Code Section Group

Education Code - EDC

TITLE 2. ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION [33000 - 64100]

  ( Title 2 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

DIVISION 4. INSTRUCTION AND SERVICES [46000 - 64100]

  ( Division 4 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

PART 28. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS [51000 - 53315]

  ( Part 28 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

CHAPTER 2. Required Courses of Study [51200 - 51284]

  ( Chapter 2 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

ARTICLE 3. Courses of Study, Grades 7 to 12 [51220 - 51229]
  ( Article 3 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

51220.
  

The adopted course of study for grades 7 to 12, inclusive, shall offer courses in the following areas of study:

(a) English, including knowledge of and appreciation for literature, language, and composition, and the skills of reading, listening, and speaking.

(b) (1) Social sciences, drawing upon the disciplines of anthropology, economics, geography, history, political science, psychology, and sociology, designed to fit the maturity of the pupils. Instruction shall provide a foundation for understanding the history, resources, development, and government of California and the United States of America; instruction in our American legal system, the operation of the juvenile and adult criminal justice systems, and the rights and duties of citizens under the criminal and civil law and the State and Federal Constitutions; the development of the American economic system, including the role of the entrepreneur and labor; the relations of persons to their human and natural environment; eastern and western cultures and civilizations; human rights issues, with particular attention to the study of the inhumanity of genocide, slavery, and the Holocaust, and contemporary issues.

(2) For purposes of this subdivision, genocide may include the Armenian Genocide. The “Armenian Genocide” means the torture, starvation, and murder of 1,500,000 Armenians, which included death marches into the Syrian desert, by the rulers of the Ottoman Turkish Empire and the exile of more than 500,000 innocent people during the period from 1915 to 1923, inclusive.

(c) Foreign language or languages, beginning not later than grade 7, designed to develop a facility for understanding, speaking, reading, and writing the particular language.

(d) Physical education, with emphasis given to physical activities that are conducive to health and to vigor of body and mind, as required by Section 51222.

(e) Science, including the physical and biological aspects, with emphasis on basic concepts, theories, and processes of scientific investigation and on the place of humans in ecological systems, and with appropriate applications of the interrelation and interdependence of the sciences.

(f) Mathematics, including instruction designed to develop mathematical understandings, operational skills, and insight into problem-solving procedures.

(g) Visual and performing arts, including dance, music, theater, and visual arts, with emphasis upon development of aesthetic appreciation and the skills of creative expression.

(h) Applied arts, including instruction in the areas of consumer and homemaking education, industrial arts, general business education, or general agriculture.

(i) Career technical education designed and conducted for the purpose of preparing youth for gainful employment in the occupations and in the numbers that are appropriate to the personnel needs of the state and the community served and relevant to the career desires and needs of the pupils.

(j) Automobile driver education, designed to develop a knowledge of the provisions of the Vehicle Code and other laws of this state relating to the operation of motor vehicles, a proper acceptance of personal responsibility in traffic, a true appreciation of the causes, seriousness, and consequences of traffic accidents, and to develop the knowledge and attitudes necessary for the safe operation of motor vehicles. A course in automobile driver education shall include education in the safe operation of motorcycles.

(k) Other studies as may be prescribed by the governing board.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 414, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2015.)

51220.1.
  

In addition to the requirements specified in subdivision (j) of Section 51220, automobile driver education shall be designed to develop a knowledge of the dangers involved in consuming alcohol or drugs in connection with the operation of a motor vehicle.

(Added by Stats. 1985, Ch. 1455, Sec. 2.)

51220.2.
  

(a) For purposes of subdivision (b) of Section 51220, “instruction in our American legal system, the operation of the juvenile and adult criminal justice systems, and the rights and duties of citizens under the criminal and civil law and the State and Federal Constitutions” may include participation in a teen court or peer court program as described in subdivision (b).

(b) A teen court or peer court program shall include each of the following components:

(1) Adjudicates nonviolent misdemeanor offenses committed by pupils in which both the defendant and the defendant’s parents agree to participate in the teen court or peer court proceedings and agree to abide by the teen court’s or peer court’s ruling.

(2) Uses other pupils as jurors, district attorney, counsel for the defense, bailiff, and court clerk.

(3) Operates in cooperation with the court, probation department, district attorney, and public defender.

(Added by Stats. 1994, Ch. 607, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1995.)

51220.3.
  

The instruction in all areas of study specified in subdivisions (a) to (j), inclusive, of Section 51220 as deemed appropriate by the governing board and consistent with the adopted course of study for each subject area, may include grade-level appropriate instruction on violence awareness and prevention, which may include personal testimony in the form of oral or video histories that illustrate the economic and cultural effects of violence within a city, the state, and the country.

(Added by Stats. 2013, Ch. 497, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2014.)

51220.4.
  

For purposes of subdivision (j) of Section 51220, a course in automobile driver education shall include, but is not limited to, education regarding the rights and duties of a motorist as those rights and duties pertain to pedestrians and the rights and duties of pedestrians as those rights and duties pertain to traffic laws and traffic safety.

(Added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 833, Sec. 3.1. Effective January 1, 2001.)

51220.5.
  

(a) The Legislature finds and declares the following:

(1) The family is our most fundamental social institution and the means by which we care for, prepare, and train our children to be productive members of society.

(2) Social research shows increasingly that the disintegration of the family is a major cause of increased welfare enrollment, child abuse and neglect, juvenile delinquency, and criminal activity.

(3) The lack of knowledge of parenting skills and the lack of adequate preparation to assume parental responsibilities are not only major causes of family disintegration, but also contribute substantially to the disastrous consequences of teen pregnancy.

(4) Because the state government bears much of the economic and social burden associated with the disintegration of the family in California, the state has a legitimate and vital interest in adequately preparing its residents for parenthood.

(b) The Legislature recognizes that the public education system is the most efficient and effective means to educate the populace on a large-scale basis, and intends, therefore, to use the public education system to ensure that each California resident has an opportunity to acquire knowledge of parenting skills prior to becoming a parent. That knowledge should include, at a bare minimum, all of the following:

(1) Child development and growth.

(2) Effective parenting.

(3) Prevention of child abuse.

(4) Nutrition.

(5) Household finances and budgeting.

(6) Personal and family interaction and relations.

(7) Methods to promote self-esteem.

(8) Effective decisionmaking skills.

(9) Family and individual health.

(c) Commencing with the 1995–96 fiscal year, the adopted course of study for grade 7 or 8 shall include the equivalent content of a one-semester course in parenting skills and education. All pupils entering grade 7 on or after July 1, 1995, shall be offered that course or its equivalent content during grade 7 or 8, or both. On or before January 1, 1995, the State Department of Education shall supply, to each school district that includes a grade 7 or 8, a sample curriculum suitable either for implementation as a stand-alone one-semester course or for incorporation within identified existing required or optional courses, with content designed to develop a knowledge of topics including, but not limited to, all of the following:

(1) Child growth and development.

(2) Parental responsibilities.

(3) Household budgeting.

(4) Child abuse and neglect issues.

(5) Personal hygiene.

(6) Maintaining healthy relationships.

(7) Teen parenting issues.

(8) Self-esteem.

A district that implements the curriculum set forth in this subdivision in a stand-alone required course may exempt a pupil from the course if the pupil requests the exemption and satisfactorily demonstrates mastery of the course content. The district shall determine the method by which a pupil may demonstrate this mastery.

(d) Commencing with the 1993–94 fiscal year, community college districts may offer, to interested individuals, noncredit fee-supported courses in parenting skills and education as described in subdivision (c).

