Code Section Group

Government Code - GOV

TITLE 2. GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA [8000 - 22980]

  ( Title 2 enacted by Stats. 1943, Ch. 134. )

DIVISION 3. EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT [11000 - 15986]

  ( Division 3 added by Stats. 1945, Ch. 111. )

PART 2.8. DEPARTMENT OF FAIR EMPLOYMENT AND HOUSING [12900 - 12996]

  ( Part 2.8 added by Stats. 1980, Ch. 992. )

CHAPTER 6. Discrimination Prohibited [12940 - 12957]

  ( Chapter 6 added by Stats. 1980, Ch. 992. )

ARTICLE 2. Housing Discrimination [12955 - 12957]
  ( Article 2 added by Stats. 1980, Ch. 992. )

12955.
  

It shall be unlawful:

(a) For the owner of any housing accommodation to discriminate against or harass any person because of the race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, ancestry, familial status, source of income, disability, or genetic information of that person.

(b) For the owner of any housing accommodation to make or to cause to be made any written or oral inquiry concerning the race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, ancestry, familial status, disability, or genetic information of any person seeking to purchase, rent, or lease any housing accommodation.

(c) For any person to make, print, or publish, or cause to be made, printed, or published any notice, statement, or advertisement, with respect to the sale or rental of a housing accommodation that indicates any preference, limitation, or discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, ancestry, familial status, source of income, disability, or genetic information or an intention to make that preference, limitation, or discrimination.

(d) For any person subject to the provisions of Section 51 of the Civil Code, as that section applies to housing accommodations, to discriminate against any person on the basis of sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, color, race, religion, ancestry, national origin, familial status, marital status, disability, genetic information, source of income, or on any other basis prohibited by that section. Selection preferences based on age, imposed in connection with a federally approved housing program, do not constitute age discrimination in housing.

(e) For any person, bank, mortgage company or other financial institution that provides financial assistance for the purchase, organization, or construction of any housing accommodation to discriminate against any person or group of persons because of the race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, ancestry, familial status, source of income, disability, or genetic information in the terms, conditions, or privileges relating to the obtaining or use of that financial assistance.

(f) For any owner of housing accommodations to harass, evict, or otherwise discriminate against any person in the sale or rental of housing accommodations when the owner’s dominant purpose is retaliation against a person who has opposed practices unlawful under this section, informed law enforcement agencies of practices believed unlawful under this section, has testified or assisted in any proceeding under this part, or has aided or encouraged a person to exercise or enjoy the rights secured by this part. Nothing herein is intended to cause or permit the delay of an unlawful detainer action.

(g) For any person to aid, abet, incite, compel, or coerce the doing of any of the acts or practices declared unlawful in this section, or to attempt to do so.

(h) For any person, for profit, to induce any person to sell or rent any dwelling by representations regarding the entry or prospective entry into the neighborhood of a person or persons of a particular race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, marital status, ancestry, disability, genetic information, source of income, familial status, or national origin.

(i) For any person or other organization or entity whose business involves real estate-related transactions to discriminate against any person in making available a transaction, or in the terms and conditions of a transaction, because of race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, ancestry, source of income, familial status, disability, or genetic information.

(j) To deny a person access to, or membership or participation in, a multiple listing service, real estate brokerage organization, or other service because of race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, marital status, ancestry, disability, genetic information, familial status, source of income, or national origin.

(k) To otherwise make unavailable or deny a dwelling based on discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, familial status, source of income, disability, genetic information, or national origin.

(l) To discriminate through public or private land use practices, decisions, and authorizations because of race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, familial status, marital status, disability, genetic information, national origin, source of income, or ancestry. Discrimination includes, but is not limited to, restrictive covenants, zoning laws, denials of use permits, and other actions authorized under the Planning and Zoning Law (Title 7 (commencing with Section 65000)), that make housing opportunities unavailable.

Discrimination under this subdivision also includes the existence of a restrictive covenant, regardless of whether accompanied by a statement that the restrictive covenant is repealed or void.

(m) As used in this section, “race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, ancestry, familial status, source of income, disability, or genetic information,” includes a perception that the person has any of those characteristics or that the person is associated with a person who has, or is perceived to have, any of those characteristics.

