Code Section Group

Evidence Code - EVID

DIVISION 3. GENERAL PROVISIONS [300 - 413]

  ( Division 3 enacted by Stats. 1965, Ch. 299. )

CHAPTER 4. Admitting and Excluding Evidence [350 - 406]

  ( Chapter 4 enacted by Stats. 1965, Ch. 299. )

ARTICLE 2. Preliminary Determinations on Admissibility of Evidence [400 - 406]
  ( Article 2 enacted by Stats. 1965, Ch. 299. )

400.
  

As used in this article, “preliminary fact” means a fact upon the existence or nonexistence of which depends the admissibility or inadmissibility of evidence. The phrase “the admissibility or inadmissibility of evidence” includes the qualification or disqualification of a person to be a witness and the existence or nonexistence of a privilege.

(Enacted by Stats. 1965, Ch. 299.)

401.
  

As used in this article, “proffered evidence” means evidence, the admissibility or inadmissibility of which is dependent upon the existence or nonexistence of a preliminary fact.

(Enacted by Stats. 1965, Ch. 299.)

402.
  

(a) When the existence of a preliminary fact is disputed, its existence or nonexistence shall be determined as provided in this article.

(b) The court may hear and determine the question of the admissibility of evidence out of the presence or hearing of the jury; but in a criminal action, the court shall hear and determine the question of the admissibility of a confession or admission of the defendant out of the presence and hearing of the jury if any party so requests.

(c) A ruling on the admissibility of evidence implies whatever finding of fact is prerequisite thereto; a separate or formal finding is unnecessary unless required by statute.

(Enacted by Stats. 1965, Ch. 299.)

403.
  

(a) The proponent of the proffered evidence has the burden of producing evidence as to the existence of the preliminary fact, and the proffered evidence is inadmissible unless the court finds that there is evidence sufficient to sustain a finding of the existence of the preliminary fact, when:

(1) The relevance of the proffered evidence depends on the existence of the preliminary fact;

(2) The preliminary fact is the personal knowledge of a witness concerning the subject matter of his testimony;

(3) The preliminary fact is the authenticity of a writing; or

(4) The proffered evidence is of a statement or other conduct of a particular person and the preliminary fact is whether that person made the statement or so conducted himself.

(b) Subject to Section 702, the court may admit conditionally the proffered evidence under this section, subject to evidence of the preliminary fact being supplied later in the course of the trial.

(c) If the court admits the proffered evidence under this section, the court:

(1) May, and on request shall, instruct the jury to determine whether the preliminary fact exists and to disregard the proffered evidence unless the jury finds that the preliminary fact does exist.

(2) Shall instruct the jury to disregard the proffered evidence if the court subsequently determines that a jury could not reasonably find that the preliminary fact exists.

(Enacted by Stats. 1965, Ch. 299.)

404.
  

Whenever the proffered evidence is claimed to be privileged under Section 940, the person claiming the privilege has the burden of showing that the proffered evidence might tend to incriminate him; and the proffered evidence is inadmissible unless it clearly appears to the court that the proffered evidence cannot possibly have a tendency to incriminate the person claiming the privilege.

(Enacted by Stats. 1965, Ch. 299.)

405.
  

With respect to preliminary fact determinations not governed by Section 403 or 404:

(a) When the existence of a preliminary fact is disputed, the court shall indicate which party has the burden of producing evidence and the burden of proof on the issue as implied by the rule of law under which the question arises. The court shall determine the existence or nonexistence of the preliminary fact and shall admit or exclude the proffered evidence as required by the rule of law under which the question arises.

(b) If a preliminary fact is also a fact in issue in the action:

(1) The jury shall not be informed of the court’s determination as to the existence or nonexistence of the preliminary fact.

(2) If the proffered evidence is admitted, the jury shall not be instructed to disregard the evidence if its determination of the fact differs from the court’s determination of the preliminary fact.

(Enacted by Stats. 1965, Ch. 299.)

406.
  

This article does not limit the right of a party to introduce before the trier of fact evidence relevant to weight or credibility.

(Enacted by Stats. 1965, Ch. 299.)

EVIDEvidence Code - EVID2.