Code Section Group

Family Code - FAM

DIVISION 12. PARENT AND CHILD RELATIONSHIP [7500 - 7961]

  ( Division 12 enacted by Stats. 1992, Ch. 162, Sec. 10. )

PART 3. UNIFORM PARENTAGE ACT [7600 - 7730]

  ( Part 3 enacted by Stats. 1992, Ch. 162, Sec. 10. )

CHAPTER 2. Establishing Parent and Child Relationship [7610 - 7614]
  ( Chapter 2 enacted by Stats. 1992, Ch. 162, Sec. 10. )

7610.
  

The parent and child relationship may be established as follows:

(a) Between a child and the natural parent, it may be established by proof of having given birth to the child, or under this part.

(b) Between a child and an adoptive parent, it may be established by proof of adoption.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 510, Sec. 2. (AB 1403) Effective January 1, 2014.)

7611.
  

A person is presumed to be the natural parent of a child if the person meets the conditions provided in Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 7540) or Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 7570) of Part 2 or in any of the following subdivisions:

(a) The presumed parent and the child’s natural mother are, or have been, married to each other and the child is born during the marriage, or within 300 days after the marriage is terminated by death, annulment, declaration of invalidity, or divorce, or after a judgment of separation is entered by a court.

(b) Before the child’s birth, the presumed parent and the child’s natural mother have attempted to marry each other by a marriage solemnized in apparent compliance with law, although the attempted marriage is or could be declared invalid, and either of the following is true:

(1) If the attempted marriage could be declared invalid only by a court, the child is born during the attempted marriage, or within 300 days after its termination by death, annulment, declaration of invalidity, or divorce.

(2) If the attempted marriage is invalid without a court order, the child is born within 300 days after the termination of cohabitation.

(c) After the child’s birth, the presumed parent and the child’s natural mother have married, or attempted to marry, each other by a marriage solemnized in apparent compliance with law, although the attempted marriage is or could be declared invalid, and either of the following is true:

(1) With the presumed parent’s consent, the presumed parent is named as the child’s parent on the child’s birth certificate.

(2) The presumed parent is obligated to support the child under a written voluntary promise or by court order.

(d) The presumed parent receives the child into their home and openly holds out the child as their natural child.

(e) The child is in utero after the death of the decedent and the conditions set forth in Section 249.5 of the Probate Code are satisfied.

(Amended by Stats. 2019, Ch. 115, Sec. 87. (AB 1817) Effective January 1, 2020.)

7611.5.
  

Where Section 7611 does not apply, a man shall not be presumed to be the natural father of a child if either of the following is true:

(a) The child was conceived as a result of an act in violation of Section 261 of the Penal Code and the father was convicted of that violation.

(b) The child was conceived as a result of an act in violation of Section 261.5 of the Penal Code, the father was convicted of that violation, and the mother was under the age of 15 years and the father was 21 years of age or older at the time of conception.

(Added by Stats. 1993, Ch. 219, Sec. 177. Effective January 1, 1994.)

7612.
  

(a) Except as provided in Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 7540) and Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 7570) of Part 2, a presumption under Section 7611 is a rebuttable presumption affecting the burden of proof and may be rebutted in an appropriate action only by clear and convincing evidence.

(b) If two or more presumptions arise under Section 7611 that conflict with each other, or if one or more presumptions under Section 7611 conflict with a claim by a person identified as a genetic parent pursuant to Section 7555, the presumption that on the facts is founded on the weightier considerations of policy and logic controls. If one of the presumed parents is also a presumed parent under Section 7540, the presumption arising under Section 7540 may only be rebutted pursuant to Section 7541.

(c) In an appropriate action, a court may find that more than two persons with a claim to parentage under this division are parents if the court finds that recognizing only two parents would be detrimental to the child. In determining detriment to the child, the court shall consider all relevant factors, including, but not limited to, the harm of removing the child from a stable placement with a parent who has fulfilled the child’s physical needs and the child’s psychological needs for care and affection, and who has assumed that role for a substantial period of time. A finding of detriment to the child does not require a finding of unfitness of any of the parents or persons with a claim to parentage.

(d) Unless a court orders otherwise after making the determination specified in subdivision (c), a presumption under Section 7611 is rebutted by a judgment establishing parentage of the child by another person.

(e) A person’s offer or refusal to sign a voluntary declaration of parentage may be considered as a factor, but shall not be determinative, as to the issue of legal parentage in a proceeding regarding the establishment or termination of parental rights.

(f) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2020.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 876, Sec. 48. (AB 2684) Effective January 1, 2019. Section operative January 1, 2020, by its own provisions.)

