Code Section Group

Government Code - GOV

TITLE 8. THE ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNMENT OF COURTS [68070 - 77655]

  ( Title 8 added by Stats. 1953, Ch. 206. )

CHAPTER 7. Trial Court Employment Protection and Governance Act [71600 - 71675]

  ( Chapter 7 added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. )

ARTICLE 3. Labor Relations [71630 - 71639.5]
  ( Article 3 added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. )

71630.
  

(a) It is the purpose of this article to promote full communication between trial courts and their employees by providing a reasonable method for resolving disputes regarding wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment between trial courts and recognized employee organizations. It is also the purpose of this article to promote the improvement of personnel management and employer-employee relations within the trial courts in the state by providing a uniform basis for recognizing the right of trial court employees to join organizations of their own choice and to be represented by those organizations in their employment relations with trial courts. It is also the purpose of this article to extend to trial court employees the right, and to require trial courts, to meet and confer in good faith over matters within the scope of representation, consistent with the procedures set forth in this article. This article is not intended to require changes in existing representation units, memoranda of agreement or understanding, or court rules, except as provided in this article.

(b) The Legislature finds and declares that the duties and responsibilities of trial court representatives under this article are substantially similar to the duties and responsibilities required under existing collective bargaining enforcement procedures and therefore the costs incurred by the trial court representatives in performing those duties and responsibilities under this article are not reimbursable as state-mandated costs.

(Amended by Stats. 2004, Ch. 227, Sec. 65. Effective August 16, 2004.)

71631.
  

Except as otherwise provided by the Legislature, trial court employees shall have the right to form, join, and participate in the activities of employee organizations of their own choosing for the purpose of representation on all matters of employer-employee relations. Trial court employees also shall have the right to refuse to join or participate in the activities of employee organizations and shall have the right to represent themselves individually in their employment relations with the trial court.

(Added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2001.)

71632.5.
  

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, rule, or regulation, an agency shop agreement may be negotiated between a trial court and a recognized employee organization that has been recognized as the exclusive or majority bargaining agent pursuant to reasonable rules and regulations, and enactments, in accordance with this article. As used in this article, “agency shop” means an arrangement that requires an employee, as a condition of continued employment, either to join the recognized employee organization, or to pay the organization a service fee in an amount not to exceed the standard initiation fee, periodic dues, and general assessments of that organization for the duration of the agreement or a period of three years from the effective date of the agreement, whichever comes first. However, any employee who is a member of a bona fide religion, body, or sect that has historically held conscientious objections to joining or financially supporting recognized employee organizations shall not be required to join or financially support any recognized employee organization as a condition of employment. That employee may be required, in lieu of periodic dues, initiation fees, or agency shop fees to pay sums equal to those dues, initiation fees, or agency shop fees to a nonreligious, nonlabor charitable organization fund exempt from taxation under Section 501 (c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, chosen by the employee from a list of at least three funds, designated in a memorandum of understanding or agreement between the trial court and the recognized employee organization, or if the memorandum of understanding or agreement fails to designate any funds, then to any fund chosen by the employee. Proof of those payments shall be made on a monthly basis to the trial court as a condition of continued exemption from the requirement of financial support to the recognized employee organization.

(b) An agency shop provision in a memorandum of understanding or agreement which is in effect may be rescinded by a majority vote of all the employees in the unit covered by the memorandum of understanding or agreement under the following circumstances:

(1) A request for the vote is supported by a petition containing the signatures of at least 30 percent of the employees in the unit.

(2) The vote is by secret ballot.

(3) The vote may be taken at any time during the term of the memorandum of understanding or agreement, but in no event shall there be more than one vote taken during that term.