(n) To use a financial or income standard in the rental of housing that fails to account for the aggregate income of persons residing together or proposing to reside together on the same basis as the aggregate income of married persons residing together or proposing to reside together.

(o) In instances where there is a government rent subsidy, to use a financial or income standard in assessing eligibility for the rental of housing that is not based on the portion of the rent to be paid by the tenant.

(p) (1) For the purposes of this section, “source of income” means lawful, verifiable income paid directly to a tenant or paid to a representative of a tenant. For the purposes of this section, a landlord is not considered a representative of a tenant.

(2) For the purposes of this section, it shall not constitute discrimination based on source of income to make a written or oral inquiry concerning the level or source of income.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 719, Sec. 21.5. (AB 887) Effective January 1, 2012.)

12955.1.
  

(a) For purposes of Section 12955, “discrimination” includes, but is not limited to, a failure to design and construct a covered multifamily dwelling in a manner that allows access to, and use by, disabled persons by providing, at a minimum, the following features:

(1) All covered multifamily dwellings shall have at least one building entrance on an accessible route, unless it is impracticable to do so because of the terrain or unusual characteristics of the site. The burden of establishing impracticability because of terrain or unusual site characteristics is on the person or persons who designed or constructed the housing facility.

(2) All covered multifamily dwellings with a building entrance on an accessible route shall be designed and constructed in a manner that complies with all of the following:

(A) The public and common areas are readily accessible to and usable by persons with disabilities.

(B) All the doors designed to allow passage into and within all premises are sufficiently wide to allow passage by persons in wheelchairs.

(C) All premises within covered multifamily dwelling units contain the following features of adaptable design:

(i) An accessible route into and through the covered dwelling unit.

(ii) Light switches, electrical outlets, thermostats, and other environmental controls in accessible locations.

(iii) Reinforcements in bathroom walls to allow later installation of grab bars around the toilet, tub, shower stall, and shower seat, where those facilities are provided.

(iv) Useable kitchens and bathrooms so that an individual in a wheelchair can maneuver about the space.

(b) (1) For purposes of Section 12955, “discrimination” includes, but is not limited to, a failure to design and construct 10 percent of the multistory dwelling units in buildings without an elevator that consist of at least four condominium dwelling units or at least three rental apartment dwelling units in a manner that incorporates an accessible route to the primary entry level entrance and that meets the requirements of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) with respect to the ground floor, at least one bathroom on the primary entry level and the public and common areas. Any fraction thereof shall be rounded up to the next whole number. For purposes of this subdivision, “elevator” does not include an elevator that serves only the first ground floor or any nonresidential area. In multistory dwelling units in these buildings without elevators, the “primary entry level entrance” means the principal entrance through which most people enter the dwelling unit, as designated by the California Building Standards Code or, if not designated by California Building Standards Code, by the building official. To determine the total number of multistory dwelling units subject to this subdivision, all multistory dwelling units in the buildings subject to this subdivision on a site shall be considered collectively. This subdivision shall not be construed to require an elevator within an individual multistory dwelling unit or within a building subject to this subdivision. This subdivision shall apply only to multistory dwelling units in a building subject to this subdivision for which an application for a construction permit is submitted on or after July 1, 2005.

(2) Notwithstanding subdivision (c), the Division of the State Architect and the Department of Housing and Community Development may adopt regulations to clarify, interpret, or implement this subdivision, if either of them deem it necessary and appropriate.

(c) Notwithstanding Section 12935, regulations adopting building standards necessary to implement, interpret, or make specific the provisions of this section shall be developed by the Division of the State Architect for public housing and by the Department of Housing and Community Development for all other residential occupancies, and shall be adopted pursuant to Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 18935) of Part 2.5 of the Health and Safety Code. Prior to the effective date of regulations adopted pursuant to this subdivision, existing federal accessibility standards that provide, to persons with disabilities, greater protections than existing state accessibility regulations shall apply. After regulations pursuant to this subdivision become effective, particular state regulations shall apply if they provide, to persons with disabilities, the same protections as, or greater protections than, the federal standards. If particular federal regulations provide greater protections than state regulations, then those federal standards shall apply. If the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development determines that any portion of the state regulations are not equivalent to the federal standards, the federal standards shall, as to those portions, apply to the design and construction of covered multifamily dwellings until the state regulations are brought into compliance with the federal standards. The appropriate state agency shall provide notice pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act (Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 11500) of Part 5 of Division 3 of Title 2) of that determination.

