Code Section Group

Education Code - EDC

TITLE 2. ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION [33000 - 64100]

  ( Title 2 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

DIVISION 4. INSTRUCTION AND SERVICES [46000 - 64100]

  ( Division 4 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

PART 27. PUPILS [48000 - 49704]

  ( Part 27 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

CHAPTER 6.5. Pupil Records [49060 - 49085]

  ( Chapter 6.5 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

ARTICLE 5. Privacy of Pupil Records [49073 - 49079.7]
  ( Article 5 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

49073.
  

(a) School districts shall adopt a policy identifying those categories of directory information as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 49061 that may be released. The school district shall determine which individuals, officials, or organizations may receive directory information. However, no information may be released to a private profitmaking entity other than employers, prospective employers, and representatives of the news media, including, but not limited to, newspapers, magazines, and radio and television stations. The names and addresses of pupils enrolled in grade 12 or who have terminated enrollment before graduation may be provided to a private school or college operating under Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 94800) of Part 59 of Division 10 of Title 3 or its authorized representative. However, no such private school or college shall use that information for other than purposes directly related to the academic or professional goals of the institution, and a violation of this provision is a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not to exceed two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500). In addition, the privilege of the private school or college to receive the information shall be suspended for a period of two years from the time of discovery of the misuse of the information. Any school district may limit or deny the release of specific categories of directory information to any public or private nonprofit organization based upon a determination of the best interests of pupils.

(b) Directory information may be released according to local policy as to any pupil or former pupil. However, notice shall be given at least on an annual basis of the categories of information that the school district plans to release and of the recipients. Directory information shall not be released regarding a pupil if a parent of that pupil has notified the school district that the information shall not be released.

(c) Directory information shall not be released regarding a pupil identified as a homeless child or youth, as defined in paragraph (2) of Section 725 of the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 11434a(2)), unless a parent, or pupil accorded parental rights, as identified in the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g), has provided written consent that directory information may be released.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 713, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2014.)

49073.1.
  

(a) A local educational agency may, pursuant to a policy adopted by its governing board or, in the case of a charter school, its governing body, enter into a contract with a third party for either or both of the following purposes:

(1) To provide services, including cloud-based services, for the digital storage, management, and retrieval of pupil records.

(2) To provide digital educational software that authorizes a third-party provider of digital educational software to access, store, and use pupil records in accordance with the contractual provisions listed in subdivision (b).

(b) A local educational agency that enters into a contract with a third party for purposes of subdivision (a) shall ensure the contract contains all of the following:

(1) A statement that pupil records continue to be the property of and under the control of the local educational agency.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a description of the means by which pupils may retain possession and control of their own pupil-generated content, if applicable, including options by which a pupil may transfer pupil-generated content to a personal account.

(3) A prohibition against the third party using any information in the pupil record for any purpose other than those required or specifically permitted by the contract.

(4) A description of the procedures by which a parent, legal guardian, or eligible pupil may review personally identifiable information in the pupil’s records and correct erroneous information.

(5) A description of the actions the third party will take, including the designation and training of responsible individuals, to ensure the security and confidentiality of pupil records. Compliance with this requirement shall not, in itself, absolve the third party of liability in the event of an unauthorized disclosure of pupil records.

(6) A description of the procedures for notifying the affected parent, legal guardian, or eligible pupil in the event of an unauthorized disclosure of the pupil’s records.

(7) (A) A certification that a pupil’s records shall not be retained or available to the third party upon completion of the terms of the contract and a description of how that certification will be enforced.

(B) The requirements provided in subparagraph (A) shall not apply to pupil-generated content if the pupil chooses to establish or maintain an account with the third party for the purpose of storing that content pursuant to paragraph (2).

(8) A description of how the local educational agency and the third party will jointly ensure compliance with the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g).

(9) A prohibition against the third party using personally identifiable information in pupil records to engage in targeted advertising.