(e) This section is not intended to replace existing courses that accomplish the intent of this section. School districts may meet the requirements of this section with existing courses of study offered in any of grades 6 to 9, inclusive, that includes the course contents identified in subdivision (c). When the parenting skills and education curriculum is incorporated within courses other than consumer and home economics courses, these courses are not subject to the curricular standards specified in Section 2 of Chapter 775 of the Statutes of 1989 or in the consumer and home economics education model performance standards and framework. Teachers of courses other than consumer and home economics that incorporate parenting skills and education are not required to meet the qualifications specified for teachers of consumer and home economics.

(f) This section shall become operative only if a funding source is identified by the Superintendent of Public Instruction for the purposes of this section on or before January 1, 1995.

(g) The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall identify the funding source for this section from existing resources or private resources, or both, that may be available for the purposes of this section. The superintendent shall notify school districts when sufficient funds have been identified and are allocated to cover all costs relating to the operation of this section.

(Amended by Stats. 1993, Ch. 637, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1994. Section conditionally operative by its own provisions.)

51220.6.
  

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a private school is not required to offer courses in driver education or driver training.

(b) This section shall not be construed to require a private school to offer automobile driver education that meets the requirements of this chapter unless the private school requests the Department of Motor Vehicles to issue a certificate of satisfactory completion form.

(c) For purposes of subdivision (j) of Section 51220, Section 51220.1, and subparagraph (A) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 12814.6 of the Vehicle Code, the satisfactory completion by a pupil of an Internet-based, correspondence, or other distance-learning course in automobile driver education offered by a private secondary school satisfies the driver education instructional requirements of those provisions and the Department of Motor Vehicles shall issue certificates of satisfactory completion forms if all of the following conditions are met:

(1) The private secondary school has a current affidavit or statement on file in compliance with Section 33190.

(2) The private secondary school utilizes the Department of Motor Vehicles’ driver education curriculum developed under subdivision (f) of former Section 12814.8 of the Vehicle Code for providing the automobile driver education course, or the private school certifies to the Department of Motor Vehicles that the curriculum used is educationally equivalent to the Department of Motor Vehicles’ curriculum.

(3) All certificates issued to a private school by the Department of Motor Vehicles shall remain under the exclusive control of that school. A school shall only issue a certificate to a student who is enrolled in the private school, and has successfully completed a driver education course offered by that school.

(4) All course curriculums contain the school name, school address, and telephone number.

(5) Internet web pages or CD courses are reasonably secure and protected from unauthorized access, modifications, or extraction of confidential data.

(6) Test questions for Internet and CD courses are secured and randomly extracted to safeguard from copying.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 2005, Ch. 314, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2006.)

51221.
  

Instruction required by subdivision (b) of Section 51220 in the area of study of social sciences shall also provide a foundation for understanding the wise use of natural resources.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)

51221.3.
  

(a) Instruction in the area of social sciences, as required pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 51220, may include instruction on World War II and the American role in that war. The Legislature encourages this instruction to include, but not be limited to, a component drawn from personal testimony, especially in the form of oral or video histories, if available, of American soldiers who were involved in World War II and those men and women who contributed to the war effort on the homefront. The oral histories used as part of the instruction regarding World War II shall exemplify the personal sacrifice and courage of the wide range of ordinary citizens who were called upon to participate. The oral histories shall contain the views and comments of their subjects regarding the reasons for American participation in World War II and the actions taken to end the war in the Pacific. These oral histories shall also solicit comments from their subjects regarding the aftermath of World War II in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.

(b) The Legislature finds and declares that the current state-adopted academic content standards already include instruction on the Korean War and the Vietnam War in the appropriate grade level consistent with those standards. The Legislature encourages that this instruction include a component drawn from personal testimony, especially in the form of oral or video histories, if available, of American soldiers who were involved in those wars.

(c) (1) The Legislature encourages the instruction required pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 51220 to include instruction on World War II and the role of Filipinos in that war, consisting of an accurate history of the contributions of the Filipino American veterans who fought courageously in the United States Army for freedom and democracy in World War II under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur.

(2) The Legislature encourages the instruction described in paragraph (1) to include a component drawn from personal testimony, especially in the form of oral or video histories of Filipinos who were involved in World War II and those men and women who contributed to the war effort on the homefront. The oral histories used as a part of the instruction regarding the role of Filipinos in World War II are encouraged to do all of the following:

(A) Exemplify the personal sacrifice and courage of the wide range of ordinary citizens who were called upon to participate and to provide intelligence for the United States.

(B) Contain the views and comments of their subjects regarding the reasons for their participation in World War II.

(C) Solicit comments from their subjects regarding the aftermath of World War II and the immigration of Filipinos to the United States.

(d) (1) Instruction in the area of social sciences, as required pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 51220, may include instruction on the Bracero program.

(2) The instruction described in paragraph (1) may include a component drawn from personal testimony, especially in the form of oral or video histories of individuals who were involved with the Bracero program. Oral histories used as part of the instruction regarding the Bracero program may do all of the following:

(A) Exemplify the economic and cultural effects of the Bracero program during and after World War II, including, but not limited to, its effects on the railroad system, agriculture, and immigration in California and the United States of America.

(B) Contain the views and comments of their subjects regarding the reasons for their participation in the Bracero program and their immigrant story, generally.

(3) This subdivision shall be carried out in a manner that does not result in new duties or programs being imposed on a school district. In that regard, the Legislature finds and declares that this subdivision does not mandate costs to local agencies or school districts and that materials used to comply with this subdivision shall be part of normal curriculum materials purchased by school districts in their normal course of business and purchasing cycles.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 211, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2013.)

51221.4.
  

(a) The Legislature encourages instruction in the area of social sciences, as required pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 51220, which may include instruction on the Vietnam war including the “Secret War” in Laos and the role of Southeast Asians in that war. The Legislature encourages that this instruction include, but not be limited to, a component drawn from personal testimony, especially in the form of oral or video history of Southeast Asians who were involved in the Vietnam war and those men and women who contributed to the war effort on the homefront. The oral histories used as a part of the instruction regarding the role of Southeast Asians in the Vietnam war and the “Secret War” in Laos shall exemplify the personal sacrifice and courage of the wide range of ordinary citizens who were called upon to participate and provide intelligence for the United States. The oral histories shall contain the views and comments of their subjects regarding the reasons for their participation in the war. These oral histories shall also solicit comments from their subjects regarding the aftermath of the war and the immigration of Southeast Asians to the United States.

(b) This section shall be carried out in a manner that does not result in any new duties or programs being imposed on the school district. In that regard, the Legislature finds and declares that this section does not mandate costs to local agencies or school districts and that materials used to comply with this section shall be part of normal curriculum materials purchased by school districts in their normal course of business and purchasing cycles.

(Amended by Stats. 2007, Ch. 130, Sec. 73. Effective January 1, 2008.)

51221.5.
  

For the purposes of this code, the phrase “vocational-technical education” shall have the same meaning as “career technical education” as described in subdivision (i) of Section 51220.

(Added by Stats. 2002, Ch. 988, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2003.)

51222.
  

(a) All pupils, except pupils excused or exempted pursuant to Section 51241, shall be required to attend upon the courses of physical education for a total period of time of not less than 400 minutes each 10 schooldays. Any pupil may be excused from physical education classes during one of grades 10, 11, or 12 for not to exceed 24 clock hours in order to participate in automobile driver training. Such pupil who is excused from physical education classes to enroll in driver training shall attend upon a minimum of 7,000 minutes of physical education instruction during such school year.

(b) The governing board of each school district that maintains a high school and that elects to exempt pupils from required attendance in physical education courses pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) or both of subdivision (b) of Section 51241 shall offer those pupils so exempted a variety of elective physical education courses of not less than 400 minutes each 10 schooldays.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)

51223.
  

(a) Notwithstanding Sections 51210 and 51222, instruction in physical education in an elementary school maintaining any of grades 1 to 8, inclusive, shall be for a total period of time of not less than 200 minutes each 10 schooldays, exclusive of recesses and the lunch period.

