Code Section Group

Civil Code - CIV

DIVISION 3. OBLIGATIONS [1427 - 3272.9]

  ( Heading of Division 3 amended by Stats. 1988, Ch. 160, Sec. 14. )

PART 1. OBLIGATIONS IN GENERAL [1427 - 1543]

  ( Part 1 enacted 1872. )

TITLE 3. TRANSFER OF OBLIGATIONS [1457 - 1471]
  ( Title 3 enacted 1872. )

1457.
  

The burden of an obligation may be transferred with the consent of the party entitled to its benefit, but not otherwise, except as provided by Section 1466.

(Enacted 1872.)

1458.
  

A right arising out of an obligation is the property of the person to whom it is due, and may be transferred as such.

(Enacted 1872.)

1459.
  

A non-negotiable written contract for the payment of money or personal property may be transferred by indorsement, in like manner with negotiable instruments. Such indorsement shall transfer all the rights of the assignor under the instrument to the assignee, subject to all equities and defenses existing in favor of the maker at the time of the indorsement.

(Enacted 1872.)

1460.
  

Certain covenants, contained in grants of estates in real property, are appurtenant to such estates, and pass with them, so as to bind the assigns of the covenantor and to vest in the assigns of the covenantee, in the same manner as if they had personally entered into them. Such convenants are said to run with the land.

(Enacted 1872.)

1461.
  

The only covenants which run with the land are those specified in this Title, and those which are incidental thereto.

(Enacted 1872.)

1462.
  

Every covenant contained in a grant of an estate in real property, which is made for the direct benefit of the property, or some part of it then in existence, runs with the land.

(Enacted 1872.)

1463.
  

The last section includes covenants “of warranty,” “for quiet enjoyment,” or for further assurance on the part of a grantor, and covenants for the payment of rent, or of taxes or assessments upon the land, on the part of a grantee.

(Enacted 1872.)

1465.
  

A covenant running with the land binds those only who acquire the whole estate of the covenantor in some part of the property.

(Enacted 1872.)

1466.
  

No one, merely by reason of having acquired an estate subject to a covenant running with the land, is liable for a breach of the covenant before he acquired the estate, or after he has parted with it or ceased to enjoy its benefits.

(Enacted 1872.)

1467.
  

Where several persons, holding by several titles, are subject to the burden or entitled to the benefit of a covenant running with the land, it must be apportioned among them according to the value of the property subject to it held by them respectively, if such value can be ascertained, and if not, then according to their respective interests in point of quantity.

(Enacted 1872.)

1468.
  

Each covenant, made by an owner of land with the owner of other land or made by a grantor of land with the grantee of land conveyed, or made by the grantee of land conveyed with the grantor thereof, to do or refrain from doing some act on his own land, which doing or refraining is expressed to be for the benefit of the land of the convenantee, runs with both the land owned by or granted to the covenantor and the land owned by or granted to the covenantee and shall, except as provided by Section 1466, or as specifically provided in the instrument creating such covenant, and notwithstanding the provisions of Section 1465, benefit or be binding upon each successive owner, during his ownership, of any portion of such land affected thereby and upon each person having any interest therein derived through any owner thereof where all of the following requirements are met:

(a) The land of the covenantor which is to be affected by such covenants, and the land of covenantee to be benefited, are particularly described in the instrument containing such covenants;

(b) Such successive owners of the land are in such instrument expressed to be bound thereby for the benefit of the land owned by, granted by, or granted to the covenantee;

(c) Each such act relates to the use, repair, maintenance or improvement of, or payment of taxes and assessments on, such land or some part thereof, or if the land owned by or granted to each consists of undivided interests in the same parcel or parcels, the suspension of the right of partition or sale in lieu of partition for a period which is reasonable in relation to the purpose of the covenant;

(d) The instrument containing such covenants is recorded in the office of the recorder of each county in which such land or some part thereof is situated.

Where several persons are subject to the burden of any such covenant, it shall be apportioned among them pursuant to Section 1467, except that where only a portion of such land is so affected thereby, such apportionment shall be only among the several owners of such portion. This section shall apply to the mortgagee, trustee or beneficiary of a mortgage or deed of trust upon such land or any part thereof while but only while he, in such capacity, is in possession thereof.

(Amended by Stats. 1973, Ch. 474.)

1469.
  

Each covenant made by the lessor in a lease of real property to do any act or acts on other real property which is owned by the lessor and is contiguous (except for intervening public streets, alleys or sidewalks) to the real property demised to the lessee shall, except as provided by Section 1466, be binding upon each successive owner, during his ownership, of any portion of such contiguous real property affected thereby where all of the following requirements are met:

(a) Such contiguous real property is particularly described in the lease;

(b) Such successive owners are in the lease expressed to be bound thereby for the benefit of the demised real property;

(c) Each such act relates to the use, repair, maintenance or improvement of, or payment of taxes and assessments on, such contiguous real property or some part thereof;

(d) The lease is recorded in the same manner as grants of real property, in the office of the recorder of each county in which such contiguous real property or some part thereof is situate. Such lease shall include the description of any such contiguous land described in any unrecorded instrument, the contents of which unrecorded instrument are incorporated by reference in such recorded lease.

