of controlled substances, when such publication is to school authorities for use in instruction on the subject of controlled substances or to any person when used for the purpose of general education. However, the name of any person concerning whom any such reports, records, prints, or photographs are used shall be kept confidential and every reasonable effort shall be made to maintain as confidential any information which may tend to identify such person.

(Amended by Stats. 1984, Ch. 1635, Sec. 40.)

818.8.
  

A public entity is not liable for an injury caused by misrepresentation by an employee of the public entity, whether or not such misrepresentation be negligent or intentional.

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1681.)

818.9.
  

A court or county, its employees, independent contractors, and volunteers shall not be liable because of any advice provided to small claims court litigants or potential litigants as a public service on behalf of the court or county pursuant to the Small Claims Act (Chapter 5.5 (commencing with Section 116.110) of Title 1 of Part 1 of the Code of Civil Procedure).

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 806, Sec. 24. Effective January 1, 2003.)

GOVGovernment Code - GOV2