(b) (1) A complaint that a school district or county superintendent of schools has not complied with the instructional minute requirements of subdivision (a) may be filed with a school district or county superintendent of schools pursuant to the Uniform Complaint Procedures set forth in Chapter 5.1 (commencing with Section 4600) of Division 1 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations.

(2) A complainant not satisfied with the decision of a school district or county superintendent of schools may appeal the decision to the department pursuant to Chapter 5.1 (commencing with Section 4600) of Division 1 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations and shall receive a written appeal decision within 60 days of the department’s receipt of the appeal.

(3) If a school district or county superintendent of schools finds merit in a complaint, or the Superintendent finds merit in an appeal, the school district or county superintendent of schools shall provide a remedy to all affected pupils, parents, and guardians.

(c) The Legislature finds and declares that neither the original provisions of this section, nor any subsequent amendments to it, were intended to create a private right of action. However, nothing in this subdivision shall restrict or expand the existing right of any party to seek relief from noncompliance with this section pursuant to a writ of mandate.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 706, Sec. 2. Effective October 9, 2015.)

51223.3.
  

(a) During the first revision of the physical education framework that occurs on or after January 1, 2011, the state board and the Curriculum Development and Supplemental Materials Commission shall include self-defense instruction and safety instruction in that framework for pupils in grades 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12.

(b) As used in this section:

(1) “Safety instruction” includes, but is not necessarily limited to, awareness and avoidance of potentially dangerous situations.

(2) “Self-defense instruction” includes, but is not necessarily limited to, martial arts, boxing, and other defensive techniques.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 296, Sec. 69. Effective January 1, 2012.)

51224.
  

The governing board of any school district maintaining a high school shall prescribe courses of study designed to provide the skills and knowledge required for adult life for pupils attending the schools within its school district. The governing board shall prescribe separate courses of study, including, but not limited to, a course of study designed to prepare prospective pupils for admission to state colleges and universities and a course of study for career technical training.

(Amended by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1058, Sec. 39. Effective January 1, 2001.)

51224.5.
  

(a) The adopted course of study for grades 7 to 12, inclusive, shall include algebra as part of the mathematics area of study pursuant to subdivision (f) of Section 51220.

(b) Before receiving a diploma of graduation from high school, a pupil shall complete at least one course, or a combination of the two courses required for graduation pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 51225.3, that meets or exceeds the rigor of Algebra I or Mathematics I, that is aligned to the content standards adopted by the state board pursuant to Sections 60605.8 and 60605.11.

(c) A pupil who, before enrollment in grade 9, completes a course in Algebra I or Mathematics I, or mathematics courses of equal rigor, that is aligned to the content standards adopted by the state board, is exempt from subdivision (b), but is not exempt from the requirement that the pupil complete two courses in mathematics while enrolled in grades 9 to 12, inclusive, as specified in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 51225.3.

(d) A pupil who has completed a course or courses that meet or exceed the content standards for Algebra I adopted by the state board pursuant to Section 60605, as that section read on June 30, 2011, shall be deemed to have satisfied the graduation requirement specified in subdivision (b).

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 165, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2016.)

51224.7.
  

(a) This act shall be known, and may be cited, as the California Mathematics Placement Act of 2015.

(b) Governing boards or bodies of local educational agencies that serve pupils entering grade 9 and that have not adopted a fair, objective, and transparent mathematics placement policy, as described in paragraphs (1) to (5), inclusive, as of January 1, 2016, shall, before the beginning of the 2016–17 school year, develop and adopt, in a regularly scheduled public meeting, a fair, objective, and transparent mathematics placement policy for pupils entering grade 9 that does all of the following:

(1) Systematically takes multiple objective academic measures of pupil performance into consideration. For purposes of this paragraph, “objective academic measures” means measures, such as statewide mathematics assessments, including interim and summative assessments authorized pursuant to Section 60640, placement tests that are aligned to state-adopted content standards in mathematics, classroom assignment and grades, and report cards.

(2) Includes at least one placement checkpoint within the first month of the school year to ensure accurate placement and permit reevaluation of individual pupil progress.

(3) Requires examination of aggregate pupil placement data annually to ensure that pupils who are qualified to progress in mathematics courses based on their performance on objective academic measures selected for inclusion in the policy pursuant to paragraph (1) are not held back in a disproportionate manner on the basis of their race, ethnicity, gender, or socioeconomic background. The local educational agency shall report the aggregate results of this examination to the governing board or body of the local educational agency.

(4) Offers clear and timely recourse for each pupil and his or her parent or legal guardian who questions the pupil’s placement.

(5) For nonunified school districts, addresses the consistency of mathematics placement policies between elementary and high school districts.

(c) Governing boards or bodies of local educational agencies serving pupils who are transitioning between elementary and middle school or elementary and junior high school may develop and implement a mathematics placement policy for these pupils, as applicable, that satisfies paragraphs (1) to (5), inclusive, of subdivision (b).

(d) Each governing board or body of a local educational agency shall ensure that its mathematics placement policy is posted on its Internet Web site.

(e) For purposes of this section, “local educational agency” means county office of education, school district, state special school, or charter school.

(Added by Stats. 2015, Ch. 508, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2016.)

51225.1.
  

(a) Notwithstanding any other law, a school district shall exempt a pupil in foster care, as defined in Section 51225.2, a pupil who is a homeless child or youth, as defined in Section 11434a(2) of Title 42 of the United States Code, or a former juvenile court school pupil, as defined in Section 51225.2, who transfers between schools any time after the completion of the pupil’s second year of high school from all coursework and other requirements adopted by the governing board of the school district that are in addition to the statewide coursework requirements specified in Section 51225.3, unless the school district makes a finding that the pupil is reasonably able to complete the school district’s graduation requirements in time to graduate from high school by the end of the pupil’s fourth year of high school.

(b) If the school district determines that the pupil in foster care, the pupil who is a homeless child or youth, or the former juvenile court school pupil is reasonably able to complete the school district’s graduation requirements within the pupil’s fifth year of high school, the school district shall do all of the following:

(1) Inform the pupil of his or her option to remain in school for a fifth year to complete the school district’s graduation requirements.

(2) Inform the pupil, and the person holding the right to make educational decisions for the pupil, about how remaining in school for a fifth year to complete the school district’s graduation requirements will affect the pupil’s ability to gain admission to a postsecondary educational institution.

(3) Provide information to the pupil about transfer opportunities available through the California Community Colleges.

(4) Permit the pupil to stay in school for a fifth year to complete the school district’s graduation requirements upon agreement with the pupil, if the pupil is 18 years of age or older, or, if the pupil is under 18 years of age, upon agreement with the person holding the right to make educational decisions for the pupil.

(c) To determine whether a pupil in foster care, a pupil who is a homeless child or youth, or a former juvenile court school pupil is in the third or fourth year of high school, either the number of credits the pupil has earned to the date of transfer or the length of the pupil’s school enrollment may be used, whichever will qualify the pupil for the exemption.

(d) (1) (A) Within 30 calendar days of the date that a pupil in foster care who may qualify for the exemption from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section transfers into a school, the school district shall notify the pupil, the person holding the right to make educational decisions for the pupil, and the pupil’s social worker or probation officer of the availability of the exemption and whether the pupil qualifies for an exemption.

(B) If the school district fails to provide timely notice pursuant to subparagraph (A), the pupil described in subparagraph (A) shall be eligible for the exemption from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section once notified, even if that notification occurs after the termination of the court’s jurisdiction over the pupil, if the pupil otherwise qualifies for the exemption pursuant to this section.