(c) In addition to the procedure prescribed in subdivision (a), an agency shop arrangement between the trial court and a recognized employee organization or recognized employee organizations shall be placed in effect, without a negotiated agreement, upon (1) a signed petition of at least 30 percent of the employees in the applicable bargaining unit requesting an agency shop agreement and an election to implement an agency fee arrangement, and (2) the approval of a majority of employees who cast ballots and vote in a secret ballot election in favor of the agency shop agreement. The petition may only be filed after the recognized employee organization has requested the trial court to negotiate on an agency shop arrangement and, beginning seven working days after the trial court received this request, the two parties have had 30 calendar days to attempt good faith negotiations in an effort to reach agreement. An election, that may not be held more frequently than once a year, shall be conducted by the California State Mediation and Conciliation Service in the event that the trial court and the recognized employee organization cannot agree within 10 days from the filing of the petition to select jointly a neutral person or entity to conduct the election. In the event of an agency fee arrangement outside of an agreement that was in effect on January 1, 2002, the recognized employee organization shall defend, indemnify, and hold the trial court harmless against any liability arising from any claims, demands, or other action relating to the trial court’s compliance with the agency fee obligation. Upon notification to the trial court by the recognized employee organization, the amount of the fee shall be deducted by the trial court from the wages or salary of the employee and paid to the employee organization. This subdivision shall be applicable on the operative date of this section, except that if a memorandum of understanding or agreement between the trial court and a recognized employee organization was in effect before January 1, 2002, as to the employees covered by the memorandum of understanding or agreement, the implementation date of this subdivision shall be either the date a successor memorandum of understanding or agreement is effective or, if no agreement for a successor memorandum of understanding or agreement is reached, 90 days from the date of the expiration of the predecessor memorandum of understanding or agreement. The trial court and representatives of recognized employee organizations may mutually agree to a different date on which this subdivision is applicable.

(d) Notwithstanding subdivisions (a), (b), and (c), the trial court and the recognized employee organization may negotiate, and by mutual agreement provide for, an alternative procedure or procedures regarding a vote on any agency shop agreement.

(e) An agency shop agreement or arrangement does not apply to management, confidential, or supervisory employees. If those employees nonetheless choose to join the recognized employee organization and pay dues or pay the organization a service fee, Section 71638 shall apply to those employees, and the trial court shall administer deductions for which the recognized employee organization shall defend, indemnify, and hold the trial court harmless.

(f) Every recognized employee organization that has agreed to an agency shop provision, or is a party to an agency shop arrangement, shall keep an adequate itemized record of its financial transactions and shall make available annually, to the trial court with which the agency shop provision was negotiated, and to the employees who are members of the organization, within 60 days after the end of its fiscal year, a detailed written financial report thereof in the form of a balance sheet and an operating statement, certified as to accuracy by its president and treasurer or corresponding principal officer, or by a certified public accountant. An employee organization required to file financial reports under the federal Labor-Management Disclosure Act of 1959 covering employees governed by this chapter or required to file financial reports under Section 3546.5, may satisfy the financial reporting requirement of this section by providing the trial court with a copy of those financial reports.

(g) This section shall become operative only if Section 3502.5 is amended to provide that a 30-percent or greater showing of interest by means of a petition requires an election regarding an agency shop, and a vote at that election of 50 percent plus one of those voting secures an agency shop arrangement.

(h) A trial court may not offer employees inducements or benefits of any kind in return for employees opposing or rescinding an agency shop arrangement.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 46, Sec. 71. (SB 1038) Effective June 27, 2012. Note: This section, as added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, became operative on January 1, 2001.)

71632.6.
  

If the trial court is party to any memorandum of understanding or agreement with any bargaining unit that includes court employees that provides for an agency shop provision as of the implementation date of this chapter, the trial court and employee organization representing the trial court employees shall be obligated to honor the terms of the agency shop provision, including indemnification provisions, if any, for the duration of the memorandum of understanding or agreement. The implementation of this chapter shall not be a cause for a new agency shop election.

(Added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2001.)

71633.
  

Recognized employee organizations shall have the right to represent their members in their employment relations with trial courts as to matters covered by this article. Employee organizations may establish reasonable restrictions regarding who may join and may make reasonable provisions for the dismissal of individuals from membership. Nothing in this article shall prohibit any employee from appearing on his or her own behalf regarding employment relations with the trial court.

(Added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2001.)

71634.
  

