Code Section Group

Civil Code - CIV

DIVISION 2. PROPERTY [654 - 1422]

  ( Heading of Division 2 amended by Stats. 1988, Ch. 160, Sec. 13. )


  ( Part 2 enacted 1872. )


  ( Title 2 enacted 1872. )

CHAPTER 2. Termination of Estates [789 - 793]
  ( Chapter 2 enacted 1872. )


A tenancy or other estate at will, however created, may be terminated by the landlord’s giving notice in writing to the tenant, in the manner prescribed by Section 1162 of the Code of Civil Procedure, to remove from the premises within a period of not less than 30 days, to be specified in the notice.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 664, Sec. 32. Effective January 1, 2003.)


(a) A landlord shall not with intent to terminate the occupancy under any lease or other tenancy or estate at will, however created, of property used by a tenant as his residence willfully cause, directly or indirectly, the interruption or termination of any utility service furnished the tenant, including, but not limited to, water, heat, light, electricity, gas, telephone, elevator, or refrigeration, whether or not the utility service is under the control of the landlord.

(b) In addition, a landlord shall not, with intent to terminate the occupancy under any lease or other tenancy or estate at will, however created, of property used by a tenant as his or her residence, willfully:

(1) Prevent the tenant from gaining reasonable access to the property by changing the locks or using a bootlock or by any other similar method or device;

(2) Remove outside doors or windows; or

(3) Remove from the premises the tenant’s personal property, the furnishings, or any other items without the prior written consent of the tenant, except when done pursuant to the procedure set forth in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 1980) of Title 5 of Part 4 of Division 3.

Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to prevent the lawful eviction of a tenant by appropriate legal authorities, nor shall anything in this subdivision apply to occupancies defined by subdivision (b) of Section 1940.

(c) Any landlord who violates this section shall be liable to the tenant in a civil action for all of the following:

(1) Actual damages of the tenant.

(2) An amount not to exceed one hundred dollars ($100) for each day or part thereof the landlord remains in violation of this section. In determining the amount of such award, the court shall consider proof of such matters as justice may require; however, in no event shall less than two hundred fifty dollars ($250) be awarded for each separate cause of action. Subsequent or repeated violations, which are not committed contemporaneously with the initial violation, shall be treated as separate causes of action and shall be subject to a separate award of damages.

(d) In any action under subdivision (c) the court shall award reasonable attorney’s fees to the prevailing party. In any such action the tenant may seek appropriate injunctive relief to prevent continuing or further violation of the provisions of this section during the pendency of the action. The remedy provided by this section is not exclusive and shall not preclude the tenant from pursuing any other remedy which the tenant may have under any other provision of law.

(Amended by Stats. 1979, Ch. 333.)


(a) In addition to the damages provided in subdivision (c) of Section 789.3, a landlord who violates Section 789.3, if the tenant has provided a declaration of COVID-19 financial distress pursuant to Section 1179.03 of the Code of Civil Procedure, shall be liable for damages in an amount that is at least one thousand dollars ($1,000) but not more than two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500), as determined by the trier of fact.

(b) This section shall remain in effect until October 1, 2021, and as of that date is repealed.

(Amended by Stats. 2021, Ch. 27, Sec. 1. (AB 832) Effective June 28, 2021. Repealed as of October 1, 2021, by its own provisions.)


After such notice has been served, and the period specified by such notice has expired, but not before, the landlord may reënter, or proceed according to law to recover possession.

(Enacted 1872.)


Whenever the right of reentry is given to a grantor or a lessor in any grant or lease or otherwise, such reentry may be made at any time after the right has accrued, upon three days’ notice, as provided in sections 1161 and 1162, Code of Civil Procedure; provided, however, that the said three days’ notice shall not be required in cases where the hiring of real property is for a term not specified by the parties and where such hiring was terminated under and in accordance with the provisions of section 1946 of the Civil Code.

(Amended by Stats. 1931, Ch. 1033.)


Summary proceedings for obtaining possession of real property forcibly entered, or forcibly and unlawfully detained, are provided for in Sections 1159 to 1175, both inclusive, of the Code of Civil Procedure.

(Enacted 1872.)


An action for the possession of real property leased or granted, with a right of re-entry, may be maintained at any time, after the right to re-enter has accrued, without the notice prescribed in section seven hundred and ninety-one.

(Amended by Stats. 1905, Ch. 438.)

CIVCivil Code - CIV