Code Section Group

Code of Civil Procedure - CCP

PART 2. OF CIVIL ACTIONS [307 - 1062.20]

  ( Part 2 enacted 1872. )

TITLE 6.5. ATTACHMENT [481.010 - 493.060]

  ( Title 6.5 added by Stats. 1974, Ch. 1516. )

CHAPTER 11. Attaching Plaintiff’s Miscellaneous Remedies [491.110 - 491.470]

  ( Chapter 11 repealed and added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1198, Sec. 57. )

ARTICLE 1. Examination of Third Person [491.110 - 491.200]
  ( Article 1 added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1198, Sec. 57. )

491.110.
  

(a) Upon ex parte application by the plaintiff and proof by the plaintiff by affidavit or otherwise to the satisfaction of the proper court that the plaintiff has a right to attach order and that a third person has possession or control of property in which the defendant has an interest or is indebted to the defendant in an amount exceeding two hundred fifty dollars ($250), the court shall make an order directing the third person to appear before the court, or before a referee appointed by the court, at a time and place specified in the order, to answer concerning the property or debt. The affidavit in support of the plaintiff’s application may be based on the affiant’s information and belief.

(b) Not less than 10 days prior to the date set for the examination, a copy of the order shall be:

(1) Served personally on the third person.

(2) Served personally or by mail on the defendant.

(c) If the property or the debt is described in the affidavit or application for an order under subdivision (a) in a manner reasonably adequate to permit it to be identified, service of the order on the third person creates a lien on the defendant’s interest in the property in the third person’s possession or control or on the debt owed by the third person to the defendant. The lien continues for a period of one year from the date of the order unless extended or sooner terminated by the court.

(d) The order shall contain the following statement in 14-point boldface type if printed or in capital letters if typed: “NOTICE TO PERSON SERVED. If you fail to appear at the time and place specified in this order, you may be subject to arrest and punishment for contempt of court and the court may make an order requiring you to pay the reasonable attorney’s fees incurred by the plaintiff in this proceeding.”

(e) The order is not effective unless, at the time it is served on the third person, the person serving the order tenders to the third person fees for the mileage necessary to be traveled from the third person’s residence to the place of examination. The fees shall be in the same amount generally provided for witnesses when legally required to attend civil proceedings in the court where the examination proceeding is to be conducted.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1198, Sec. 57. Operative July 1, 1983, by Sec. 70 of Ch. 1198.)

491.120.
  

In any proceeding for the examination of a third person under this article, witnesses, including the defendant, may be required to appear and testify before the court or referee in the same manner as upon the trial of an issue.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1198, Sec. 57. Operative July 1, 1983, by Sec. 70 of Ch. 1198.)

491.130.
  

(a) The examination proceedings authorized by this article may be conducted by a referee appointed by the court. The referee may issue, modify, or vacate an order authorized by Section 491.190, may make a protective order authorized by Section 491.180, and may issue a warrant authorized by Section 491.160, and has the same power as the court to grant adjournments, to preserve order, and to subpoena witnesses to attend the examination, but only the court that ordered the reference has power to do any of the following:

(1) Punish for contempt for disobeying an order of the referee.

(2) Make an award of attorney’s fees pursuant to Section 491.160.

(3) Determine a third-party claim under Section 491.170.

(b) Only a member of the State Bar of California is eligible for appointment as a referee pursuant to this article.

(c) Nothing in subdivision (a) limits the power of a court to appoint a temporary judge pursuant to Section 21 of Article VI of the California Constitution.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1198, Sec. 57. Operative July 1, 1983, by Sec. 70 of Ch. 1198.)

491.140.
  

(a) If a corporation, partnership, association, trust, or other organization is served with an order to appear for an examination, it shall designate to appear and be examined one or more officers, directors, managing agents, or other persons who are familiar with its property and debts.

(b) If the order to appear for an examination requires the appearance of a specified individual, the specified individual shall appear for the examination and may be accompanied by one or more officers, directors, managing agents, or other persons familiar with the property and debts of the corporation, partnership, association, trust, or other organization.

(c) If the order to appear for the examination does not require the appearance of a specified individual, the order shall advise the corporation, partnership, association, trust, or other organization of its duty to make a designation under subdivision (a).

(d) A corporation, partnership, association, trust, or other organization, whether or not a party, may appear at an examination through any authorized officer, director, or employee, whether or not the person is an attorney.

(Amended by Stats. 1984, Ch. 538, Sec. 7.5.)

491.150.
  

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the proper court for examination of a person under this article is the court that issued the writ of attachment.

(b) A person sought to be examined may not be required to attend an examination before a court located outside the county in which the person resides or has a place of business unless the distance from the person’s place of residence or place of business to the place of examination is less than 150 miles.

(c) If a person sought to be examined does not reside or have a place of business in the county where the court that issued the writ is located, the superior court in the county where the person resides or has a place of business is a proper court for examination of the person.

(d) If the plaintiff seeks an examination of a person before a court other than the court that issued the writ, the plaintiff shall file an application that shall include all of the following:

(1) A certified copy of the complaint in the pending action.