7613.
  

(a) (1) If a woman conceives through assisted reproduction with semen or ova or both donated by a donor who is not the woman’s spouse, with the consent of another intended parent, that intended parent is treated in law as if that intended parent is the natural parent of a child thereby conceived. The other intended parent’s consent shall be in writing and signed by the other intended parent and the woman conceiving through assisted reproduction.

(2) Failure to consent in writing, as required by paragraph (1), does not preclude the court from finding that the intended parent consented if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that, prior to the conception of the child, the woman and the intended parent had an oral agreement that the woman and the intended parent would both be parents of the child.

(b) (1) The donor of semen provided to a licensed physician and surgeon or to a licensed sperm bank for use in assisted reproduction by a woman other than the donor’s spouse is treated in law as if the donor is not the natural parent of a child thereby conceived, unless otherwise agreed to in a writing signed by the donor and the woman prior to the conception of the child.

(2) If the semen is not provided to a licensed physician and surgeon or a licensed sperm bank as specified in paragraph (1), the donor of semen for use in assisted reproduction by a woman other than the donor’s spouse is treated in law as if the donor is not the natural parent of a child thereby conceived if either of the following are met:

(A) The donor and the woman agreed in a writing signed prior to conception that the donor would not be a parent.

(B) A court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the child was conceived through assisted reproduction and that, prior to the conception of the child, the woman and the donor had an oral agreement that the donor would not be a parent.

(3) Paragraphs (1) and (2) do not apply to a man who provided semen for use in assisted reproduction by a woman other than the man’s spouse pursuant to a written agreement signed by the man and the woman prior to conception of the child stating that they intended for the man to be a parent.

(c) The donor of ova for use in assisted reproduction by a person other than the donor’s spouse or nonmarital partner is treated in law as if the donor is not the natural parent of a child thereby conceived unless the court finds satisfactory evidence that the person providing ova and the person intended for the person providing ova to be a parent.

(Amended by Stats. 2019, Ch. 115, Sec. 88. (AB 1817) Effective January 1, 2020.)

7613.5.
  

(a) An intended parent may, but is not required to, use the forms set forth in this section to demonstrate the intent to be a legal parent of a child conceived through assisted reproduction. These forms shall satisfy the writing requirement specified in Section 7613, and are designed to provide clarity regarding the intentions, at the time of conception, of intended parents using assisted reproduction. These forms do not affect any presumptions of parentage based on Section 7611, and do not preclude a court from considering any other claims to parentage under California statute or case law.

(b) These forms apply only in very limited circumstances. Please read the forms carefully to see if you qualify for use of the forms.

(c) These forms do not apply to assisted reproduction agreements for gestational carriers or surrogacy agreements.

(d) This section does not require the use of one of these forms to satisfy the writing requirement of Section 7613.

(e) The following are the optional California Statutory Forms for Assisted Reproduction:

California Statutory Forms for Assisted Reproduction, Form 1:

Two Married or Unmarried People Using Assisted Reproduction to Conceive a Child

Use this form if: You and another intended parent, who may be your spouse or registered domestic partner, are conceiving a child through assisted reproduction using sperm and/or egg donation; and one of you will be giving birth.

WARNING: Signing this form does not terminate the parentage claim of a sperm donor. A sperm donor’s claim to parentage is terminated if the sperm is provided to a licensed physician and surgeon or to a licensed sperm bank prior to insemination, or if you conceive without having sexual intercourse and you have a written agreement signed by you and the donor that you will conceive using assisted reproduction and do not intend for the donor to be a parent, as required by Section 7613(b) of the Family Code.

The laws about parentage of a child are complicated. You are strongly encouraged to consult with an attorney about your rights. Even if you do not fill out this form, a spouse or domestic partner of the parent giving birth is presumed to be a legal parent of any child born during the marriage or domestic partnership.

This form demonstrates your intent to be parents of the child you plan to conceive through assisted reproduction using sperm and/or egg donation.

I, ____________________ (print name of person not giving birth), intend to be a parent of a child that ____________________ (print name of person giving birth) will or has conceived through assisted reproduction using sperm and/or egg donation. I consent to the use of assisted reproduction by the person who will give birth. I INTEND to be a parent of the child conceived.

SIGNATURES

Intended parent who will give birth: ___________________ (print name)

________________________ (signature)  ____________(date)

Intended parent who will not give birth: ____________ (print name)

_________________________ (signature)  ___________(date)

NOTARY ACKNOWLEDGMENT

State of California

County of ) _____

On before me, (insert name and title of the officer)

personally appeared ,

who proved to me on the basis of satisfactory evidence to be the person(s) whose name(s) is/are subscribed to the within instrument and acknowledged to me that he/she/they executed the same in his/her/their authorized capacity, and that by his/her/their signature(s) on the instrument the person(s), or the entity upon behalf of which the person(s) acted, executed the instrument.