(c) In addition to any other penalties, a contract that fails to comply with the requirements of this section shall be rendered void if, upon notice and a reasonable opportunity to cure, the noncompliant party fails to come into compliance and cure any defect. Written notice of noncompliance may be provided by any party to the contract. All parties subject to a contract voided under this subdivision shall return all pupil records in their possession to the local educational agency.

(d) For purposes of this section, the following terms have the following meanings:

(1) “Deidentified information” means information that cannot be used to identify an individual pupil.

(2) “Eligible pupil” means a pupil who has reached 18 years of age.

(3) “Local educational agency” includes school districts, county offices of education, and charter schools.

(4) “Pupil-generated content” means materials created by a pupil, including, but not limited to, essays, research reports, portfolios, creative writing, music or other audio files, photographs, and account information that enables ongoing ownership of pupil content. “Pupil-generated content” does not include pupil responses to a standardized assessment where pupil possession and control would jeopardize the validity and reliability of that assessment.

(5) (A) “Pupil records” means both of the following:

(i) Any information directly related to a pupil that is maintained by the local educational agency.

(ii) Any information acquired directly from the pupil through the use of instructional software or applications assigned to the pupil by a teacher or other local educational agency employee.

(B) “Pupil records” does not mean any of the following:

(i) Deidentified information, including aggregated deidentified information, used by the third party to improve educational products, for adaptive learning purposes, and for customizing pupil learning.

(ii) Deidentified information, including aggregated deidentified information, used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the operator’s products in the marketing of those products.

(iii) Deidentified information, including aggregated deidentified information, used for the development and improvement of educational sites, services, or applications.

(6) “Third party” refers to a provider of digital educational software or services, including cloud-based services, for the digital storage, management, and retrieval of pupil records.

(e) If the provisions of this section are in conflict with the terms of a contract in effect before January 1, 2015, the provisions of this section shall not apply to the local educational agency or the third party subject to that agreement until the expiration, amendment, or renewal of the agreement.

(f) Nothing in this section shall be construed to impose liability on a third party for content provided by any other third party.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 386, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2016.)

49073.5.
  

(a) It is the intent of the Legislature that a school district, in adopting a policy pursuant to Section 49073 governing the release of pupil directory information, not purposefully exclude any military services representative from access to that information.

(b) It is further the intent of the Legislature, in the interest of pupil confidentiality, that school districts minimize the release of pupil telephone numbers in the absence of express parental consent. The Legislature finds and declares that the nondisclosure of pupil telephone numbers will reduce the possibility of harassment of pupils and their families by organizations that receive pupil directory information.

(Added by Stats. 1991, Ch. 299, Sec. 1.)

49073.6.
  

(a) For purposes of this section, the following terms have the following meanings:

(1) “Educational purposes” means for purposes that aid in instruction in the classroom or at home, or in classroom administration.

(2) (A) “Social media” means an electronic service or account, or electronic content, including, but not limited to, videos, still photographs, blogs, video blogs, podcasts, instant and text messages, email, online services or accounts, or Internet Web site profiles or locations.

(B) “Social media” shall not include an electronic service or account used exclusively for educational purposes or primarily to facilitate creation of school-sponsored publications, such as a yearbook or pupil newspaper, under the direction or control of a school, teacher, or yearbook adviser.

(b) Notwithstanding any other law or regulation, a school district, county office of education, or charter school that considers a program to gather or maintain in its records any information obtained from social media of any enrolled pupil shall notify pupils and their parents or guardians about the proposed program and provide an opportunity for public comment at a regularly scheduled public meeting of the governing board of the school district or county office of education, or governing body of the charter school, as applicable, before the adoption of the program. The notification required by this subdivision may be provided as part of the notification required pursuant to Section 48980.

(c) Notwithstanding Section 49062, a school district, county office of education, or charter school that adopts a program pursuant to subdivision (b) shall do all of the following:

(1) Gather or maintain only information that pertains directly to school safety or to pupil safety.