(2) (A) Within 30 calendar days of the date that a pupil who is a homeless child or youth may qualify for the exemption from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section transfers into a school, the school district shall notify the pupil, the person holding the right to make educational decisions for the pupil, and the local educational agency liaison for homeless children and youth designated pursuant to Section 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii) of Title 42 of the United States Code, of the availability of the exemption and whether the pupil qualifies for an exemption.

(B) If the school district fails to provide timely notice pursuant to subparagraph (A), the pupil described in subparagraph (A) shall be eligible for the exemption from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section once notified, even if that notification occurs after the pupil is no longer a homeless child or youth, if the pupil otherwise qualifies for the exemption pursuant to this section.

(3) (A) Within 30 calendar days of the date that a former juvenile court school pupil may qualify for the exemption from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section transfers into a school, the school district shall notify the pupil, the person holding the right to make educational decisions for the pupil, and the pupil’s social worker or probation officer of the availability of the exemption and whether the pupil qualifies for an exemption.

(B) If the school district fails to provide timely notice pursuant to subparagraph (A), the pupil described in subparagraph (A) shall be eligible for the exemption from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section once notified, even if that notification occurs after termination of the court’s jurisdiction over the pupil, if the pupil otherwise qualifies for the exemption pursuant to this section.

(e) If a pupil in foster care, a pupil who is a homeless child or youth, or a former juvenile court school pupil is exempted from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section and completes the statewide coursework requirements specified in Section 51225.3 before the end of his or her fourth year of high school and that pupil would otherwise be entitled to remain in attendance at the school, a school or school district shall not require or request that the pupil graduate before the end of his or her fourth year of high school.

(f) If a pupil in foster care, a pupil who is a homeless child or youth, or a former juvenile court school pupil is exempted from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section, the school district shall notify the pupil and the person holding the right to make educational decisions for the pupil how any of the requirements that are waived will affect the pupil’s ability to gain admission to a postsecondary educational institution and shall provide information about transfer opportunities available through the California Community Colleges.

(g) A pupil in foster care, a pupil who is a homeless child or youth, or a former juvenile court school pupil who is eligible for the exemption from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section and would otherwise be entitled to remain in attendance at the school shall not be required to accept the exemption or be denied enrollment in, or the ability to complete, courses for which he or she is otherwise eligible, including courses necessary to attend an institution of higher education, regardless of whether those courses are required for statewide graduation requirements.

(h) If a pupil in foster care, a pupil who is a homeless child or youth, or a former juvenile court school pupil is not exempted from local graduation requirements or has previously declined the exemption pursuant to this section, a school district shall exempt the pupil at any time if an exemption is requested by the pupil and the pupil qualifies for the exemption.

(i) If a pupil in foster care, a pupil who is a homeless child or youth, or a former juvenile court school pupil is exempted from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section, a school district shall not revoke the exemption.

(j) (1) If a pupil in foster care is exempted from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section, the exemption shall continue to apply after the termination of the court’s jurisdiction over the pupil while he or she is enrolled in school or if the pupil transfers to another school or school district.

(2) If a pupil who is a homeless child or youth is exempted from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section, the exemption shall continue to apply after the pupil is no longer a homeless child or youth while he or she is enrolled in school or if the pupil transfers to another school or school district.

(3) If a former juvenile court school pupil is exempted from local graduation requirements pursuant to this section, the exemption shall continue to apply after the termination of the court’s jurisdiction over the pupil while he or she is enrolled in school or if the pupil transfers to another school or school district.

(k) A school district shall not require or request a pupil in foster care, a pupil who is a homeless child or youth, or a former juvenile court school pupil to transfer schools in order to qualify the pupil for an exemption pursuant to this section.

(l) (1) A pupil in foster care, the person holding the right to make educational decisions for the pupil, the pupil’s social worker, or the pupil’s probation officer shall not request a transfer solely to qualify the pupil for an exemption pursuant to this section.

(2) A pupil who is a homeless child or youth, the person holding the right to make educational decisions for the pupil, or the local educational agency liaison for homeless children and youth designated pursuant to Section 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii) of Title 42 of the United States Code, shall not request a transfer solely to qualify the pupil for an exemption pursuant to this section.

(3) A former juvenile court school pupil, the person holding the right to make educational decisions for the pupil, the pupil’s social worker, or the pupil’s probation officer shall not request a transfer solely to qualify the pupil for an exemption pursuant to this section.

(m) (1) A complaint of noncompliance with the requirements of this section may be filed with the local educational agency under the Uniform Complaint Procedures set forth in Chapter 5.1 (commencing with Section 4600) of Division 1 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations.

(2) A complainant not satisfied with the decision of a local educational agency may appeal the decision to the department pursuant to Chapter 5.1 (commencing with Section 4600) of Division 1 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations and shall receive a written decision regarding the appeal within 60 days of the department’s receipt of the appeal.

(3) If a local educational agency finds merit in a complaint, or the Superintendent finds merit in an appeal, the local educational agency shall provide a remedy to the affected pupil.

(4) Information regarding the requirements of this section shall be included in the annual notification distributed to, among others, pupils, parents or guardians of pupils, employees, and other interested parties pursuant to Section 4622 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 464, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2017.)

51225.2.
  

(a) For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) “Pupil in foster care” means a child who has been removed from his or her home pursuant to Section 309 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, is the subject of a petition filed under Section 300 or 602 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, or has been removed from his or her home and is the subject of a petition filed under Section 300 or 602 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(2) “Pupil who is a homeless child or youth” means a pupil who meets the definition of “homeless child or youth” in Section 11434a(2) of Title 42 of the United States Code.

(3) “Former juvenile court school pupil” means a pupil who, upon completion of the pupil’s second year of high school, transfers to a school district, excluding a school district operated by the Division of Juvenile Justice of the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, from a juvenile court school.

(b) Notwithstanding any other law, a school district and county office of education shall accept coursework satisfactorily completed by a pupil in foster care, a pupil who is a homeless child or youth, or a former juvenile court school pupil while attending another public school, a juvenile court school, or a nonpublic, nonsectarian school or agency even if the pupil did not complete the entire course and shall issue that pupil full or partial credit for the coursework completed.

(c) The credits accepted pursuant to subdivision (b) shall be applied to the same or equivalent course, if applicable, as the coursework completed in the prior public school, juvenile court school, or nonpublic, nonsectarian school or agency.

(d) A school district or county office of education shall not require a pupil in foster care, a pupil who is a homeless child or youth, or a former juvenile court school pupil to retake a course if the pupil has satisfactorily completed the entire course in a public school, a juvenile court school, or a nonpublic, nonsectarian school or agency. If the pupil did not complete the entire course, the school district or county office of education shall not require the pupil to retake the portion of the course the pupil completed unless the school district or county office of education, in consultation with the holder of educational rights for the pupil, finds that the pupil is reasonably able to complete the requirements in time to graduate from high school. When partial credit is awarded in a particular course, the pupil in foster care, the pupil who is a homeless child or youth, or the former juvenile court school pupil shall be enrolled in the same or equivalent course, if applicable, so that the pupil may continue and complete the entire course.

(e) A pupil in foster care, a pupil who is a homeless child or youth, or a former juvenile court school pupil shall not be prevented from retaking or taking a course to meet the eligibility requirements for admission to the California State University or the University of California.

(f) (1) A complaint of noncompliance with the requirements of this section may be filed with the local educational agency under the Uniform Complaint Procedures set forth in Chapter 5.1 (commencing with Section 4600) of Division 1 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations.

(2) A complainant not satisfied with the decision of a local educational agency may appeal the decision to the department pursuant to Chapter 5.1 (commencing with Section 4600) of Division 1 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations and shall receive a written decision regarding the appeal within 60 days of the department’s receipt of the appeal.

(3) If a local educational agency finds merit in a complaint, or the Superintendent finds merit in an appeal, the local educational agency shall provide a remedy to the affected pupil.

