Code Section Group

Code of Civil Procedure - CCP

PART 2. OF CIVIL ACTIONS [307 - 1062.20]

  ( Part 2 enacted 1872. )


  ( Title 10 enacted 1872. )

CHAPTER 2. Actions for Nuisance, Waste,and Willful Trespass, in Certain Cases,on Real Property [731 - 736]
  ( Chapter 2 enacted 1872. )


An action may be brought by any person whose property is injuriously affected, or whose personal enjoyment is lessened by a nuisance, as defined in Section 3479 of the Civil Code, and by the judgment in that action the nuisance may be enjoined or abated as well as damages recovered therefor. A civil action may be brought in the name of the people of the State of California to abate a public nuisance, as defined in Section 3480 of the Civil Code, by the district attorney or county counsel of any county in which the nuisance exists, or by the city attorney of any town or city in which the nuisance exists. Each of those officers shall have concurrent right to bring an action for a public nuisance existing within a town or city. The district attorney, county counsel, or city attorney of any county or city in which the nuisance exists shall bring an action whenever directed by the board of supervisors of the county, or whenever directed by the legislative authority of the town or city.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 570, Sec. 2. (AB 1502) Effective January 1, 2011.)


Whenever any city, city and county, or county shall have established zones or districts under authority of law wherein certain manufacturing or commercial or airport uses are expressly permitted, except in an action to abate a public nuisance brought in the name of the people of the State of California, no person or persons, firm or corporation shall be enjoined or restrained by the injunctive process from the reasonable and necessary operation in any such industrial or commercial zone or airport of any use expressly permitted therein, nor shall such use be deemed a nuisance without evidence of the employment of unnecessary and injurious methods of operation. Nothing in this act shall be deemed to apply to the regulation and working hours of canneries, fertilizing plants, refineries and other similar establishments whose operation produce offensive odors.

(Amended by Stats. 1959, Ch. 795.)


In any action or proceeding to abate the use of an airport or an airpark, proof that the airport or airpark has been in existence for three years constitutes a rebuttable presumption which shall be prima facie evidence that the operation of the airport or airpark does not constitute a nuisance.

(Added by Stats. 1953, Ch. 52.)


Injury to formations bearing oil or gas or to oil or gas wells caused by the subsurface migration of any substance as a result of secondary recovery operations for oil or gas conducted in accordance with good oilfield practices shall not be grounds for enjoining the secondary recovery operations if an undertaking is given for the payment of any compensable damages to which the owners of interests in the formations or wells may be entitled resulting from the injury. Any benefit to the injured property from the secondary recovery operation shall be considered in mitigation of damages for the injury.

(Amended by Stats. 1982, Ch. 517, Sec. 154.)


Whenever any person unlawfully closes any public trail, any person who uses such trail or would use such trail, and any association, corporation or other entity whose membership as a whole is adversely affected by such closure may bring an action to enjoin such closure.

The prevailing party in such action shall be entitled to recover reasonable attorney’s fees, in addition to court costs.

As used in this section, a public trail is any trail to which the public in general has a right of access, which right is established pursuant to a recorded document conveying to a political corporation or governmental agency, specifying the nature of such public trail, specifically describing the location thereof, and naming the record owners of the real property over which such trail exists if created by a license, permit or easement. It includes, but is not limited to, pedestrian, equestrian, and boating trails, but does not include any public street, road, or highway.

(Added by Stats. 1979, Ch. 682.)


If a guardian, conservator, tenant for life or years, joint tenant, or tenant in common of real property, commit waste thereon, any person aggrieved by the waste may bring an action against him therefor, in which action there may be judgment for treble damages.

(Amended by Stats. 1979, Ch. 730.)


Any person who cuts down or carries off any wood or underwood, tree, or timber, or girdles or otherwise injures any tree or timber on the land of another person, or on the street or highway in front of any person’s house, village, or city lot, or cultivated grounds; or on the commons or public grounds of any city or town, or on the street or highway in front thereof, without lawful authority, is liable to the owner of such land, or to such city or town, for treble the amount of damages which may be assessed therefor, in a civil action, in any Court having jurisdiction.

(Enacted 1872.)


Nothing in the last section authorizes the recovery of more than the just value of the timber taken from uncultivated woodland for the repair of a public highway or bridge upon the land, or adjoining it.

(Enacted 1872.)


If a person recover damages for a forcible or unlawlful entry in or upon, or detention of any building or any cultivated real property, judgment may be entered for three times the amount at which the actual damages are assessed.

(Enacted 1872.)


(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a secured lender may bring an action for breach of contract against a borrower for breach of any environmental provision made by the borrower relating to the real property security, for the recovery of damages, and for the enforcement of the environmental provision, and that action or failure to foreclose first against collateral shall not constitute an action within the meaning of subdivision (a) of Section 726, or constitute a money judgment for a deficiency or a deficiency judgment within the meaning of Section 580a, 580b, or 580d, or subdivision (b) of Section 726. No injunction for the enforcement of an environmental provision may be issued after (1) the obligation secured by the real property security has been fully satisfied, or (2) all of the borrower’s rights, title, and interest in and to the real property security has been transferred in a bona fide transaction to an unaffiliated third party for fair value.