(2) Provide a pupil with access to any information about the pupil gathered or maintained by the school district, county office of education, or charter school that was obtained from social media, and an opportunity to correct or delete such information.

(3) (A) Destroy information gathered from social media and maintained in its records within one year after a pupil turns 18 years of age or within one year after the pupil is no longer enrolled in the school district, county office of education, or charter school, whichever occurs first.

(B) Notify each parent or guardian of a pupil subject to the program that the pupil’s information is being gathered from social media and that any information subject to this section maintained in the school district’s, county office of education’s, or charter school’s records with regard to the pupil shall be destroyed in accordance with subparagraph (A). The notification required by this subparagraph may be provided as part of the notification required pursuant to Section 48980. The notification shall include, but is not limited to, all of the following:

(i) An explanation of the process by which a pupil or a pupil’s parent or guardian may access the pupil’s records for examination of the information gathered or maintained pursuant to this section.

(ii) An explanation of the process by which a pupil or a pupil’s parent or guardian may request the removal of information or make corrections to information gathered or maintained pursuant to this section.

(C) If the school district, county office of education, or charter school contracts with a third party to gather information from social media on an enrolled pupil, require the contract to do all of the following:

(i) Prohibit the third party from using the information for purposes other than to satisfy the terms of the contract.

(ii) Prohibit the third party from selling or sharing the information with any person or entity other than the school district, county office of education, charter school, or the pupil or his or her parent or guardian.

(iii) Require the third party to destroy the information immediately upon satisfying the terms of the contract.

(iv) Require the third party, upon notice and a reasonable opportunity to act, to destroy information pertaining to a pupil when the pupil turns 18 years of age or is no longer enrolled in the school district, county office of education, or charter school, whichever occurs first. The school district, county office of education, or charter school shall provide notice to the third party when a pupil turns 18 years of age or is no longer enrolled in the school district, county office of education, or charter school. Notice provided pursuant to this clause shall not be used for any other purpose.

(Added by Stats. 2014, Ch. 799, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2015.)

49074.
  

Nothing in this chapter shall preclude a school district from providing, in its discretion, statistical data from which no pupil may be identified to any public agency or entity or private nonprofit college, university, or educational research and development organization when such actions would be in the best educational interests of pupils.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)

49075.
  

(a) A school district may permit access to pupil records to any person for whom a parent of the pupil has executed written consent specifying the records to be released and identifying the party or class of parties to whom the records may be released. The recipient must be notified that the transmission of the information to others without the written consent of the parent is prohibited. The consent notice shall be permanently kept with the record file.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), school lunch applications and information shared pursuant to Section 49557.2 shall be retained by any school district in the manner most useful to the administration of the school lunch program.

(Amended by Stats. 2001, Ch. 894, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2002.)

49076.
  

(a) A school district shall not permit access to pupil records to a person without written parental consent or under judicial order except as set forth in this section and as permitted by Part 99 (commencing with Section 99.1) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(1) Access to those particular records relevant to the legitimate educational interests of the requester shall be permitted to the following:

(A) School officials and employees of the school district, members of a school attendance review board appointed pursuant to Section 48321 who are authorized representatives of the school district, and any volunteer aide, 18 years of age or older, who has been investigated, selected, and trained by a school attendance review board for the purpose of providing followup services to pupils referred to the school attendance review board, provided that the person has a legitimate educational interest to inspect a record.

(B) Officials and employees of other public schools or school systems, including local, county, or state correctional facilities where educational programs leading to high school graduation are provided or where the pupil intends to or is directed to enroll, subject to the rights of parents as provided in Section 49068.

(C) Authorized representatives of the Comptroller General of the United States, the Secretary of Education, and state and local educational authorities, or the United States Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights, if the information is necessary to audit or evaluate a state or federally supported educational program, or in connection with the enforcement of, or compliance with, the federal legal requirements that relate to such a program. Records released pursuant to this subparagraph shall comply with the requirements of Section 99.35 of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(D) Other state and local officials to the extent that information is specifically required to be reported pursuant to state law adopted before November 19, 1974.