(4) Information regarding the requirements of this section shall be included in the annual notification distributed to, among others, pupils, parents or guardians of pupils, employees, and other interested parties pursuant to Section 4622 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 464, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 2017.)

51225.3.
  

(a) A pupil shall complete all of the following while in grades 9 to 12, inclusive, in order to receive a diploma of graduation from high school:

(1) At least the following numbers of courses in the subjects specified, each course having a duration of one year, unless otherwise specified:

(A) Three courses in English.

(B) Two courses in mathematics. If the governing board of a school district requires more than two courses in mathematics for graduation, the governing board of the school district may award a pupil up to one mathematics course credit pursuant to Section 51225.35.

(C) Two courses in science, including biological and physical sciences.

(D) Three courses in social studies, including United States history and geography; world history, culture, and geography; a one-semester course in American government and civics; and a one-semester course in economics.

(E) One course in visual or performing arts, foreign language, or, commencing with the 2012–13 school year, career technical education.

(i) For purposes of satisfying the requirement specified in this subparagraph, a course in American Sign Language shall be deemed a course in foreign language.

(ii) For purposes of this subparagraph, “a course in career technical education” means a course in a district-operated career technical education program that is aligned to the career technical model curriculum standards and framework adopted by the state board, including courses through a regional occupational center or program operated by a county superintendent of schools or pursuant to a joint powers agreement.

(iii) This subparagraph does not require a school or school district that currently does not offer career technical education courses to start new career technical education programs for purposes of this section.

(iv) If a school district or county office of education elects to allow a career technical education course to satisfy the requirement imposed by this subparagraph, the governing board of the school district or county office of education, before offering that alternative to pupils, shall notify parents, teachers, pupils, and the public at a regularly scheduled meeting of the governing board of all of the following:

(I) The intent to offer career technical education courses to fulfill the graduation requirement specified in this subparagraph.

(II) The impact that offering career technical education courses, pursuant to this subparagraph, will have on the availability of courses that meet the eligibility requirements for admission to the California State University and the University of California, and whether the career technical education courses to be offered pursuant to this subparagraph are approved to satisfy those eligibility requirements. If a school district elects to allow a career technical education course to satisfy the requirement imposed by this subparagraph, the school district shall comply with subdivision (m) of Section 48980.

(III) The distinction, if any, between the high school graduation requirements of the school district or county office of education, and the eligibility requirements for admission to the California State University and the University of California.

(F) Two courses in physical education, unless the pupil has been exempted pursuant to the provisions of this code.

(2) Other coursework requirements adopted by the governing board of the school district.

(b) The governing board, with the active involvement of parents, administrators, teachers, and pupils, shall adopt alternative means for pupils to complete the prescribed course of study that may include practical demonstration of skills and competencies, supervised work experience or other outside school experience, career technical education classes offered in high schools, courses offered by regional occupational centers or programs, interdisciplinary study, independent study, and credit earned at a postsecondary educational institution. Requirements for graduation and specified alternative modes for completing the prescribed course of study shall be made available to pupils, parents, and the public.

(c) On or before July 1, 2017, the department shall submit a comprehensive report to the appropriate policy committees of the Legislature on the addition of career technical education courses to satisfy the requirement specified in subparagraph (E) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a), including, but not limited to, the following information:

(1) A comparison of the pupil enrollment in career technical education courses, foreign language courses, and visual and performing arts courses for the 2005–06 to 2011–12 school years, inclusive, to the pupil enrollment in career technical education courses, foreign language courses, and visual and performing arts courses for the 2012–13 to 2016–17 school years, inclusive.

(2) The reasons, reported by school districts, that pupils give for choosing to enroll in a career technical education course to satisfy the requirement specified in subparagraph (E) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a).

(3) The type and number of career technical education courses that were conducted for the 2005–06 to 2011–12 school years, inclusive, compared to the type and number of career technical education courses that were conducted for the 2012–13 to 2016–17 school years, inclusive.

(4) The number of career technical education courses that satisfied the subject matter requirements for admission to the University of California or the California State University.

(5) The extent to which the career technical education courses chosen by pupils are aligned with the California Career Technical Education Standards, and prepare pupils for employment, advanced training, and postsecondary education.

(6) The number of career technical education courses that also satisfy the visual and performing arts requirement, and the number of career technical education courses that also satisfy the foreign language requirement.

(7) Annual pupil dropout and graduation rates for the 2011–12 to 2014–15 school years, inclusive.

(d) For purposes of completing the report described in subdivision (c), the Superintendent may use existing state resources and federal funds. If state or federal funds are not available or sufficient, the Superintendent may apply for and accept grants, and receive donations and other financial support from public or private sources for purposes of this section.

(e) For purposes of completing the report described in subdivision (c), the Superintendent may accept support, including, but not limited to, financial and technical support, from high school reform advocates, teachers, chamber organizations, industry representatives, research centers, parents, and pupils.

(f) This section shall become inoperative on the earlier of the following two dates:

(1) On July 1, immediately following the first fiscal year after the enactment of the act that adds this paragraph in which the number of career technical education courses that, as determined by the department, satisfy the foreign language requirement for admission to the California State University and the University of California is at least twice the number of career technical education courses that meet these admission requirements as of January 1, 2012. This section shall be repealed on the following January 1, unless a later enacted statute, that becomes operative on or before that date, deletes or extends the dates on which it becomes inoperative and is repealed. It is the intent of the Legislature that new career technical education courses that satisfy the foreign language requirement for admission to the California State University and the University of California focus on world languages aligned with career preparation, emphasizing real-world application and technical content in related career and technical education courses.

(2) On July 1, 2022, and, as of January 1, 2023, is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that becomes operative on or before January 1, 2023, deletes or extends the dates on which it becomes inoperative and is repealed.

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 888, Sec. 1) by Stats. 2016, Ch. 53, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2017. Inoperative on or before July 1, 2022, as provided in subd. (f). Repealed on or before January 1, 2023, as prescribed by its own provisions. See later operative version, as amended by Sec. 2 of Stats. 2014, Ch. 888.)

51225.3.
  

(a) A pupil shall complete all of the following while in grades 9 to 12, inclusive, in order to receive a diploma of graduation from high school:

(1) At least the following numbers of courses in the subjects specified, each course having a duration of one year, unless otherwise specified:

(A) Three courses in English.

(B) Two courses in mathematics. If the governing board of a school district requires more than two courses in mathematics for graduation, the governing board of the school district may award a pupil up to one mathematics course credit pursuant to Section 51225.35.

(C) Two courses in science, including biological and physical sciences.

(D) Three courses in social studies, including United States history and geography; world history, culture, and geography; a one-semester course in American government and civics; and a one-semester course in economics.

(E) One course in visual or performing arts or foreign language. For purposes of satisfying the requirement specified in this subparagraph, a course in American Sign Language shall be deemed a course in foreign language.

(F) Two courses in physical education, unless the pupil has been exempted pursuant to the provisions of this code.

(2) Other coursework requirements adopted by the governing board of the school district.

(b) The governing board, with the active involvement of parents, administrators, teachers, and pupils, shall adopt alternative means for pupils to complete the prescribed course of study that may include practical demonstration of skills and competencies, supervised work experience or other outside school experience, career technical education classes offered in high schools, courses offered by regional occupational centers or programs, interdisciplinary study, independent study, and credit earned at a postsecondary educational institution. Requirements for graduation and specified alternative modes for completing the prescribed course of study shall be made available to pupils, parents, and the public.

(c) If a pupil completed a career technical education course that met the requirements of subparagraph (E) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 51225.3, as amended by the act adding this section, before the inoperative date of that section, that course shall be deemed to fulfill the requirements of subparagraph (E) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of this section.

(d) This section shall become operative upon the date that Section 51225.3, as amended by the act adding this section, becomes inoperative.