(a) The scope of representation shall include all matters relating to employment conditions and employer-employee relations, including, but not limited to, wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment. However, the scope of representation shall not include consideration of the merits, necessity, or organization of any service or activity provided by law or executive order.

(b) In view of the unique and special responsibilities of the trial courts in the administration of justice, decisions regarding the following matters shall not be included within the scope of representation:

(1) The merits and administration of the trial court system.

(2) Coordination, consolidation, and merger of trial courts and support staff.

(3) Automation, including, but not limited to, fax filing, electronic recording, and implementation of information systems.

(4) Design, construction, and location of court facilities.

(5) Delivery of court services.

(6) Hours of operation of the trial courts and trial court system.

(c) The impact from matters in subdivision (b) shall be included within the scope of representation as those matters affect wages, hours, and terms and conditions of employment of trial court employees. The court shall be required to meet and confer in good faith with respect to that impact.

(d) The trial court shall continue to have the right to determine assignments and transfers of trial court employees; provided that the process, procedures, and criteria for assignments and transfers shall be included within the scope of representation.

(Added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2001.)

71634.1.
  

(a) Except in cases of emergency as provided in this section, the trial court shall give reasonable written notice to each recognized employee organization affected by any rule, practice, or policy directly relating to matters within the scope of representation proposed to be adopted by the trial court and shall give each such recognized employee organization the opportunity to meet with the trial court.

(b) In cases of emergency when the trial court determines that any rule, policy, or procedure must be adopted immediately without prior notice or meeting with a recognized employee organization, the trial court shall provide such notice and opportunity to meet at the earliest practicable time following the adoption of the rule, policy, or procedure.

(Added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2001.)

71634.2.
  

(a) The trial court, or those representatives as it may designate, shall meet and confer in good faith regarding wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment within the scope of representation, as defined in Section 71634, with representatives of the recognized employee organizations, as defined in Section 71611, and shall consider fully the presentations as are made by the recognized employee organization on behalf of its members prior to arriving at a determination of policy or course of action.

(b) In fulfilling the requirements of subdivision (a), the court and the county may consult with each other, may negotiate jointly, and each may designate the other in writing as its agent on any matters within the scope of representation.

(Added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2001.)

71634.3.
  

If agreement is reached by the representatives of the trial court and a recognized employee organization or organizations, they shall jointly prepare a written memorandum of the agreement or understanding, which shall not be binding, and present it to the trial court or its designee for determination.

(Added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2001.)

71634.4.
  

If after a reasonable period of time, representatives of the trial court and the recognized employee organization fail to reach agreement, the trial court and the recognized employee organization or recognized employee organizations together may agree upon the appointment of a mediator mutually agreeable to the parties. Costs of mediation, if any, shall be divided one-half to the trial court and one-half to the recognized employee organization or recognized employee organizations.

(Added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2001.)

71635.
  

The trial court shall allow a reasonable number of trial court employee representatives of recognized employee organizations reasonable time off, without loss of compensation or other benefits, when formally meeting and conferring with representatives of the trial court on matters within the scope of representation.

(Added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2001.)

71635.1.
  

Trial courts and employee organizations shall not interfere with, intimidate, restrain, coerce, or discriminate against court employees because of their exercise of their rights under Section 71631.

(Added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2001.)

71636.
  

(a) A trial court may adopt reasonable rules and regulations, after consultation in good faith with representatives of a recognized employee organization or organizations, for the administration of employer-employee relations under this article. These rules and regulations may include provisions for:

(1) Verifying that an organization does in fact represent employees of the trial court.

(2) Verifying the official status of employee organization officers and representatives.

(3) Recognition of employee organizations.

(4) Exclusive recognition of employee organizations formally recognized pursuant to a vote of the employees of the trial court or an appropriate unit thereof, subject to the right of an employee to represent himself or herself as provided in Section 71631.

(5) Additional procedures for the resolution of disputes involving wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment.

(6) Access of employee organization officers and representatives to work locations.

(7) Use of official bulletin boards and other means of communication by employee organizations.

(8) Furnishing nonconfidential information pertaining to employment relations to employee organizations.