(E) Parents of a pupil 18 years of age or older who is a dependent as defined in Section 152 of Title 26 of the United States Code.

(F) A pupil 16 years of age or older or having completed the 10th grade.

(G) A district attorney who is participating in or conducting a truancy mediation program pursuant to Section 48263.5, or Section 601.3 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, or participating in the presentation of evidence in a truancy petition pursuant to Section 681 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(H) A district attorney’s office for consideration against a parent or guardian for failure to comply with the Compulsory Education Law (Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 48200)) or with Compulsory Continuation Education (Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 48400)).

(I) (i) A probation officer, district attorney, or counsel of record for a minor for purposes of conducting a criminal investigation or an investigation in regards to declaring a person a ward of the court or involving a violation of a condition of probation.

(ii) For purposes of this subparagraph, a probation officer, district attorney, and counsel of record for a minor shall be deemed to be local officials for purposes of Section 99.31(a)(5)(i) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(iii) Pupil records obtained pursuant to this subparagraph shall be subject to the evidentiary rules described in Section 701 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.

(J) A judge or probation officer for the purpose of conducting a truancy mediation program for a pupil, or for purposes of presenting evidence in a truancy petition pursuant to Section 681 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. The judge or probation officer shall certify in writing to the school district that the information will be used only for truancy purposes. A school district releasing pupil information to a judge or probation officer pursuant to this subparagraph shall inform, or provide written notification to, the parent or guardian of the pupil within 24 hours of the release of the information.

(K) A county placing agency when acting as an authorized representative of a state or local educational agency pursuant to subparagraph (C). School districts, county offices of education, and county placing agencies may develop cooperative agreements to facilitate confidential access to and exchange of the pupil information by email, facsimile, electronic format, or other secure means, if the agreement complies with the requirements set forth in Section 99.35 of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(L) A pupil 14 years of age or older who meets both of the following criteria:

(i) The pupil is a homeless child or youth, as defined in paragraph (2) of Section 725 of the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 11434a(2)).

(ii) The pupil is an unaccompanied youth, as defined in paragraph (6) of Section 725 of the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 11434a(6)).

(M) An individual who completes items 1 to 4, inclusive, of the Caregiver’s Authorization Affidavit, as provided in Section 6552 of the Family Code, and signs the affidavit for the purpose of enrolling a minor in school.

(N) (i) An agency caseworker or other representative of a state or local child welfare agency, or tribal organization, as defined in Section 450b of Title 25 of the United States Code, that has legal responsibility, in accordance with state or tribal law, for the care and protection of the pupil.

(ii) The agency or organization specified in clause (i) may disclose pupil records, or the personally identifiable information contained in those records, to an individual or entity engaged in addressing the pupil’s educational needs, if the individual or entity is authorized by the agency or organization to receive the disclosure and the information requested is directly related to the assistance provided by that individual or entity. The records, or the personally identifiable information contained in those records, shall not otherwise be disclosed by that agency or organization, except as provided under the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g), state law, including paragraph (3), and tribal law.

(2) School districts may release information from pupil records to the following:

(A) Appropriate persons in connection with an emergency if the knowledge of the information is necessary to protect the health or safety of a pupil or other persons. Schools or school districts releasing information pursuant to this subparagraph shall comply with the requirements set forth in Section 99.32(a)(5) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(B) Agencies or organizations in connection with the application of a pupil for, or receipt of, financial aid. However, information permitting the personal identification of a pupil or his or her parents may be disclosed only as may be necessary for purposes as to determine the eligibility of the pupil for financial aid, to determine the amount of the financial aid, to determine the conditions that will be imposed regarding the financial aid, or to enforce the terms or conditions of the financial aid.