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 324, Sec. 3) by Stats. 2014, Ch. 888, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2015. This version is operative, pursuant to subd. (d), upon inoperation (on or before July 1, 2022) of the earlier version amended by Sec. 1 of Stats. 2014, Ch. 888, as further amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 53.)

51225.35.
  

(a) (1) If the governing board of a school district requires more than two courses in mathematics for graduation from high school, the governing board of the school district may award a pupil up to one mathematics course credit pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 51225.3 for successfully completing a “category C” approved computer science course.

(2) The governing board of a school district is encouraged to ensure that any computer science course that the school district awards a pupil mathematics course credit for pursuant to paragraph (1) builds upon fundamental mathematics content.

(3) The governing board of a school district is encouraged to support schools in submitting any computer science course that a school wishes to use to fulfill school district imposed mathematics subject area requirements to the University of California for certification and addition to the school’s “A–G” course list.

(b) For purposes of this section, “category C” refers to the “A–G” admission requirements for the California State University and the University of California.

(Added by Stats. 2014, Ch. 888, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2015.)

51225.36.
  

(a) If the governing board of a school district requires a course in health education for graduation from high school, the governing board of the school district shall include instruction in sexual harassment and violence, including, but not limited to, information on the affirmative consent standard, as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 67386.

(b) If the governing board of a school district provides instruction pursuant to subdivision (a), the governing board of the school district shall ensure teachers consult information related to sexual harassment and violence in the Health Framework for California Public Schools when delivering health instruction.

(Added by Stats. 2015, Ch. 424, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2016.)

51225.4.
  

The governing board of each elementary school district shall certify to the Superintendent of Public Instruction that it has adopted a policy to implement a course of instruction that sufficiently prepares the pupils in the district for the course of study required in Section 51225.3. This certification shall be submitted to the superintendent at the same time the district submits its apportionment reports.

(Amended by Stats. 2000, Ch. 1058, Sec. 41. Effective January 1, 2001.)

51225.5.
  

The governing board of any school district maintaining a high school may confer honorary high school diplomas upon foreign exchange students from other countries who have not completed the course of study ordinarily required for graduation, and who are returning to their home countries following the completion of one academic school year in a school district in the state. Honorary high school diplomas awarded pursuant to this section shall be clearly distinguishable from the regular diplomas of graduation awarded by the district.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 206, Sec. 10. Effective May 18, 1982.)

51225.6.
  

(a) If the governing board of a school district or the governing body of a charter school requires a course in health education for graduation from high school, the governing board of a school district or the governing body of a charter school shall include, commencing with the 2018–19 school year, instruction in performing compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This instruction shall include both of the following:

(1) An instructional program based on national evidence-based emergency cardiovascular care guidelines for the performance of compression-only CPR, such as those developed by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross.

(2) Instruction to pupils relative to the psychomotor skills necessary to perform compression-only CPR. For purposes of this paragraph, “psychomotor skills” means skills that pupils are required to perform as hands-on practice to support cognitive learning.

(b) Before the commencement of the 2017–18 school year, the department shall provide guidance on how to implement this section, including, but not limited to, who may provide instruction pursuant to this section.

(c) The governing board of a school district or the governing body of a charter school is encouraged to provide to pupils general information on the use and importance of an automated external defibrillator (AED). The physical presence of an AED in the classroom is not required.

(d) The governing board of a school district or the governing body of a charter school may adopt policies to implement this section.

(e) (1) The governing board of a school district or the governing body of a charter school providing instruction in performing compression-only CPR or information on the use of an AED pursuant to this section is encouraged to use the most cost-effective means possible to implement that requirement.

(2) This section shall not be construed to require the governing board of a school district or the governing body of a charter school to make any purchases, including, but not limited to, purchasing an AED.

(f) (1) A local agency, entity of state or local government, or other public or private organization that sponsors, authorizes, supports, finances, or supervises the instruction of pupils in compression-only CPR or the use of an AED pursuant to this section shall not be liable for any civil damages alleged to result from the acts or omissions of an individual who received such instruction.

(2) A public employee who provides or facilitates the instruction of pupils in compression-only CPR or the use of an AED pursuant to this section shall not be liable for any civil damages alleged to result from the acts or omissions of an individual who received such instruction.

(3) This subdivision shall not be construed to grant immunity from civil damages to any person who provides or facilitates the instruction of pupils in compression-only CPR or the use of an AED in a manner that constitutes gross negligence or willful or wanton misconduct.

(Added by Stats. 2016, Ch. 556, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2017.)

51226.
  

The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall coordinate the development, on a cyclical basis, of model curriculum standards for the course of study required by Section 51225.3 and for a career technical education course of study necessary to assist school districts with complying with subdivision (b) of Section 51228. The superintendent shall set forth these standards in terms of a wide range of specific competencies, including higher level skills, in each academic subject area. The superintendent shall review currently available textbooks in conjunction with the curriculum standards. The superintendent shall seek the advice of classroom teachers, school administrators, parents, postsecondary educators, and representatives of business and industry in developing these curriculum standards. The superintendent shall recommend policies to the State Board of Education for consideration and adoption by the board. The State Board of Education shall adopt these policies no later than January 1, 1985. However, neither the superintendent nor the board shall adopt rules or regulations for course content or methods of instruction.

The superintendent shall, to the extent applicable, incorporate the integration of career technical and academic education into the development of curriculum standards for career technical education courses. The standards for a career technical education course of study shall be adopted no later than June 1, 2005.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 989, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2003.)

51226.1.
  

(a) Upon adoption of the model curriculum standards developed pursuant to Section 51226, the Superintendent shall develop a curriculum framework consistent with criteria set forth in subdivision (a) of Section 60005 that offers a blueprint for implementation of career and technical education. The framework shall be adopted no later than November 1, 2006.

(b) In developing the framework, the Superintendent shall work in consultation and coordination with an advisory group, including, but not limited to, representatives from all of the following:

(1) Business and industry.

(2) Labor.

(3) The California Community Colleges.

(4) The University of California.

(5) The California State University.

(6) Classroom teachers.

(7) School administrators.

(8) Pupils.

(9) Parents and guardians.

(10) Representatives of the Legislature.

(11) The department.

(12) The Labor and Workforce Development Agency.

(c) In convening the membership of the advisory group set forth in subdivision (b), the Superintendent is encouraged to seek representation broadly reflective of the state population.

(d) Costs incurred by the superintendent in complying with this section shall be covered, to the extent permitted by federal law, by the state administrative and leadership funds available pursuant to the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998 (20 U.S.C. Sec. 2301 et seq.).

(e) In developing the framework, the Superintendent shall consider developing frameworks for various career pathways that will prepare pupils for both career entry and matriculation into postsecondary education.

(f) Upon completion of the framework, the advisory group is encouraged to identify career technical education courses that meet state-adopted academic content standards and that satisfy high school graduation requirements and admissions requirements of the University of California and the California State University, and to determine the extent to which local educational agencies accept credit earned for the completion of those courses, in lieu of other courses of study.

(g) The adoption of the framework developed and adopted pursuant to this section by a local educational agency shall be voluntary.

(Amended by Stats. 2005, Ch. 677, Sec. 37. Effective October 7, 2005.)

51226.2.
  

The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall inform county offices of education and each school district that maintains any of grades 6 to 12, inclusive, of the availability of the consumer and home economics education model performance standards and framework. The superintendent shall provide a copy of the consumer and home economics education model performance standards and framework to each county office of education and school district that requests one.

(Added by Stats. 1993, Ch. 1207, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1994.)

51226.3.
  

(a) (1) The department shall incorporate into publications that provide examples of curriculum resources for teacher use those materials developed by publishers of nonfiction, trade books, and primary sources, or other public or private organizations, that are age appropriate and consistent with the subject frameworks on history and social science that deal with civil rights, human rights violations, genocide, slavery, and the Holocaust.