(d) In investigating discrimination complaints, the department shall apply the building standards contained in the California Building Standards Code to determine whether a covered multifamily dwelling is designed and constructed for access to and use by disabled persons in accordance with this section.

(e) The building standard requirements for persons with disabilities imposed by this section shall meet or exceed the requirements under the federal Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-430) and its implementing regulations (24 C.F.R. 100.1 et seq.) and the existing state law building standards contained in the California Building Standards Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2003, Ch. 642, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2004.)

12955.1.1.
  

For purposes of Section 12955.1, the following definitions shall apply:

(a) “Covered multifamily dwellings” means both of the following:

(1) Buildings that consist of at least four condominium dwelling units or at least three rental apartment dwelling units if the buildings have at least one elevator. For purposes of this definition, dwelling units within a single structure separated by firewalls do not constitute separate buildings.

(2) The ground floor dwelling units in buildings that consist of at least four condominium dwelling units or at least three rental apartment dwelling units if the buildings do not have an elevator. For purposes of this definition, dwelling units within a single structure separated by firewalls do not constitute separate buildings.

(b) “Multistory dwelling unit” means a condominium dwelling unit or rental apartment with finished living space on one floor and the floor immediately above or below it or, if applicable, the floors immediately above and below it.

(Added by Stats. 2003, Ch. 642, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2004.)

12955.2.
  

For purposes of this part, “familial status” means one or more individuals under 18 years of age who reside with a parent, another person with care and legal custody of that individual, a person who has been given care and custody of that individual by a state or local governmental agency that is responsible for the welfare of children, or the designee of that parent or other person with legal custody of any individual under 18 years of age by written consent of the parent or designated custodian. The protections afforded by this part against discrimination on the basis of familial status also apply to any individual who is pregnant , who is in the process of securing legal custody of any individual under 18 years of age, or who is in the process of being given care and custody of any individual under 18 years of age by a state or local governmental agency responsible for the welfare of children.

(Added by Stats. 1992, Ch. 182, Sec. 9. Effective January 1, 1993.)

12955.3.
  

For purposes of this part, “disability” includes, but is not limited to, any physical or mental disability as defined in Section 12926.

(Amended by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1049, Sec. 8. Effective January 1, 2001.)

12955.4.
  

Nothing in this part shall prohibit a religious organization, association or society, or any nonprofit institution or organization operated, supervised, or controlled by or in conjunction with a religious organization, association, or society, from limiting the sale, rental, or occupancy of dwellings that it owns or operates for other than a commercial purpose to persons of the same religion or from giving preference to those persons, unless membership in that religion is restricted on account of race, color, or national origin.

(Added by Stats. 1992, Ch. 182, Sec. 11. Effective January 1, 1993.)

12955.5.
  

Nothing in this part shall preclude the government from establishing programs to collect information relating to discriminatory housing practices.

(Added by Stats. 1992, Ch. 182, Sec. 12. Effective January 1, 1993.)

12955.6.
  

Nothing in this part shall be construed to afford to the classes protected under this part, fewer rights or remedies than the federal Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-430) and its implementing regulations (24 C.F.R. 100.1 et seq.), or state law relating to fair employment and housing as it existed prior to the effective date of this section. Any state law that purports to require or permit any action that would be an unlawful practice under this part shall to that extent be invalid. This part may be construed to afford greater rights and remedies to an aggrieved person than those afforded by federal law and other state laws.

(Amended by Stats. 1993, Ch. 1277, Sec. 5.5. Effective January 1, 1994.)

12955.7.
  

It shall be unlawful to coerce, intimidate, threaten, or interfere with any person in the exercise or enjoyment of, or on account of that person having exercised or enjoyed, or on account of that person having aided or encouraged any other person in the exercise or enjoyment of, any right granted or protected by Section 12955 or 12955.1.