(C) Pursuant to Section 99.37 of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, a county elections official, for the purpose of identifying pupils eligible to register to vote, or for conducting programs to offer pupils an opportunity to register to vote. The information shall not be used for any other purpose or given or transferred to any other person or agency.

(D) Accrediting associations in order to carry out their accrediting functions.

(E) Organizations conducting studies for, or on behalf of, educational agencies or institutions for purposes of developing, validating, or administering predictive tests, administering student aid programs, and improving instruction, if the studies are conducted in a manner that will not permit the personal identification of pupils or their parents by persons other than representatives of the organizations, the information will be destroyed when no longer needed for the purpose for which it is obtained, and the organization enters into a written agreement with the educational agency or institution that complies with Section 99.31(a)(6) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(F) Officials and employees of private schools or school systems where the pupil is enrolled or intends to enroll, subject to the rights of parents as provided in Section 49068 and in compliance with the requirements in Section 99.34 of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations. This information shall be in addition to the pupil’s permanent record transferred pursuant to Section 49068.

(G) (i) A contractor or consultant with a legitimate educational interest who has a formal written agreement or contract with the school district regarding the provision of outsourced institutional services or functions by the contractor or consultant.

(ii) Notwithstanding the authorization in Section 99.31(a)(1)(i)(B) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, a disclosure pursuant to this subparagraph shall not be permitted to a volunteer or other party.

(3) A person, persons, agency, or organization permitted access to pupil records pursuant to this section shall not permit access to any information obtained from those records by another person, persons, agency, or organization, except for allowable exceptions contained within the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g) and state law, including this section, and implementing regulations, without the written consent of the pupil’s parent. This paragraph shall not require prior parental consent when information obtained pursuant to this section is shared with other persons within the educational institution, agency, or organization obtaining access, so long as those persons have a legitimate educational interest in the information pursuant to Section 99.31(a)(1) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(4) Notwithstanding any other law, a school district, including a county office of education or county superintendent of schools, may participate in an interagency data information system that permits access to a computerized database system within and between governmental agencies or school districts as to information or records that are nonprivileged, and where release is authorized as to the requesting agency under state or federal law or regulation, if each of the following requirements is met:

(A) Each agency and school district shall develop security procedures or devices by which unauthorized personnel cannot access data contained in the system.

(B) Each agency and school district shall develop procedures or devices to secure privileged or confidential data from unauthorized disclosure.

(C) Each school district shall comply with the access log requirements of Section 49064.

(D) The right of access granted shall not include the right to add, delete, or alter data without the written permission of the agency holding the data.

(E) An agency or school district shall not make public or otherwise release information on an individual contained in the database if the information is protected from disclosure or release as to the requesting agency by state or federal law or regulation.

(b) The officials and authorities to whom pupil records are disclosed pursuant to subdivision (e) of Section 48902 and subparagraph (I) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) shall certify in writing to the disclosing school district that the information shall not be disclosed to another party, except as provided under the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g) and state law, without the prior written consent of the parent of the pupil or the person identified as the holder of the pupil’s educational rights.

(c) (1) A person or party who is not permitted access to pupil records pursuant to subdivision (a) or (b) may request access to pupil records as provided for in paragraph (2).

(2) A local educational agency or other person or party who has received pupil records, or information from pupil records, may release the records or information to a person or party identified in paragraph (1) without the consent of the pupil’s parent or guardian pursuant to Section 99.31(b) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, if the records or information are deidentified, which requires the removal of all personally identifiable information, if the disclosing local educational agency or other person or party has made a reasonable determination that a pupil’s identity is not personally identifiable, whether through single or multiple releases, and has taken into account other pertinent reasonably available information.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 713, Sec. 2.5. Effective January 1, 2014.)

49076.5.
  