(9) Any other matters as are necessary to carry out the purposes of this article.

(b) Exclusive recognition of employee organizations formally recognized as majority representatives pursuant to a vote of the employees may be revoked by a majority vote of the employees only after a period of not less than 12 months following the date of recognition.

(c) No trial court shall unreasonably withhold recognition of employee organizations. A trial court may not offer to provide employees benefits of any kind for the purpose of inducing those employees to decertify or withdraw support from a recognized employee organization.

(d) Pursuant to the obligation to meet and confer in good faith, the trial court shall establish procedures to determine the appropriateness of any bargaining unit of court employees.

(e) Trial court employees and employee organizations shall be able to challenge a rule or regulation of a trial court as a violation of this chapter.

(Amended by Stats. 2004, Ch. 227, Sec. 66. Effective August 16, 2004.)

71636.1.
  

In the absence of local procedures for resolving disputes on the appropriateness of a unit of representation, upon the request of any of the parties, the dispute shall be submitted to the California State Mediation and Conciliation Service for the mediation or for recommendation for resolving the dispute.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 46, Sec. 72. (SB 1038) Effective June 27, 2012.)

71636.3.
  

(a) Unit determinations and representation elections shall be determined and processed in accordance with rules adopted by a trial court in accordance with this chapter. In a representation election, a majority of the votes cast by the employees in the appropriate bargaining unit shall be required.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a) and rules adopted by a trial court pursuant to Section 71636, a bargaining unit in effect as of January 1, 2002, shall continue in effect unless changed under the rules adopted by the trial court pursuant to Section 71636.

(c) A trial court shall grant exclusive or majority recognition to an employee organization based on a signed petition, authorization cards, or union membership cards showing that a majority of the employees in an appropriate bargaining unit desire the representation, unless another labor organization has previously been lawfully recognized as exclusive or majority representative of all or part of the same unit. Exclusive or majority representation shall be determined by a neutral third party, selected by the trial court and the employee organization, who shall review the signed petition, authorization cards, or union membership cards to verify the exclusive or majority status of the employee organization. If the trial court and the employee organization cannot agree on a neutral third party, the California State Mediation and Conciliation Service shall be the neutral third party and shall verify the exclusive or majority status of the employee organization. If the neutral third party determines, based on a signed petition, authorization cards, or union membership cards, that a second labor organization has the support of at least 30 percent of the employees in the unit in which recognition is sought, the neutral third party shall order an election to establish which labor organization, if any, has majority status.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 46, Sec. 73. (SB 1038) Effective June 27, 2012.)

71637.
  

(a) For purposes of this article, professional employees shall not be denied the right to be represented separately from nonprofessional employees by a professional employee organization consisting of those professional employees. In the event of a dispute on the appropriateness of a unit of representation for professional employees, upon request of any of the parties, the dispute shall be submitted to the California State Mediation and Conciliation Service for mediation or for recommendation for resolving the dispute.

(b) For the purpose of this section, “professional employees” means employees engaged in work requiring specialized knowledge and skills attained through completion of a recognized course of instruction, including, but not limited to, attorneys.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 46, Sec. 74. (SB 1038) Effective June 27, 2012.)

71637.1.
  

For purposes of this article, in addition to those rules and regulations that a trial court may adopt pursuant to, and in the same manner as set forth in, Section 71636, any trial court may adopt reasonable rules and regulations providing for designation of the management and confidential employees of the trial court and restricting those employees from representing any employee organization that represents other employees of the trial court, on matters within the scope of representation. Except as specifically provided otherwise in this article, this section does not otherwise limit the right of employees to be members of, and to hold office in, an employee organization.

(Amended by Stats. 2001, Ch. 270, Sec. 8. Effective January 1, 2002.)

71638.
  

A trial court employee shall have the right to authorize, and the trial court employer shall honor, a dues deduction from his or her salary or wages as provided in Section 1152, 1153, 1157.1, 1157.2, 1157.3, 1157.4, 1157.5, or 1157.7.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 53, Sec. 37. (SB 866) Effective June 27, 2018.)

71639.
  