(2) The Legislature encourages the department to incorporate into publications that provide examples of curriculum resources for teacher use those materials developed by publishers of nonfiction, trade books, and primary sources, or other public or private organizations, that are age appropriate and consistent with the subject frameworks on history and social science that deal with the Armenian, Cambodian, Darfur, and Rwandan genocides.

(b) (1) The Legislature encourages the incorporation of survivor, rescuer, liberator, and witness oral testimony into the teaching of human rights, the Holocaust, and genocide, including, but not limited to, the Armenian, Cambodian, Darfur, and Rwandan genocides.

(2) As used in this subdivision, “oral testimony” means the firsthand accounts of significant historical events presented in a format that includes, but is not limited to, in-person testimony, video, or a multimedia option, such as a DVD or an online video.

(c) The Legislature encourages all state and local professional development activities to provide teachers with content background and resources to assist them in teaching about civil rights, human rights violations, genocide, slavery, the Armenian Genocide, and the Holocaust.

(d) The Legislature encourages all state and local professional development activities to provide teachers with content background and resources to assist them in teaching about the Great Irish Famine of 1845–50.

(e) The Great Irish Famine of 1845–50 shall be considered in the next cycle in which the history-social science curriculum framework and its accompanying instructional materials are adopted.

(f) (1) The Legislature encourages all state and local professional development activities to provide teachers with content background and resources to assist them in teaching about the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the contributions of Chinese Americans to the establishment of the transcontinental railroad.

(2) When the state board revises and adopts the curriculum framework for history-social science on or after January 1, 2017, the state board shall consider providing for the inclusion, in that curriculum framework, evaluation criteria, and accompanying instructional materials, of instruction on the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the contributions of Chinese Americans to the establishment of the transcontinental railroad.

(g) When the history-social science curriculum framework is revised as required by law, the Instructional Quality Commission shall consider including the Armenian, Cambodian, Darfur, and Rwandan genocides in the recommended history-social science curriculum framework.

(h) The Model Curriculum for Human Rights and Genocide adopted by the state board, pursuant to Section 51226, shall be made available to schools in grades 7 to 12, inclusive, as soon as funding is available for this purpose. In addition, the department shall make the curriculum available on its Internet Web site.

(i) For purposes of this article, “Armenian Genocide” means the torture, starvation, and murder of 1,500,000 Armenians, which included death marches into the Syrian desert, by the rulers of the Ottoman Turkish Empire and the exile of more than 500,000 innocent people during the period from 1915 to 1923, inclusive.

(j) When the state board revises and adopts the curriculum framework for history-social science on or after January 1, 2016, the state board shall consider providing for the inclusion, in that curriculum framework, evaluation criteria, and accompanying instructional materials, of instruction on the unconstitutional deportation to Mexico during the Great Depression of citizens and lawful permanent residents of the United States.

(k) As used in subdivisions (b) and (c), “human rights” and “human rights violations” include the unconstitutional deportation to Mexico during the Great Depression of citizens and lawful permanent residents of the United States.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 648, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2017.)

51226.4.
  

Pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 51226.3, the Legislature encourages all of the following:

(a) Instruction in the origins of genocide as a phenomenon throughout history that continues to the present day.

(b) Content providers and teachers to promote pupil analysis of genocides, including the ethnic, religious, and political causes.

(c) Content providers and teachers to incorporate instructional materials for pupils that examine the possible means of preventing and halting genocide policies or interventions by the United Nations, other groups of nations, or the United States.

(d) Examinations of interventions to prevent genocides should include arguments and evidence for and against intervention, the role of public support for the intervention, and the possible consequences of such interventions.

(Added by Stats. 2014, Ch. 441, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2015.)

51226.5.
  

(a) No later than January 1, 1991, the State Board of Education, with the assistance of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, shall establish a list of textbooks and other instructional materials that highlight the contributions of minorities in the development of California and the United States.

(b) No later than April 1, 1991, the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall make that list of textbooks and instructional materials available for use by school districts throughout the state, and shall submit the list to the Legislature.

(c) The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall incorporate the textbooks and instructional materials on the list described in subdivision (a) into the implementation element of the history-social science framework adopted by the State Board of Education in July 1987, and into the implementation element of the framework adopted by the State Board of Education for any other subject area for which those textbooks and instructional materials identify important minority roles and contributions.

(Added by Stats. 1989, Ch. 452, Sec. 1.)

51226.6.
  

(a) The State Department of Education shall develop and adopt a model curriculum framework for driver education and training that incorporates the rules and regulations adopted by the State Board of Education relating to driver education pursuant to Sections 41905 and 51850, and that is directed to preparing student drivers for compliance with paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) of Section 12814.6 of the Vehicle Code.

(b) The State Department of Education shall not be required to comply with the requirements of subdivision (a) unless federal funding is available to defray the cost of developing and adopting the model curriculum framework for driver training and education.

(Amended by Stats. 1997, Ch. 760, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1998.)

51226.7.
  

(a) The Instructional Quality Commission shall develop, and the state board shall adopt, modify, or revise, a model curriculum in ethnic studies to ensure quality courses of study in ethnic studies. The model curriculum shall be developed with participation from faculty of ethnic studies programs at universities and colleges with ethnic studies programs and a group of representatives of local educational agencies, a majority of whom are kindergarten to grade 12, inclusive, teachers who have relevant experience or education background in the study and teaching of ethnic studies.

(b) The model curriculum shall be written as a guide to allow school districts to adapt their courses to reflect the pupil demographics in their communities. The model curriculum shall include examples of courses offered by local educational agencies that have been approved as meeting the A-G admissions requirements of the University of California and the California State University, including, to the extent possible, course outlines for those courses.

(c) On or before December 31, 2019, the Instructional Quality Commission shall submit the model curriculum to the state board for adoption, and the state board shall adopt the model curriculum on or before March 31, 2020.

(d) The Instructional Quality Commission shall provide a minimum of 45 days for public comment before submitting the model curriculum to the state board.

(e) Beginning in the school year following the adoption of the model curriculum pursuant to subdivision (a), each school district or charter school maintaining any of grades 9 to 12, inclusive, that does not otherwise offer a standards-based ethnic studies curriculum is encouraged to offer to all otherwise qualified pupils a course of study in ethnic studies based on the model curriculum. A school district or charter school that elects to offer a course of study in ethnic studies pursuant to this subdivision shall offer the course as an elective in the social sciences or English language arts and shall make the course available in at least one year during a pupil’s enrollment in grades 9 to 12, inclusive.

(f) It is the intent of the Legislature that local educational agencies submit course outlines for ethnic studies for approval as A-G courses.

(Added by Stats. 2016, Ch. 327, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2017.)

51228.
  

(a) Each school district maintaining any of grades 7 to 12, inclusive, shall offer to all otherwise qualified pupils in those grades a course of study fulfilling the requirements and prerequisites for admission to the California public institutions of postsecondary education and shall provide a timely opportunity to each of those pupils to enroll within a four-year period in each course necessary to fulfill those requirements and prerequisites prior to graduation from high school.

(b) Each school district maintaining any of grades 7 to 12, inclusive, shall offer to all otherwise qualified pupils in those grades a course of study that provides an opportunity for those pupils to attain entry-level employment skills in business or industry upon graduation from high school. Districts are encouraged to provide all pupils with a rigorous academic curriculum that integrates academic and career skills, incorporates applied learning in all disciplines, and prepares all pupils for high school graduation and career entry.

(c) A school district that adopts a required curriculum that meets or exceeds the model standards developed and adopted by the state board pursuant to Section 51226 shall be deemed to have fulfilled its responsibilities pursuant to subdivision (b).

