Code Section Group

Education Code - EDC


  ( Title 2 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )


  ( Division 3 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

PART 25. EMPLOYEES [44000 - 45500]

  ( Part 25 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

CHAPTER 2. Teacher Credentialing [44200 - 44418]

  ( Heading of Chapter 2 amended by Stats. 1988, Ch. 1355, Sec. 2. )

ARTICLE 5. Subject Matter Examinations and Assessments [44280 - 44298]
  ( Heading of Article 5 amended by Stats. 1993, Ch. 809, Sec. 8. )


The adequacy of subject matter preparation and the basis for assignment of certified personnel shall be determined by the successful passage of a subject matter examination as certified by the commission, except as specifically waived as set forth in Article 6 (commencing with Section 44310). For the purpose of determining the adequacy of subject matter knowledge of languages for which there are no adequate examinations, the commission may establish guidelines for accepting alternative assessments performed by organizations that are expert in the language and culture assessed. The commission shall submit an expenditure plan for the development of a subject matter examination in the Filipino language to the Department of Finance no later than January 8, 2006. Upon approval of the expenditure plan by the Department of Finance and subject to an appropriation in the Budget Act of 2006 for this purpose, the commission shall contract with another entity for that entity to develop, for certification by the commission, a subject matter examination in the Filipino language, to be administered no later than September 1, 2008.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 347, Sec. 21. (SB 942) Effective January 1, 2012.)


The commission shall select, administer, and interpret subject matter examinations, which shall be a prerequisite for assignment to assure minimum levels of subject matter knowledge by all certified personnel regardless of the pattern and place of preparation.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)


(a) The commission shall adopt examinations and assessments to verify the subject matter knowledge and competence of candidates for the single subject teaching credentials described in Section 44257 and the concentrations described in Section 44257.2.

(b) A general subject matter examination authorizing teaching multiple subjects shall include an examination of the candidate’s knowledge of the following areas: language studies, literature, mathematics, science, social studies, history, the arts, physical education, and human development.

(Amended by Stats. 1993, Ch. 809, Sec. 9. Effective January 1, 1994.)


(a) In carrying out its duties prescribed by subdivision (h) of Section 44225, the commission shall not develop a new health science subject matter examination, but shall instead employ an existing health science subject matter examination for the purpose of certifying single subject instruction in health science.

(b) It is the intent of the Legislature that no funds be appropriated from the Teacher Credentials Fund, or any other fund, for the purpose of development of a health science subject matter examination by the commission.

(Added by Stats. 1980, Ch. 604, Sec. 2.)


(a) The Legislature hereby recognizes that teacher competence in reading instruction is essential to the progress and achievement of pupils learning to read in elementary and secondary schools. It is the intent of the Legislature that the commission develop a reading instruction competence assessment to measure the knowledge, skill, and ability of first-time credential applicants who are not credentialed in any state who will be responsible for reading instruction.

(b) The commission shall develop, adopt, and administer a reading instruction competence assessment consisting of one or more instruments to measure an individual’s knowledge, skill, and ability relative to effective reading instruction. The reading instruction competence assessment shall measure the knowledge, skill, and ability of first-time credential applicants who are not credentialed in any state that the commission determines to be essential to reading instruction and shall be consistent with the state’s reading curriculum framework adopted after July 1, 1996, and the Reading Program Advisory published by the State Department of Education in 1996. The commission shall perform the following duties with respect to the reading instruction competence assessment:

(1) Develop, adopt, and administer the assessment.

(2) Initially and periodically analyze the validity and reliability of the content of the assessment.

(3) Establish and implement appropriate passing scores on the assessment.

(4) Analyze possible sources of bias on the assessment.

(5) Collect and analyze background information provided by first-time credential applicants who are not credentialed in any state who participate in the assessment.

(6) Report and interpret individual and aggregated assessment results.

(7) Convene a task force to advise the commission on the design, content, and administration of the assessment. Not less than one-third of the members of the task force shall be classroom teachers with recent experience in teaching reading in the early elementary grades.