(a) As of the implementation date of this chapter, an employee organization that is recognized as a representative of a group of trial court employees or the exclusive representative of an established bargaining unit of trial court employees, either by the county or the trial court, shall continue to be recognized by the trial court as a representative or the exclusive representative of the same trial court employees. A trial court and recognized employee organization shall be bound by the terms of any memorandum of understanding or agreement covering trial court employees to which the trial court or the county is a party that is in effect on the implementation date of this chapter for the duration thereof, or until it expires and, consistent with law, is replaced by a successor memorandum of understanding or agreement, subject to the obligation to meet and confer in good faith. Upon expiration of a memorandum of understanding or agreement, the trial court shall meet and confer in good faith with recognized employee organizations.

(b) A trial court’s local rules governing trial court employees and a trial court’s personnel rules, policies, and practices, and any county rules in effect pursuant to former Rule 2205 of the California Rules of Court as adopted on April 23, 1997, in effect at the time of the implementation date of this chapter, to the extent they are not contrary to or inconsistent with the obligations and duties provided for in this article, shall continue in effect until changed by the trial court. Prior to changing any rule, policy, or practice that affects any matter within the scope of representation as set forth in this article, the court shall meet and confer in good faith with the recognized employee organization as provided for in this chapter.

(c) Nothing contained in this article is intended to preclude trial court employees from continuing to be included in representation units which contain county employees.

(Amended by Stats. 2007, Ch. 130, Sec. 138. Effective January 1, 2008.)

71639.1.
  

(a) As used in this article, “board” means the Public Employment Relations Board established pursuant to Section 3541.

(b) The powers and duties of the board described in Section 3541.3 shall also apply, as appropriate, to this article and shall include the authority as set forth in subdivisions (c) and (d). Included among the appropriate powers of the board are the power to order elections, to conduct any election the board orders, and to adopt rules to apply in areas where a trial court has no rule.

(c) A complaint alleging any violation of this article or of any rules and regulations adopted by a trial court pursuant to Section 71636 shall be processed as an unfair practice charge by the board. The initial determination as to whether the charge of unfair practice is justified and, if so, the appropriate remedy necessary to effectuate the purposes of this article, shall be a matter within the exclusive jurisdiction of the board, except that in an action to recover damages due to an unlawful strike, the board shall have no authority to award strike-preparation expenses as damages, and shall have no authority to award damages for costs, expenses, or revenue losses incurred during, or as a consequence of, an unlawful strike. The board shall apply and interpret unfair labor practices consistent with existing judicial interpretations of this article and Section 71639.3. The board shall not issue a complaint in respect of any charge based upon an alleged unfair practice occurring more than six months prior to the filing of the charge, except that if the rules and regulations adopted by a trial court require exhaustion of a remedy prior to filing an unfair practice charge or the charging party chooses to exhaust a trial court’s remedy prior to filing an unfair practice charge, the six-month limitation set forth in this subdivision shall be tolled during such reasonable amount of time it takes the charging party to exhaust the remedy, but nothing herein shall require a charging party to exhaust a remedy when that remedy would be futile.

(d) The board shall enforce and apply rules adopted by a trial court concerning unit determinations, representation, recognition, and elections.

(e) This section does not apply to employees designated as management employees under Section 71637.1.

(f) The board shall not find it an unfair practice for an employee organization to violate a rule or regulation adopted by a trial court if that rule or regulation is itself in violation of this article.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 539, Sec. 5. (SB 857) Effective January 1, 2012.)

71639.15.
  

Notwithstanding any other law, if a decision by an administrative law judge regarding the recognition or certification of an employee organization is appealed, the decision shall be deemed the final order of the board if the board does not issue a ruling that supersedes the decision on or before 180 days after the appeal is filed.

(Added by Stats. 2011, Ch. 242, Sec. 5. (SB 609) Effective January 1, 2012.)

71639.2.
  

The enactment of this article shall not be construed as making Section 923 of the Labor Code applicable to trial court employees.

(Added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1010, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2001.)

71639.3.
  