(Added by Stats. 1993, Ch. 1277, Sec. 6. Effective January 1, 1994.)

12955.8.
  

For purposes of this article, in connection with unlawful practices:

(a) Proof of an intentional violation of this article includes, but is not limited to, an act or failure to act that is otherwise covered by this part, that demonstrates an intent to discriminate in any manner in violation of this part. A person intends to discriminate if race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, ancestry, familial status, source of income, disability, or genetic information is a motivating factor in committing a discriminatory housing practice even though other factors may have also motivated the practice. An intent to discriminate may be established by direct or circumstantial evidence.

(b) Proof of a violation causing a discriminatory effect is shown if an act or failure to act that is otherwise covered by this part, and that has the effect, regardless of intent, of unlawfully discriminating on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, ancestry, familial status, source of income, disability, or genetic information. A business establishment whose action or inaction has an unintended discriminatory effect shall not be considered to have committed an unlawful housing practice in violation of this part if the business establishment can establish that the action or inaction is necessary to the operation of the business and effectively carries out the significant business need it is alleged to serve. In cases that do not involve a business establishment, the person whose action or inaction has an unintended discriminatory effect shall not be considered to have committed an unlawful housing practice in violation of this part if the person can establish that the action or inaction is necessary to achieve an important purpose sufficiently compelling to override the discriminatory effect and effectively carries out the purpose it is alleged to serve.

(1) Any determination of a violation pursuant to this subdivision shall consider whether or not there are feasible alternatives that would equally well or better accomplish the purpose advanced with a less discriminatory effect.

(2) For purposes of this subdivision, the term “business establishment” shall have the same meaning as in Section 51 of the Civil Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 719, Sec. 22.5. (AB 887) Effective January 1, 2012.)

12955.9.
  

(a) The provisions of this part relating to discrimination on the basis of familial status shall not apply to housing for older persons.

(b) As used in this section, “housing for older persons” means any of the following:

(1) Housing provided under any state or federal program that the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development determines is specifically designed and operated to assist elderly persons, as defined in the state or federal program.

(2) Housing that meets the standards for senior housing in Sections 51.2, 51.3, and 51.4 of the Civil Code, except to the extent that those standards violate the prohibition of familial status discrimination in the federal Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-430) and implementing regulations.

(3) Mobilehome parks that meet the standards for “housing for older persons” as defined in the federal Fair Housing Act, as amended by Public Law 104-76, and implementing regulations.

(c) For purposes of this section, the burden of proof shall be on the owner to prove that the housing qualifies as housing for older persons.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 714, Sec. 9. (SB 944) Effective January 1, 2017.)

12956.
  

Upon notice that a verified complaint against it has been filed under this part, any owner of housing accommodations shall maintain and preserve any and all rental records or any other written materials relevant to the complaint, until the complaint is fully and finally disposed of and all appeals or related proceedings terminated.

(Added by Stats. 1987, Ch. 605, Sec. 5.)

12956.1.
  

(a) As used in this section, “association,” “governing documents,” and “declaration” have the same meanings as set forth in Sections 4080, 4135, and 4150 or Sections 6528, 6546, and 6552 of the Civil Code.

(b) (1) A county recorder, title insurance company, escrow company, real estate broker, real estate agent, or association that provides a copy of a declaration, governing document, or deed to any person shall place a cover page or stamp on the first page of the previously recorded document or documents stating, in at least 14-point boldface type, the following:


“If this document contains any restriction based on race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, familial status, marital status, disability, genetic information, national origin, source of income as defined in subdivision (p) of Section 12955, or ancestry, that restriction violates state and federal fair housing laws and is void, and may be removed pursuant to Section 12956.2 of the Government Code. Lawful restrictions under state and federal law on the age of occupants in senior housing or housing for older persons shall not be construed as restrictions based on familial status.”


(2) The requirements of paragraph (1) shall not apply to documents being submitted for recordation to a county recorder.

(c) Any person who records a document for the express purpose of adding a racially restrictive covenant is guilty of a misdemeanor. The county recorder shall not incur any liability for recording the document. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a prosecution for a violation of this subdivision shall commence within three years after the discovery of the recording of the document.

