Code Section Group

Corporations Code - CORP

TITLE 1. CORPORATIONS [100 - 14631]

  ( Title 1 enacted by Stats. 1947, Ch. 1038. )


  ( Heading of Division 2 amended by Stats. 1978, Ch. 567. )


  ( Part 2 added by Stats. 1978, Ch. 567. )

CHAPTER 1. Organization and Bylaws [5110 - 5160]

  ( Chapter 1 added by Stats. 1978, Ch. 567. )

ARTICLE 4. Powers [5140 - 5142]
  ( Article 4 added by Stats. 1978, Ch. 567. )


Subject to any limitations contained in the articles or bylaws and to compliance with other provisions of this division and any other applicable laws, a corporation, in carrying out its activities, shall have all of the powers of a natural person, including, without limitation, the power to:

(a) Adopt, use, and at will alter a corporate seal, but failure to affix a seal does not affect the validity of any instrument.

(b) Adopt, amend, and repeal bylaws.

(c) Qualify to conduct its activities in any other state, territory, dependency, or foreign country.

(d) Issue, purchase, redeem, receive, take or otherwise acquire, own, sell, lend, exchange, transfer or otherwise dispose of, pledge, use, and otherwise deal in and with its own bonds, debentures, notes, and debt securities.

(e) Issue memberships.

(f) Pay pensions, and establish and carry out pension, deferred compensation, saving, thrift and other retirement, incentive and benefit plans, trusts, and provisions for any or all of its directors, officers, employees, and persons providing services to it or any of its subsidiary or related or associated corporations, and to indemnify and purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any fiduciary of such plans, trusts, or provisions.

(g) Levy dues, assessments, and admission fees.

(h) Make donations for the public welfare or for community funds, hospital, charitable, educational, scientific, civic, religious, or similar purposes.

(i) Assume obligations, enter into contracts, including contracts of guarantee or suretyship, incur liabilities, borrow or lend money or otherwise use its credit, and secure any of its obligations, contracts or liabilities by mortgage, pledge or other encumbrance of all or any part of its property and income.

(j) Participate with others in any partnership, joint venture or other association, transaction or arrangement of any kind whether or not such participation involves sharing or delegation of control with or to others.

(k) Act as trustee under any trust incidental to the principal objects of the corporation, and receive, hold, administer, exchange, and expend funds and property subject to such trust.

(l) Carry on a business at a profit and apply any profit that results from the business activity to any activity in which it may lawfully engage.

(m) Pay the reasonable value of services rendered in this state to the corporation before January 1, 1975, and not previously paid, by any person who performed such services on a full-time basis under the direction of a religious organization in connection with the religious tenets of the organization. Such person shall have relied solely on the religious organization for his or her financial support for a minimum of five years. A payment shall not be made if such person or religious organization waives the payment or receipt of compensation for such services in writing. Payment may be made to such religious organization to reimburse it for maintenance of any person who rendered such services and to assist it in providing future support and maintenance; however, payment shall not be made from any funds or assets acquired with funds donated by or traceable to gifts made to the corporation by any person, organization, or governmental agency other than the members, immediate families of members, and affiliated religious organizations of the religious organization under whose direction the services were performed.

(n) (1) In anticipation of or during an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s ordinary business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 5151:

(A) Modify lines of succession to accommodate the incapacity of any director, officer, employee, or agent resulting from the emergency.

(B) Relocate the principal office, designate alternative principal offices or regional offices, or authorize the officers to do so.

(2) During an emergency, take either or both of the following actions necessary to conduct the corporation’s ordinary business operations and affairs, unless emergency bylaws provide otherwise pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 5151:

(A) Give notice to a director or directors in any practicable manner under the circumstances, including, but not limited to, by publication and radio, when notice of a meeting of the board cannot be given to that director or directors in the manner prescribed by the bylaws or Section 5211.

(B) Deem that one or more officers of the corporation present at a board meeting is a director, in order of rank and within the same rank in order of seniority, as necessary to achieve a quorum for that meeting.

(3) In anticipation of or during an emergency, the board may not take any action that requires the vote of the members or is not in the corporation’s ordinary course of business, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.

(4) Any actions taken in good faith in anticipation of or during an emergency under this subdivision bind the corporation and may not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.

(5) For purposes of this subdivision, “emergency” means any of the following events or circumstances as a result of which, and only so long as, a quorum of the corporation’s board of directors cannot be readily convened for action:

(A) A natural catastrophe, including, but not limited to, a hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought, or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion.

(B) An attack on this state or nation by an enemy of the United States of America, or upon receipt by this state of a warning from the federal government indicating that an enemy attack is probable or imminent.

(C) An act of terrorism or other manmade disaster that results in extraordinary levels of casualties or damage or disruption severely affecting the infrastructure, environment, economy, government functions, or population, including, but not limited to, mass evacuations.

(D) A state of emergency proclaimed by a governor or by the President.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 255, Sec. 3. (AB 491) Effective January 1, 2014.)


Subject to Section 5142:

(a) No limitation upon the activities, purposes, or powers of the corporation or upon the powers of the members, officers, or directors, or the manner of exercise of such powers, contained in or implied by the articles or by Chapters 15 (commencing with Section 6510), 16 (commencing with Section 6610), and 17 (commencing with Section 6710) shall be asserted as between the corporation or member, officer or director and any third person, except in a proceeding: (1) by a member or the state to enjoin the doing or continuation of unauthorized activities by the corporation or its officers, or both, in cases where third parties have not acquired rights thereby, (2) to dissolve the corporation, or (3) by the corporation or by a member suing in a representative suit against the officers or directors of the corporation for violation of their authority.

(b) Any contract or conveyance made in the name of a corporation which is authorized or ratified by the board or is done within the scope of authority, actual or apparent, conferred by the board or within the agency power of the officer executing it, except as the board’s authority is limited by law other than this part, binds the corporation, and the corporation acquires rights thereunder whether the contract is executed or wholly or in part executory.

(Amended by Stats. 1979, Ch. 724.)


(a) Notwithstanding Section 5141, any of the following may bring an action to enjoin, correct, obtain damages for or to otherwise remedy a breach of a charitable trust:

(1) The corporation, or a member in the name of the corporation pursuant to Section 5710.

(2) An officer of the corporation.

(3) A director of the corporation.

(4) A person with a reversionary, contractual, or property interest in the assets subject to such charitable trust.

(5) The Attorney General, or any person granted relator status by the Attorney General.

The Attorney General shall be given notice of any action brought by the persons specified in paragraphs (1) through (4), and may intervene.

(b) In an action under this section, the court may not rescind or enjoin the performance of a contract unless:

(1) All of the parties to the contract are parties to the action;

(2) No party to the contract has, in good faith, and without actual notice of the trust restriction, parted with value under the contract or in reliance upon it; and

(3) It is equitable to do so.

(Amended by Stats. 1979, Ch. 724.)

CORPCorporations Code - CORP4.