(a) Notwithstanding Section 49076, each school district shall release the information it has specific to a particular pupil’s identity and location that relates to the transfer of that pupil’s records to another school district within this state or any other state or to a private school in this state to a designated peace officer, upon his or her request, when a proper police purpose exists for the use of that information. As permitted by Part 99 (commencing with Section 99.1) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the designated peace officer or law enforcement agency shall show the school district that the peace officer or law enforcement agency has obtained prior written consent from one parent, or provide information indicating that there is an emergency in which the information is necessary to protect the health or safety of the pupil or other individuals, or that the peace officer or law enforcement agency has obtained a lawfully issued subpoena or a court order.

(b) In order to protect the privacy interests of the pupil, a request to a school district for pupil record information pursuant to this section shall meet the following requirements:

(1) For purposes of this section, “proper police purpose” means that probable cause exists that the pupil has been kidnapped and that his or her abductor may have enrolled the pupil in a school and that the agency has begun an active investigation.

(2) Only designated peace officers and federal criminal investigators and federal law enforcement officers, as defined in Section 830.1 of the Penal Code, whose names have been submitted to the school district in writing by a law enforcement agency, may request and receive the information specified in subdivision (a). Each law enforcement agency shall ensure that each school district has at all times a current list of the names of designated peace officers authorized to request pupil record information.

(3) This section does not authorize designated peace officers to obtain any pupil record information other than that authorized by this section.

(4) The law enforcement agency requesting the information shall ensure that at no time shall information obtained pursuant to this section be disclosed or used for a purpose other than to assist in the investigation of suspected criminal conduct or kidnapping. A violation of this paragraph shall be punishable as a misdemeanor.

(5) The designated peace officer requesting information authorized for release by this section shall make a record on a form created and maintained by the law enforcement agency that shall include the name of the pupil about whom the inquiry was made, the consent of a parent having legal custody of the pupil or a legal guardian, the name of the officer making the inquiry, the date of the inquiry, the name of the school district, the school district employee to whom the request was made, and the information that was requested.

(6) Whenever the designated peace officer requesting information authorized for release by this section does so in person, by telephone, or by some means other than in writing, the officer shall provide the school district with a letter confirming the request for pupil record information before any release of information.

(7) A school district, or officer or employee of the school district, shall not be subject to criminal or civil liability for the release of pupil record information in good faith as authorized by this section.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 388, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2013.)

49076.7.
  

(a) The Legislature finds and declares both of the following:

(1) Pupil data privacy is a priority because pupils are at risk for identity theft when providing their social security numbers.

(2) A technical brief titled “Data Stewardship: Managing Personally Identifiable Information in Electronic Student Education Records” published by the United States Department of Education states that social security numbers are the single most misused piece of information by criminals perpetrating identity thefts.

(b) A school district, county office of education, or charter school shall not collect or solicit social security numbers or the last four digits of social security numbers from pupils or their parents or guardians unless otherwise required to do so by state or federal law.

(c) The department may additionally prohibit the collection and solicitation of other personally identifiable information, as recommended by the Superintendent and approved by the state board.

(Added by Stats. 2016, Ch. 184, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2017.)

49077.
  

Information concerning a student shall be furnished in compliance with a court order or a lawfully issued subpoena. The school district shall make a reasonable effort to notify the parent or legal guardian and the pupil in advance of compliance with a lawfully issued subpoena and, in the case of compliance with a court order, if lawfully possible within the requirements of the order.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 879, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1997.)

49078.
  

The service of a lawfully issued subpoena or a court order upon a public school employee solely for the purpose of causing him or her to produce a school record pertaining to any pupil may be complied with by that employee, in lieu of the personal appearance as a witness in the proceeding, by submitting to the court, or other agency, or person designated in the subpoena, at the time and place required by the subpoena or court order, a copy of that record, accompanied by an affidavit certifying that the copy is a true copy of the original record on file in the school or school office. The copy of the record shall be in the form of a photostat, microfilm, microcard, or miniature photograph or other photographic copy or reproduction, or an enlargement thereof.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 879, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 1997.)