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 181, Sec. 49) by Stats. 2013, Ch. 605, Sec. 25. (SB 752) Effective January 1, 2014.)

12956.2.
  

(a) A person who holds an ownership interest of record in property that the person believes is the subject of an unlawfully restrictive covenant in violation of subdivision (l) of Section 12955 may record a document titled Restrictive Covenant Modification. The county recorder may choose to waive the fee prescribed for recording and indexing instruments pursuant to Section 27361 in the case of the modification document provided for in this section. The modification document shall include a complete copy of the original document containing the unlawfully restrictive language with the unlawfully restrictive language stricken.

(b) Before recording the modification document, the county recorder shall submit the modification document and the original document to the county counsel who shall determine whether the original document contains an unlawful restriction based on race, color, religion, sex, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, familial status, marital status, disability, national origin, source of income as defined in subdivision (p) of Section 12955, or ancestry. The county counsel shall return the documents and inform the county recorder of its determination. The county recorder shall refuse to record the modification document if the county counsel finds that the original document does not contain an unlawful restriction as specified in this paragraph.

(c) The modification document shall be indexed in the same manner as the original document being modified. It shall contain a recording reference to the original document in the form of a book and page or instrument number, and date of the recording.

(d) Subject to covenants, conditions, and restrictions that were recorded after the recording of the original document that contains the unlawfully restrictive language and subject to covenants, conditions, and restrictions that will be recorded after the Restrictive Covenant Modification, the restrictions in the Restrictive Covenant Modification, once recorded, are the only restrictions having effect on the property. The effective date of the terms and conditions of the modification document shall be the same as the effective date of the original document.

(e) The county recorder shall make available to the public Restrictive Covenant Modification forms.

(f) If the holder of an ownership interest of record in property causes to be recorded a modified document pursuant to this section that contains modifications not authorized by this section, the county recorder shall not incur liability for recording the document. The liability that may result from the unauthorized recordation is the sole responsibility of the holder of the ownership interest of record who caused the modified recordation.

(g) This section does not apply to persons holding an ownership interest in property that is part of a common interest development as defined in Section 4100 or 6534 of the Civil Code if the board of directors of that common interest development is subject to the requirements of subdivision (b) of Section 4225 or of subdivision (b) of Section 6606 of the Civil Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 799, Sec. 12. (AB 1556) Effective January 1, 2018.)

12957.
  

(a) It is the policy of this state and the purpose of this section to facilitate and support the development and operation of housing for homeless youth.

(b) The provision of housing for homeless youth is hereby authorized and shall not be considered unlawful age discrimination, notwithstanding any other provision of law, including, but not limited to, Sections 51, 51.2, and 51.10 of the Civil Code, Sections 11135, 12920, and 12955 of this code, Chapter 11.5 (commencing with Section 50800) of Part 2 of Division 31 of the Health and Safety Code, and local housing or age discrimination ordinances.

(c) This section shall not be construed to permit discrimination against families with children.

(d) This section shall occupy the field of regulation of housing for homeless youth by any local public entity, including, but not limited to, a city, county, and city and county.

(e) For purposes of this section, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) “At risk of becoming homeless” means facing eviction or termination of one’s current housing situation.

(2) “Homeless youth” means either of the following:

(A) A person who is not older than 24 years of age, and meets one of the following conditions:

(i) Is homeless or at risk of becoming homeless.

(ii) Is no longer eligible for foster care on the basis of age.

(iii) Has run away from home.

(B) A person who is younger than 18 years of age, who is emancipated pursuant to Part 6 (commencing with Section 7000) of Division 11 of the Family Code, and who is homeless or at risk of becoming homeless.

(3) “Housing for homeless youth” means emergency, transitional, or permanent housing tied to supportive services that assist homeless youth in stabilizing their lives and developing the skills and resources they need to make a successful transition to independent, self-sufficient adulthood.

(Added by Stats. 2016, Ch. 870, Sec. 15. (SB 1442) Effective January 1, 2017.)

GOVGovernment Code - GOV2.