Trial courts and trial court employees are not covered by Chapter 10 (commencing with Section 3500) of Division 4 of Title 1, or any subsequent changes to these sections except as provided in this article. However, where the language of this article is the same or substantially the same as that contained in Chapter 10 (commencing with Section 3500) of Division 4 of Title 1, it shall be interpreted and applied in accordance with the judicial interpretations of the same language.

(Amended by Stats. 2004, Ch. 227, Sec. 69. Effective August 16, 2004.)

71639.4.
  

(a) Any charging party, respondent, or intervenor aggrieved by a final decision or order of the board in an unfair practice case, except a decision of the board not to issue a complaint in such a case, and any party to a final decision or order of the board in a unit determination, representation, recognition, or election matter that is not brought as an unfair practice case, may petition for a writ of extraordinary relief from that decision or order. A board order directing an election may not be stayed pending judicial review.

(b) A petition for a writ of extraordinary relief shall be filed in the district court of appeal having jurisdiction over the county where the events giving rise to the decision or order occurred. The petition shall be filed within 30 days from the date of the issuance of the board’s final decision or order, or order denying reconsideration, as applicable. Upon the filing of the petition, the court shall cause notice to be served upon the board and thereafter shall have jurisdiction of the proceeding. The board shall file in the court the record of the proceeding, certified by the board, within 10 days after the clerk’s notice unless that time is extended by the court for good cause shown. The court shall have jurisdiction to grant any temporary relief or restraining order it deems just and proper, and in like manner to make and enter a decree enforcing, modifying, and enforcing as modified, or setting aside in whole or in part the decision or order of the board. The findings of the board with respect to questions of fact, including ultimate facts, if supported by substantial evidence on the record considered as a whole, shall be conclusive. Title 1 (commencing with Section 1067) of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure relating to writs shall, except where specifically superseded by this section, apply to proceedings pursuant to this section.

(c) If the time to petition for extraordinary relief from a board decision or order has expired, the board may seek enforcement of any final decision or order in a district court of appeal or superior court having jurisdiction over the county where the events giving rise to the decision or order occurred. The board shall respond within 10 days to any inquiry from a party to the action as to why the board has not sought court enforcement of the final decision or order. If the response does not indicate that there has been compliance with the board’s final decision or order, the board shall seek enforcement of the final decision or order upon the request of the party. The board shall file in the court the record of the proceeding, certified by the board, and appropriate evidence disclosing the failure to comply with the decision or order. If, after hearing, the court determines that the order was issued pursuant to the procedures established by the board and that the person or entity refuses to comply with the order, the court shall enforce the order by writ of mandamus or other proper process. The court may not review the merits of the order.

(Added by Stats. 2004, Ch. 227, Sec. 70. Effective August 16, 2004.)

71639.5.
  

(a) Any written agreements reached through negotiations held pursuant to this article are binding upon the parties, upon adoption under Section 71634.3, and, notwithstanding Sections 1085 and 1103 of the Code of Civil Procedure requiring the issuance of a writ to an inferior tribunal, any of those agreements may be enforced by petitioning the superior court for relief pursuant to Section 1085 or 1103 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

(b) Written agreements reached through negotiations held pursuant to this article that contain provisions requiring the arbitration of controversies arising out of the agreement shall be subject to enforcement under Title 9 (commencing with Section 1280) of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

(c) The Judicial Council shall adopt rules of court that shall provide a mechanism for the establishment of a panel of court of appeal justices who shall be qualified to hear petitions under Title 9 (commencing with Section 1280) of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure, and writ applications under Sections 1085 and 1103 of the Code of Civil Procedure, and as specified in those rules, from which a single justice shall be assigned to hear the matter in the superior court. The rules of court shall provide that these matters shall be heard in the superior court, and to the extent permitted by law, shall provide that any justice assigned to hear the matter in the superior court shall not be from the court of appeal district in which the action is filed, and shall further provide that appeals in such matters shall be heard in the court of appeal district where the matter was filed.

(Added by Stats. 2004, Ch. 227, Sec. 71. Effective August 16, 2004.)

GOVGovernment Code - GOV3