Where several persons are subject to the burden of any such covenant, it shall be apportioned among them pursuant to Section 1467, except that where only a portion of such contiguous real property is so affected thereby, such apportionment shall be only among the several owners of such portion. This section shall apply to the mortgagee, trustee or beneficiary of a mortgage or deed of trust upon such contiguous real property or any part thereof while but only while he, in such capacity, is in possession thereof.

(Amended by Stats. 1965, Ch. 1502.)

1470.
  

Each covenant made by the lessor in a lease of real property not to use or permit to be used contrary to the terms of such lease any other real property which is owned by the lessor and is contiguous (except for intervening public streets, alleys or sidewalks) to the real property demised to the lessee shall, except as provided by Section 1466, be binding upon each successive owner, during his ownership, of any portion of such contiguous real property affected thereby and upon each person having any interest therein derived through any owner thereof where all of the following requirements are met:

(a) Such contiguous real property is particularly described in the lease;

(b) Such successive owners and persons having any such interest are in the lease expressed to be bound thereby for the benefit of the demised real property;

(c) The lease is recorded in the same manner as grants of real property, in the office of the recorder of each county in which such contiguous real property or some part thereof is situate. Such lease shall include therein the description of any such contiguous land described in any unrecorded instrument, the contents of which unrecorded instrument are incorporated by reference in such recorded lease.

Where several persons are subject to the burden of any such covenant, it shall be apportioned among them pursuant to Section 1467, except that where only a portion of such contiguous real property is so affected thereby, such apportionment shall be only among the several owners of, and persons having any such interest in, such portion. This section shall apply to the mortgagee, trustee or beneficiary of a mortgage or deed of trust upon such contiguous real property or any part thereof while and only while he, in such capacity, is in possession thereof.

(Amended by Stats. 1963, Ch. 2054.)

1471.
  

(a) Notwithstanding Section 1468 or any other provision of law, a covenant made by an owner of land or by the grantee of land to do or refrain from doing some act on his or her own land, which doing or refraining is expressed to be for the benefit of the covenantee, regardless of whether or not it is for the benefit of land owned by the covenantee, shall run with the land owned by or granted to the covenantor if all the following requirements are met:

(1) The land of the covenantor that is to be affected by the covenant is particularly described in the instrument containing the covenant.

(2) The successive owners of the land are expressed to be bound thereby for the benefit of the covenantee in the instrument containing the covenant.

(3) Each act that the owner or grantee will do or refrain from doing relates to the use of land and each act is reasonably necessary to protect present or future human health or safety or the environment as a result of the presence on the land of hazardous materials, as defined in Section 25260 of the Health and Safety Code.

(4) The instrument containing the covenant is recorded in the office of the recorder of each county in which the land or some portion thereof is situated and the instrument includes in its title the words: “Environmental Restriction.”

(b) Except as provided by Section 1466 or as specifically provided in the instrument creating a covenant made pursuant to this section, the covenant shall be binding upon each successive owner, during his or her ownership, of any portion of the land affected thereby and upon each person having any interest therein derived through any owner thereof.

(c) If several persons are subject to the burden of a covenant recorded pursuant to this section, it shall be apportioned among them pursuant to Section 1467, except if only a portion of the land is so affected thereby, the apportionment shall be only among the several owners of that portion.

(d) This section shall apply to the mortgagee, trustee, or beneficiary of a mortgage or deed of trust upon the land or any part thereof while, but only while, he or she, in that capacity, is in possession thereof.

(e) (1) If an instrument containing a covenant is recorded pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) as an “Environmental Restriction,” in accordance with this section, the office of the recorder of the county may send a certified copy of the instrument to the California Environmental Protection Agency, for posting on its Web site, for informational purposes only, pursuant to Section 57012 of the Health and Safety Code, unless the instrument indicates that it is required by a board or department specified in paragraphs (1) to (3), inclusive, of subdivision (d) of Section 57012 of the Health and Safety Code.

(2) Notwithstanding any provision of law, the office of the recorder of the county and any of its employees shall not be subject to any liability under any state law or in any action for damages if the office of the recorder does not send a certified copy of the instrument pursuant to paragraph (1).

(f) The office of the recorder of the county may assess a reasonable fee, as determined by resolution of its governing body, to cover the costs of taking the action authorized by subdivision (e).

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 592, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2003.)

CIVCivil Code - CIV