(d) A school district that adopts a required curriculum pursuant to subdivision (c) that meets or exceeds the model standards developed by the state board pursuant to Section 51226, or that adopts alternative means for pupils to complete the prescribed course of study pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 51225.3, may substitute pupil demonstration of competence in the prescribed subjects through a practical demonstration of these skills in a regional occupational center or program, work experience, interdisciplinary study, independent study, credit earned at a postsecondary institution, or other outside school experience, as prescribed by Section 51225.3.

(Amended by Stats. 2008, Ch. 179, Sec. 50. Effective January 1, 2009.)

51228.1.
  

(a) Commencing with the 2016–17 school year, except as provided in subdivision (e), a school district maintaining any of grades 9 to 12, inclusive, shall not assign a pupil enrolled in any of grades 9 to 12, inclusive, in a school in the school district to any course period without educational content for more than one week in any semester, unless all of the following conditions are satisfied:

(1) A pupil is assigned to that course only if the pupil or, for a pupil who has not reached the age of majority, the pupil’s parent, guardian, or educational rights holder has consented in writing to the assignment.

(2) A school official has determined that the pupil will benefit from being assigned to the course period.

(3) The principal or assistant principal of the school has stated in a written document maintained at the school that, for the relevant school year, no pupils are assigned to those classes unless the school has met the conditions specified in paragraphs (1) and (2).

(b) Under no circumstances shall a school district assign a pupil enrolled in any of grades 9 to 12, inclusive, in a school in the school district to a course period without educational content because there are not sufficient curricular course offerings for the pupil to take during the relevant period of the designated schoolday.

(c) For purposes of this section, “course period without educational content” is defined as one course period during which any of the following occurs:

(1) The pupil is sent home or released from campus before the conclusion of the designated schoolday.

(2) The pupil is assigned to a service, instructional work experience, or to an otherwise named course in which the pupil is assigned to assist a certificated employee, but not expected to complete curricular assignments, in a course the certificated employee is teaching during that period and where the ratio of certificated employees to pupils assigned to the course for curricular purposes is less than one to one.

(3) The pupil is not assigned to any course for the relevant course period.

(d) Nothing in this section shall be interpreted to limit or otherwise affect the authority of a school district to authorize dual enrollment in community college, as provided for in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 48800) of Part 27, to establish and maintain evening high school programs, as provided for in Article 3 (commencing with Section 51720) of Chapter 5, to offer independent study, as provided for in Article 5.5 (commencing with Section 51745) of Chapter 5, to provide courses of work-based learning or work experience education, as provided for in Article 7 (commencing with Section 51760) of Chapter 5, or to offer any class or course of instruction authorized under Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 51700), if the program otherwise meets all of the requirements of law governing that program.

(e) This section shall not apply to a pupil enrolled in any of the following:

(1) An alternative school.

(2) A community day school.

(3) A continuation high school.

(4) An opportunity school.

(f) The Superintendent shall develop regulations for adoption by the state board to establish procedures governing this section, including the form of the written statement required pursuant to subdivision (a).

(Added by Stats. 2015, Ch. 703, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2016.)

51228.2.
  

(a) Commencing with the 2016–17 school year, except as provided in subdivision (d), a school district maintaining any of grades 9 to 12, inclusive, shall not assign a pupil enrolled in any of grades 9 to 12, inclusive, in a school in the school district to a course that the pupil has previously completed and received a grade determined by the school district to be sufficient to satisfy the requirements and prerequisites for admission to the California public institutions of postsecondary education and the minimum requirements for receiving a diploma of graduation from high school established in this article, unless either of the following applies:

(1) The course has been designed to be taken more than once because pupils are exposed to a new curriculum year to year and are therefore expected to derive educational value from taking the course again.

(2) For any course that has not been designed to be taken more than once, all of the following conditions are satisfied:

(A) A pupil is assigned to the course only if the pupil or, for a pupil who has not reached the age of majority, the pupil’s parent, guardian, or educational rights holder has consented in writing to the assignment for the purpose of improving a lower grade.

(B) A school official has determined that the pupil will benefit from being assigned to the course period.

(C) The principal or assistant principal of the school has stated in a written document to be maintained at the school that, for the relevant school year, no pupils are assigned to those classes unless the school has met the conditions specified in subparagraphs (A) and (B).

(b) Under no circumstances shall a school district assign a pupil enrolled in any of grades 9 to 12, inclusive, in a school in the school district to a course that the pupil has previously completed and received a grade determined by the school district to be sufficient to satisfy the requirements and prerequisites for admission to the California public institutions of postsecondary education and the minimum requirements for receiving a diploma of graduation from high school established in this article because there are not sufficient curricular course offerings for the pupil to take during the relevant period of the designated schoolday.

(c) Nothing in this section shall be interpreted to limit or otherwise affect the authority of a school district to authorize dual enrollment in community college, as provided for in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 48800) of Part 27, to establish and maintain evening high school programs, as provided for in Article 3 (commencing with Section 51720) of Chapter 5, to offer independent study, as provided for in Article 5.5 (commencing with Section 51745) of Chapter 5, to provide courses of work-based learning or work experience education, as provided for in Article 7 (commencing with Section 51760) of Chapter 5, or to offer any class or course of instruction authorized under Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 51700), if the program otherwise meets all of the requirements of law governing that program.

(d) This section shall not apply to a pupil enrolled in any of the following:

(1) An alternative school.

(2) A community day school.

(3) A continuation high school.

(4) An opportunity school.

(e) The Superintendent shall develop regulations for adoption by the state board to establish procedures governing this section, including the form of the written statement required pursuant to subdivision (a).

(Added by Stats. 2015, Ch. 703, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2016.)

51228.3.
  

(a) A complaint of noncompliance with the requirements of Section 51228.1 or 51228.2 may be filed with the local educational agency under the Uniform Complaint Procedures set forth in Chapter 5.1 (commencing with Section 4600) of Division 1 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations.

(b) A complainant not satisfied with the decision of a local educational agency may appeal the decision to the department pursuant to the Uniform Complaint Procedures set forth in Chapter 5.1 (commencing with Section 4600) of Division 1 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations, and shall receive a decision regarding the appeal within 60 days of the department’s receipt of the appeal.

(c) If a local educational agency finds merit in a complaint filed pursuant to subdivision (a), or the Superintendent finds merit in an appeal made pursuant to subdivision (b), the local educational agency shall provide a remedy to the affected pupil.

(d) The Superintendent shall prepare an annual report detailing actions taken pursuant to this section. By January 1 of each year, the Superintendent shall submit the report to the appropriate fiscal and policy committees of the Legislature.

(e) The Superintendent shall have all power and authority necessary to effectuate the requirements of this section. The Superintendent shall develop regulations for adoption by the state board that set forth the procedures governing this section.

(Added by Stats. 2015, Ch. 703, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2016.)

51229.
  

(a)  Each school year, as part of the annual notification required pursuant to Section 48980, a school district offering any of grades 9 to 12, inclusive, shall provide the parent or guardian of each minor pupil enrolled in any of those grades in the district with written notification that, to the extent possible, shall not exceed one page in length and that includes all of the following:

(1) A brief explanation of the college admission requirements.

(2) A list of the current University of California and California State University Web sites that help pupils and their families learn about college admission requirements and that list high school courses that have been certified by the University of California as satisfying the requirements for admission to the University of California and the California State University.

(3) A brief description of what career technical education is, as defined by the department.

(4) The Internet address for the portion of the Web site of the department where pupils can learn more about career technical education.

(5) Information about how pupils may meet with school counselors to help them choose courses at their school that will meet college admission requirements or enroll in career technical education courses, or both.

(b) For purposes of this section, “college admission requirements” means the list of courses that satisfy the subject requirements for admission to the California State University and the University of California.

(Added by Stats. 2007, Ch. 527, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2008.)

EDCEducation Code - EDC3.