(2) An affidavit in support of the application stating the place of residence or place of business of the person sought to be examined.

(3) Any necessary affidavit or showing for the examination as required by Section 491.110.

(4)  The filing fee for a motion as provided in subdivision (a) of Section 70617 of the Government Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2005, Ch. 75, Sec. 33. Effective July 19, 2005. Operative January 1, 2006, by Sec. 156 of Ch. 75.)

491.160.
  

(a) If an order requiring a person to appear for an examination was served by a sheriff, marshal, a person specially appointed by the court in the order, or a registered process server, and the person fails to appear:

(1) The court may do either of the following:

(A) Pursuant to a warrant, have the person brought before the court to answer for the failure to appear and may punish the person for contempt.

(B) Issue a warrant for the arrest of the person who failed to appear as required by the court order, pursuant to Section 1993.

(2) If the person’s failure to appear is without good cause, the plaintiff shall be awarded reasonable attorney’s fees incurred in the examination proceeding.

(b) A person who willfully makes an improper service of an order for an examination which subsequently results in the arrest pursuant to subdivision (a) of the person who fails to appear is guilty of a misdemeanor.

(Amended by Stats. 2006, Ch. 277, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2007.)

491.170.
  

(a) Subject to subdivision (b), if a third person examined pursuant to this article claims an interest in the property adverse to the defendant or denies the debt, the court may, if the plaintiff so requests, determine the interests in the property or the existence of the debt. Such a determination is conclusive as to the plaintiff, the defendant, and the third person, but an appeal may be taken from the determination in the manner provided for appeals from the court in which the proceeding takes place. The court may grant a continuance for a reasonable time for discovery proceedings, the production of evidence, or other preparation for the hearing.

(b) The court may not make the determination provided in subdivision (a) if the third person’s claim is made in good faith and any of the following conditions is satisfied:

(1) The court would not be a proper court for the trial of an independent civil action (including a creditor’s suit) for the determination of the interests in the property or the existence of the debt, and the third person objects to the determination of the matter under subdivision (a).

(2) At the time an order for examination pursuant to this article is served on the third person a civil action (including a creditor’s suit) is pending with respect to the interests in the property or the existence of the debt.

(3) The court determines that the interests in the property or the existence of the debt should be determined in a creditor’s suit.

(c) Upon application of the plaintiff made ex parte, the court may make an order forbidding transfer of the property to the defendant or payment of the debt to the defendant until the interests in the property or the existence of the debt is determined pursuant to subdivision (a) or until a creditor’s suit may be commenced and an order obtained pursuant to Section 491.340. An undertaking may be required in the discretion of the court. The court may modify or vacate the order at any time with or without a hearing on such terms as are just.

(d) Upon application of the plaintiff upon noticed motion, the court, if it determines that the defendant probably owns an interest in the property or that the debt probably is owed to the defendant, may make an order forbidding the transfer or other disposition of the property to any person or forbidding payment of the debt until the interests in the property or the existence of the debt is determined pursuant to subdivision (a) or until a creditor’s suit may be commenced and an order obtained pursuant to Section 491.340. The court shall require the plaintiff to furnish an undertaking as provided in Section 529. The court may modify or vacate the order at any time after notice and hearing on such terms as are just.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1198, Sec. 57. Operative July 1, 1983, by Sec. 70 of Ch. 1198.)

491.180.
  

In any proceeding under this article, the court may, on motion of the person to be examined or on its own motion, make such protective orders as justice may require.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1198, Sec. 57. Operative July 1, 1983, by Sec. 70 of Ch. 1198.)

491.190.
  

(a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), at the conclusion of a proceeding pursuant to this article:

(1) The court may order the defendant’s interest in the property in the possession or under the control of the third person or a debt owed by the third person to the defendant to be attached in the manner and under the conditions provided by this title or to be delivered or paid to the levying officer if the levying officer has a writ of attachment permitting the attachment of the property or debt. After the property or debt has been attached, the order may be enforced as provided in Section 491.360. The order creates a lien on the property or debt. The lien continues for a period of one year from the date of the order unless the court extends or reduces the period of the existence of the lien.

(2) If the property or debt has previously been attached, the court may make an order determining the third person’s liability, and the order may be enforced as provided in Section 491.360.

(b) If a third person examined pursuant to this article claims an interest in the property adverse to the defendant or denies the debt and the court does not determine the matter as provided in subdivision (a) of Section 491.170, the court may not make an order under subdivision (a) of this section, but may make an order pursuant to subdivision (c) or (d) of Section 491.170 forbidding transfer or payment to the extent authorized by that section.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1198, Sec. 57. Operative July 1, 1983, by Sec. 70 of Ch. 1198.)

491.200.
  

A lien created under this article continues on property subject to the lien notwithstanding the transfer or encumbrance of the property subject to the lien unless the transfer or encumbrance is made to a person listed in Section 697.740.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1198, Sec. 57. Operative July 1, 1983, by Sec. 70 of Ch. 1198.)

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