I certify under PENALTY OF PERJURY under the laws of the State of California that the foregoing paragraph is true and correct.

WITNESS my hand and official seal.

Signature(Seal)

California Statutory Forms for Assisted Reproduction, Form 2:

Unmarried, Intended Parents Using Intended Parent’s Sperm to Conceive a Child

Use this form if: (1) Neither you or the other person are married or in a registered domestic partnership (including a registered domestic partnership or civil union from another state); (2) one of you will give birth to a child conceived through assisted reproduction using the intended parent’s sperm; and (3) you both intend to be parents of that child.

Do not use this form if you are conceiving using a surrogate.

WARNING: If you do not sign this form, or a similar agreement, you may be treated as a sperm donor if you conceive without having sexual intercourse according to Section 7613(b) of the Family Code.

The laws about parentage of a child are complicated. You are strongly encouraged to consult with an attorney about your rights.

This form demonstrates your intent to be parents of the child you plan to conceive through assisted reproduction using sperm donation.

I, ____________________ (print name of parent giving birth), plan to use assisted reproduction with another intended parent who is providing sperm to conceive the child. I am not married and am not in a registered domestic partnership (including a registered domestic partnership or civil union from another jurisdiction), and I INTEND for the person providing sperm to be a parent of the child to be conceived.

I, ____________________ (print name of parent providing sperm), plan to use assisted reproduction to conceive a child using my sperm with the parent giving birth. I am not married and am not in a registered domestic partnership (including a registered domestic partnership or civil union from another jurisdiction), and I INTEND to be a parent of the child to be conceived.

SIGNATURES

Intended parent giving birth: ___________________ (print name)

________________________ (signature)  ____________(date)

Intended parent providing sperm: ____________ (print name)

_________________________ (signature)  ___________(date)

NOTARY ACKNOWLEDGMENT

State of California

County of ) _____

On before me, (insert name and title of the officer)

personally appeared ,

who proved to me on the basis of satisfactory evidence to be the person(s) whose name(s) is/are subscribed to the within instrument and acknowledged to me that he/she/they executed the same in his/her/their authorized capacity, and that by his/her/their signature(s) on the instrument the person(s), or the entity upon behalf of which the person(s) acted, executed the instrument.

I certify under PENALTY OF PERJURY under the laws of the State of California that the foregoing paragraph is true and correct.

WITNESS my hand and official seal.

Signature(Seal)

California Statutory Forms for Assisted Reproduction, Form 3:

Intended Parents Conceiving a Child Using Eggs from One Parent and the Other Parent Will Give Birth

Use this form if: You are conceiving a child using the eggs from one of you and the other person will give birth to the child; (2) and you both intend to be parents to that child.

Do not use this form if you are conceiving using a surrogate.

WARNING: Signing this form does not terminate the parentage claim of a sperm donor. A sperm donor’s claim to parentage is terminated if the sperm is provided to a licensed physician and surgeon or to a licensed sperm bank prior to insemination, or if you conceive without having sexual intercourse and you have a written agreement signed by you and the donor that you will conceive using assisted reproduction and do not intend for the donor to be a parent, as required by Section 7613(b) of the Family Code.

The laws about parentage of a child are complicated. You are strongly encouraged to consult with an attorney about your rights.

This form demonstrates your intent to be parents of the child you plan to conceive through assisted reproduction using eggs from one parent and the other parent will give birth to the child.

I, ____________________ (print name of parent giving birth), plan to use assisted reproduction to conceive and give birth to a child with another person who will provide eggs to conceive the child. I INTEND for the person providing eggs to be a parent of the child to be conceived.

I, ____________________ (print name of parent providing eggs), plan to use assisted reproduction to conceive a child with another person who will give birth to the child conceived using my eggs. I INTEND to be a parent of the child to be conceived.

SIGNATURES

Intended parent giving birth: ___________________ (print name)

________________________ (signature)  ____________(date)

Intended parent providing eggs: ____________ (print name)

_________________________ (signature)  ___________(date)

NOTARY ACKNOWLEDGMENT

State of California

County of ) _____

On before me, (insert name and title of the officer)

personally appeared ,

who proved to me on the basis of satisfactory evidence to be the person(s) whose name(s) is/are subscribed to the within instrument and acknowledged to me that he/she/they executed the same in his/her/their authorized capacity, and that by his/her/their signature(s) on the instrument the person(s), or the entity upon behalf of which the person(s) acted, executed the instrument.

