Code Section Group

Civil Code - CIV

DIVISION 3. OBLIGATIONS [1427 - 3273.16]

  ( Heading of Division 3 amended by Stats. 1988, Ch. 160, Sec. 14. )


  ( Part 1 enacted 1872. )


  ( Title 4 enacted 1872. )

CHAPTER 1. Performance [1473 - [1479.]]
  ( Chapter 1 enacted 1872. )


Full performance of an obligation, by the party whose duty it is to perform it, or by any other person on his behalf, and with his assent, if accepted by the creditor, extinguishes it.

(Enacted 1872.)


Performance of an obligation, by one of several persons who are jointly liable under it, extinguishes the liability of all.

(Enacted 1872.)


An obligation in favor of several persons is extinguished by performance rendered to any of them, except in the case of a deposit made by owners in common, or in joint ownership, which is regulated by the Title on Deposit.

(Enacted 1872.)


If a creditor, or any one of two or more joint creditors, at any time directs the debtor to perform his obligation in a particular manner, the obligation is extinguished by performance in that manner, even though the creditor does not receive the benefit of such performance.

(Enacted 1872.)


A partial performance of an indivisible obligation extinguishes a corresponding proportion thereof, if the benefit of such performance is voluntarily retained by the creditor, but not otherwise. If such partial performance is of such a nature that the creditor cannot avoid retaining it without injuring his own property, his retention thereof is not presumed to be voluntary.

(Enacted 1872.)


Performance of an obligation for the delivery of money only, is called payment.

(Enacted 1872.)


 Section Fourteen Hundred and Seventy-nine. Where a debtor, under several obligations to another, does an act, by way of performance, in whole or in part, which is equally applicable to two or more of such obligations, such performance must be applied as follows:

One—If, at the time of performance, the intention or desire of the debtor that such performance should be applied to the extinction of any particular obligation, be manifested to the creditor, it must be so applied.

Two—If no such application be then made, the creditor, within a reasonable time after such performance, may apply it toward the extinction of any obligation, performance of which was due to him from the debtor at the time of such performance; except that if similar obligations were due to him both individually and as a trustee, he must, unless otherwise directed by the debtor, apply the performance to the extinction of all such obligations in equal proportion; and an application once made by the creditor cannot be rescinded without the consent of [the] debtor.

Three—If neither party makes such application within the time prescribed herein, the performance must be applied to the extinction of obligations in the following order; and, if there be more than one obligation of a particular class, to the extinction of all in that class, ratably:

1. Of interest due at the time of the performance.

2. Of principal due at that time.

3. Of the obligation earliest in date of maturity.

4. Of an obligation not secured by a lien or collateral undertaking.

5. Of an obligation secured by a lien or collateral undertaking.

(Amended by Code Amendments 1873-74, Ch. 612.)

CIVCivil Code - CIV