49079.
  

(a) A school district shall inform the teacher of each pupil who has engaged in, or is reasonably suspected to have engaged in, any of the acts described in any of the subdivisions, except subdivision (h), of Section 48900 or in Section 48900.2, 48900.3, 48900.4, or 48900.7 that the pupil engaged in, or is reasonably suspected to have engaged in, those acts. The district shall provide the information to the teacher based upon any records that the district maintains in its ordinary course of business, or receives from a law enforcement agency, regarding a pupil described in this section.

(b) A school district, or school district officer or employee, is not civilly or criminally liable for providing information under this section unless it is proven that the information was false and that the district or district officer or employee knew or should have known that the information was false, or the information was provided with a reckless disregard for its truth or falsity.

(c) An officer or employee of a school district who knowingly fails to provide information about a pupil who has engaged in, or who is reasonably suspected to have engaged in, the acts referred to in subdivision (a) is guilty of a misdemeanor, which is punishable by confinement in the county jail for a period not to exceed six months, or by a fine not to exceed one thousand dollars ($1,000), or both.

(d) For the 1994–95 school year, the information provided shall be from the previous two school years. For the 1996–97 school year and each school year thereafter, the information provided shall be from the previous three school years.

(e) Any information received by a teacher pursuant to this section shall be received in confidence for the limited purpose for which it was provided and shall not be further disseminated by the teacher.

(Amended by Stats. 2000, Ch. 345, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2001.)

49079.5.
  

The Legislature recognizes that a longitudinal pupil data system provides direct and tangible benefits to pupils, educators, policymakers, and the public. The Legislature intends to make statewide longitudinal education data accessible to, and used to inform and engage, authorized stakeholders in an effort to support the continuous improvement of instruction, operations, management, and resource allocation, and in a manner that complies with all federal and state privacy laws. The Legislature intends to make statewide longitudinal education data available and accessible to researchers so they may evaluate the effectiveness of instructional materials, strategies, and approaches for educating different types of pupils in a manner that complies with federal and state privacy laws, including, but not limited to, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 2001 (20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g) (FERPA). It is the intent of the Legislature, in enacting this section, to accomplish all of the following:

(a) Comply with the United States Constitution and all applicable federal laws, including FERPA and its implementing regulations (34 C.F.R. 99).

(b) Comply with the California Constitution and all applicable state laws and their implementing regulations, including, but not limited to, Section 1798.24 of the Civil Code.

(c) Further an environment in which the department and the California Longitudinal Pupil Achievement Data System (CALPADS) serve as resources for local educational agencies.

(d) Promote a culture of continuous improvement through collaboration and informed decisionmaking at the classroom, school, district, state, and policymaker level.

(e) Minimize the anticipated workload increase on the department that may be generated by an increased number of data requests as CALPADS becomes operational, by establishing clear guidance on data access and an efficient process for responding to requests for access.

(f) Pursuant to FERPA and as defined in Section 1798.24 of the Civil Code, make pupil data available to qualified researchers from nonprofit organizations while appropriately protecting the privacy of individual pupils.

(Added by Stats. 2010, 5th Ex. Sess., Ch. 1, Sec. 4. Effective April 12, 2010.)

49079.7.
  

(a) Notwithstanding paragraph (3) of subdivision (c) of Section 49079.6, the department shall impose reasonable fees or charges upon researchers applying for access to individually identifiable data, in order to cover costs of responding to time-intensive request.

(b) Fees or charges imposed upon an applicant pursuant to this section shall equal the actual costs incurred by the department in responding to the applicant’s request.

(c) Fees or charges shall not be imposed pursuant to this section upon any state agency, except for fees or charges related to the release of data for research purposes to the University of California, the California State University, or the Chancellor of the California Community Colleges.

(Added by Stats. 2010, 5th Ex. Sess., Ch. 2, Sec. 6. Effective April 12, 2010.)

EDCEducation Code - EDC5.