(8) Prior to requiring successful passage of the assessment for the preliminary multiple subject teaching credential, certify that all of the teacher education programs approved by the commission pursuant to Section 44227 offer instruction in the knowledge, skills, and abilities required by the assessment.

(c) Commencing on the earliest feasible date, as determined by the commission, the requirements for issuance of the preliminary multiple subject teaching credential, as set forth in subdivision (b) of Section 44259, shall include successful passage of one of the following components of the reading instruction competence assessment:

(1) A comprehensive examination of the knowledge and skill pertaining to effective reading instruction of the credential applicant.

(2) An authentic assessment of teaching skills and classroom abilities of the credential applicant pertaining to the provision of effective reading instruction.

(d) The reading instruction competence assessment is subject to the provisions of Sections 44235.1 and 44298.

(Added by Stats. 1996, Ch. 919, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1997.)


(a) Commencing on January 1, 2000, prior to the initial issuance of a specialist teaching credential in special education pursuant to Section 44265, except as provided in subdivision (b) a first time credential applicant who is not credentialed in any state shall be required to demonstrate that he or she passed the reading instruction competence assessment developed pursuant to Section 44283.

(b) This section shall not apply to an applicant for an Early Childhood Special Education Certificate or Early Childhood Special Education Credential, which authorizes the holder to provide educational services to children from birth through prekindergarten who are eligible for early intervention special education and related services.

(Amended by Stats. 1999, Ch. 623, Sec. 5. Effective October 10, 1999.)


Examinations authorizing advanced or specialist teaching service may be authorized by the commission. Such examinations shall conform to the guidelines established by this chapter.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)


The commission shall create subject matter advisory panels to advise in the selection, administration, and interpretation of examinations. The subject matter advisory panels shall consist of recognized leaders in the subject matter fields to be examined and shall be composed primarily of full-time public school classroom teachers, and full-time college or university classroom teachers.

Experts and authorities in the field of examination design, interpretation, and analysis may be included in the subject matter panels or may be separately employed by the commission.

Members of the examination panels shall serve without compensation, but may be reimbursed for actual and necessary expenses.

The approved examinations shall provide for flexibility and variety in patterns of subject matter preparation.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)


The commission shall set passing scores with the objective of assuring an adequate level of subject matter preparation.

The examination shall report at least relative and absolute scores to facilitate comparison and interpretation, if practicable.

The individual candidate’s score on any examination shall be a matter of record, but shall not be posted on the front of the credential or be made available to the public; the teaching or other credential shall identify by name those examinations successfully passed.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit research, evaluation, analysis, or interpretation of test scores so long as individual confidentiality is maintained.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)


The commission, before the adoption of any examination, shall provide an opportunity to the public and teaching profession to present their viewpoints with respect thereto in open hearings.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)


The approved examinations shall be instruments whose purpose is to measure achievement and shall be used solely to measure objective knowledge of subject matter.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)


Insofar as is reasonable and practicable, the commission shall adopt examinations which are nationally administered on a regular basis.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)


In selecting subject matter examinations, the commission shall consider the importance of timely and expeditious processing and the desirability and convenience of machine scoring.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)


The commission may approve more than one examination with passing scores appropriate to each examination for any of the categories to be examined as required by this chapter.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)


In the selection, adoption and interpretation of examinations, the commission shall analyze and account for any cultural, class, or social bias which may arbitrarily and unfairly work to the disadvantage of any group of examinees, and shall assess and report upon the extent to which, if any, the passing score may adversely affect any group of prospective or actual examinees due to social, cultural, or ethnic factors.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)


The commission may collect various data, including the ethnic background of examinees, age, sex, the college or university attended, degrees held, teaching experience, and other factors which may pertain, in the judgment of the commission, to examination performance.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)


No limit may be placed on the number of times an examinee may take the approved examinations.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)


Fees charged for the examinations shall be sufficient to furnish the full cost of the examination system, except as these funds may be augmented from designated appropriations by the Legislature from the Teacher Credentials Fund.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)

EDCEducation Code - EDC5