(b) The damages a secured lender may recover pursuant to subdivision (a) shall be limited to reimbursement or indemnification of the following:

(1) If not pursuant to an order of any federal, state, or local governmental agency relating to the cleanup, remediation, or other response action required by applicable law, those costs relating to a reasonable and good faith cleanup, remediation, or other response action concerning a release or threatened release of hazardous substances which is anticipated by the environmental provision.

(2) If pursuant to an order of any federal, state, or local governmental agency relating to the cleanup, remediation, or other response action required by applicable law which is anticipated by the environmental provision, all amounts reasonably advanced in good faith by the secured lender in connection therewith, provided that the secured lender negotiated, or attempted to negotiate, in good faith to minimize the amounts it was required to advance under the order.

(3) Indemnification against all liabilities of the secured lender to any third party relating to the breach and not arising from acts, omissions, or other conduct which occur after the borrower is no longer an owner or operator of the real property security, and provided the secured lender is not responsible for the environmentally impaired condition of the real property security in accordance with the standards set forth in subdivision (d) of Section 726.5. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “owner or operator” means those persons described in Section 101(20)(A) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended (42 U.S.C. Sec. 9601, et seq.).

(4) Attorneys’ fees and costs incurred by the secured lender relating to the breach.

The damages a secured lender may recover pursuant to subdivision (a) shall not include (i) any part of the principal amount or accrued interest of the secured obligation, except for any amounts advanced by the secured lender to cure or mitigate the breach of the environmental provision that are added to the principal amount, and contractual interest thereon, or (ii) amounts which relate to a release which was knowingly permitted, caused, or contributed to by the secured lender or any affiliate or agent of the secured lender.

(c) A secured lender may not recover damages against a borrower pursuant to subdivision (a) for amounts advanced or obligations incurred for the cleanup or other remediation of real property security, and related attorneys’ fees and costs, if all of the following are true:

(1) The original principal amount of, or commitment for, the loan or other obligation secured by the real property security did not exceed two hundred thousand dollars ($200,000).

(2) In conjunction with the secured lender’s acceptance of the environmental provision, the secured lender agreed in writing to accept the real property security on the basis of a completed environmental site assessment and other relevant information from the borrower.

(3) The borrower did not permit, cause, or contribute to the release or threatened release.

(4) The deed of trust or mortgage covering the real property security has not been discharged, reconveyed, or foreclosed upon.

(d) This section is not intended to establish, abrogate, modify, limit, or otherwise affect any cause of action other than that provided by subdivision (a) that a secured lender may have against a borrower under an environmental provision.

(e) This section shall apply only to environmental provisions contracted in conjunction with loans, extensions of credit, guaranties, or other obligations made, renewed, or modified on or after January 1, 1992. Notwithstanding the foregoing, this section shall not be construed to validate, invalidate, or otherwise affect in any manner the rights and obligations of the parties to, or the enforcement of, environmental provisions contracted before January 1, 1992.

(f) For purposes of this section:

(1) “Borrower” means the trustor under a deed of trust, or a mortgagor under a mortgage, where the deed of trust or mortgage encumbers real property security and secures the performance of the trustor or mortgagor under a loan, extension of credit, guaranty, or other obligation. The term includes any successor-in-interest of the trustor or mortgagor to the real property security before the deed of trust or mortgage has been discharged, reconveyed, or foreclosed upon.

(2) “Environmental provision” means any written representation, warranty, indemnity, promise, or covenant relating to the existence, location, nature, use, generation, manufacture, storage, disposal, handling, or past, present, or future release or threatened release, of any hazardous substance into, onto, beneath, or from the real property security, or to past, present, or future compliance with any law relating thereto, made by a borrower in conjunction with the making, renewal, or modification of a loan, extension of credit, guaranty, or other obligation involving the borrower, whether or not the representation, warranty, indemnity, promise, or covenant is or was contained in or secured by the deed of trust or mortgage, and whether or not the deed of trust or mortgage has been discharged, reconveyed, or foreclosed upon.

(3) “Hazardous substance” means any of the following:

(A) Any “hazardous substance” as defined in subdivision (h) of Section 25281 of the Health and Safety Code.

(B) Any “waste” as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 13050 of the Water Code.

(C) Petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof, natural gas, natural gas liquids, liquefied natural gas, or synthetic gas usable for fuel, or any mixture thereof.

(4) “Real property security” means any real property and improvements, other than a separate interest and any related interest in the common area of a residential common interest development, as the terms “separate interest,” “common area,” and “common interest development” are defined in Sections 4095, 4100, and 4185 of the Civil Code, or real property which contains only 1 to 15 dwelling units, which in either case (A) is solely used (i) for residential purposes, or (ii) if reasonably contemplated by the parties to the deed of trust or mortgage, for residential purposes as well as limited agricultural or commercial purposes incidental thereto, and (B) is the subject of an issued certificate of occupancy unless the dwelling is to be owned and occupied by the borrower.

(5) “Release” means any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment, including continuing migration, of hazardous substances into, onto, or through soil, surface water, or groundwater. The term does not include actions directly relating to the incorporation in a lawful manner of building materials into a permanent improvement to the real property security.

(6) “Secured lender” means the beneficiary under a deed of trust against the real property security, or the mortgagee under a mortgage against the real property security, and any successor-in-interest of the beneficiary or mortgagee to the deed of trust or mortgage.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 181, Sec. 47. (AB 806) Effective January 1, 2013. Operative January 1, 2014, by Sec. 86 of Ch. 181.)

CCPCode of Civil Procedure - CCP