I certify under PENALTY OF PERJURY under the laws of the State of California that the foregoing paragraph is true and correct.

WITNESS my hand and official seal.

Signature(Seal)

California Statutory Forms for Assisted Reproduction, Form 4:

Intended Parent(s) Using a Known Sperm and/or Egg Donor(s) to Conceive a Child

Use this form if: You are using a known sperm and/or egg donor(s), or embryo donation, to conceive a child and you do not intend for the donor(s) to be a parent.

Do not use this form if you are conceiving using a surrogate.

If you do not sign this form or a similar agreement, your sperm donor may be treated as a parent unless the sperm is provided to a licensed physician and surgeon or to a licensed sperm bank prior to insemination, or a court finds by clear and convincing evidence that you planned to conceive through assisted reproduction and did not intend for the donor to be a parent, as required by Section 7613(b) of the Family Code. If you do not sign this form or a similar agreement, your egg donor may be treated as a parent unless a court finds that there is satisfactory evidence that you planned to conceive through assisted reproduction and did not intend for the donor to be a parent, as required by Section 7613(c) of the Family Code.

The laws about parentage of a child are complicated. You are strongly encouraged to consult with an attorney about your rights.

This form demonstrates your intent that your sperm and/or egg or embryo donor(s) will not be a parent or parents of the child you plan to conceive through assisted reproduction.

I, ____________________ (print name of parent giving birth), plan to use assisted reproduction to conceive using a sperm and/or egg donor(s) or embryo donation, and I DO NOT INTEND for the sperm and/or egg or embryo donor(s) to be a parent of the child to be conceived.

(If applicable) I, ____________________ (print name of sperm donor), plan to donate my sperm to____________________ (print name of parent giving birth and second parent if applicable). I am not married to and am not in a registered domestic partnership (including a registered domestic partnership or a civil union from another jurisdiction) with ____________________ (print name of parent giving birth), and I DO NOT INTEND to be a parent of the child to be conceived.

(If applicable) I, ____________________ (print name of egg donor), plan to donate my ova to____________________ (print name of parent giving birth and second parent if applicable). I am not married to and am not in a registered domestic partnership (including a registered domestic partnership or a civil union from another jurisdiction) with ____________________ (print name of parent giving birth), or any intimate and nonmarital relationship with ____________________ (print name of parent giving birth) and I DO NOT INTEND to be a parent of the child to be conceived.

(If applicable) I, ____________________ (print name of intended parent not giving birth), INTEND to be a parent of the child that____________________ (print name of parent giving birth) will conceive through assisted reproduction using sperm and/or egg donation and I DO NOT INTEND for the sperm and/or egg or embryo donor(s) to be a parent. I consent to the use of assisted reproduction by the person who will give birth.

SIGNATURES

Intended parent giving birth: ___________________ (print name)

________________________ (signature)  ____________(date)

(If applicable) Sperm Donor: ___________________ (print name)

________________________ (signature)  ____________(date)

(If applicable) Egg Donor: ___________________ (print name)

________________________ (signature)  ____________(date)

(If applicable) Intended parent not giving birth: ____________ (print name)

_________________________ (signature)  ___________(date)

NOTARY ACKNOWLEDGMENT

State of California

County of ) _____

On before me, (insert name and title of the officer)

personally appeared ,

who proved to me on the basis of satisfactory evidence to be the person(s) whose name(s) is/are subscribed to the within instrument and acknowledged to me that he/she/they executed the same in his/her/their authorized capacity, and that by his/her/their signature(s) on the instrument the person(s), or the entity upon behalf of which the person(s) acted, executed the instrument.

I certify under PENALTY OF PERJURY under the laws of the State of California that the foregoing paragraph is true and correct.

WITNESS my hand and official seal.

Signature(Seal)

(Amended by Stats. 2019, Ch. 115, Sec. 89. (AB 1817) Effective January 1, 2020.)

7614.
  

(a) A promise in writing to furnish support for a child, growing out of a presumed parent or alleged father and child relationship, does not require consideration and, subject to Section 7632, is enforceable according to its terms.

(b) In the best interest of the child or the other parent, the court may, and upon the promisor’s request shall, order the promise to be kept in confidence and designate a person or agency to receive and disburse on behalf of the child all amounts paid in performance of the promise.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 510, Sec. 6. (AB 1403) Effective January 1, 2014.)

FAMFamily Code - FAM