Code Section Group

Business and Professions Code - BPC

DIVISION 8. SPECIAL BUSINESS REGULATIONS [18400 - 22948.25]

  ( Division 8 added by Stats. 1941, Ch. 44. )

CHAPTER 4. Horse Racing [19400 - 19668]

  ( Chapter 4 repealed and added by Stats. 1959, Ch. 1828. )

ARTICLE 9.1. Exchange Wagering [19604.5 - 19604.7]
  ( Article 9.1 added by Stats. 2010, Ch. 283, Sec. 5. )

19604.5.
  

(a) As used in this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) “Back” means to wager on a selected outcome occurring in a given market.

(2) “Board” means the California Horse Racing Board.

(3) “Corrective wager” means an exchange wager placed by the exchange wagering licensee in a given market, under circumstances approved by the board, in order to address the impact on that market of the cancellation or voiding of a given matched wager or a given part of a matched wager.

(4) “Exchange” means a system operated by an exchange wagering licensee in which the exchange wagering licensee maintains one or more markets in which persons may back or lay a selected outcome.

(5) “Exchange revenues” means all charges, fees, income, payments, revenues, and deductions of any kind assessed or collected by, or paid or delivered to, an exchange wagering licensee in connection with the submission of any exchange wagers to the exchange wagering licensee by residents of California and residents of jurisdictions outside of California on the results of horse races conducted in California, and by residents of California on the results of horse races conducted outside of California.

(6) “Exchange wagers” means wagers submitted to an exchange wagering licensee to be posted in a market on an exchange.

(7) “Exchange wagering” means a form of parimutuel wagering in which two or more persons place identically opposing wagers in a given market.

(8) “Exchange wagering account” means the account established with an exchange wagering licensee by a person participating in exchange wagering. An exchange wagering account may only be established or maintained with an exchange wagering licensee by a natural person.

(9) “Exchange wagering agreement” means a written agreement by and among the applicable exchange wagering licensee, the applicable racing association or racing fair conducting live racing in this state, and the horsemen’s organization responsible for negotiating purse agreements for the breed on which exchange wagers are accepted, provided that the terms and conditions for the permitted use of the signal by the exchange wagering licensee, and the compensation to the applicable racing association or racing fair and the horsemen’s organization, include provisions for, but are not limited to, all of the following:

(A) Calculation of any and all amounts earned and payable to the applicable racing association or racing fair and horsemen’s organization.

(B) Audit rights and conditions.

(C) Duration terms.

(D) Contractual remedies.

(10) “Exchange wagering licensee” means a person located within or outside of California that is authorized to offer exchange wagering to residents of California pursuant to this section.

(11) “Identically opposing wagers” means wagers in which one or more persons offer to lay a selected outcome at the same price at which one or more persons offer to back that same outcome, with the amount subject to the lay being proportionately commensurate to the amount subject to the back.

(12) “Lay” means to wager on a selected outcome not occurring in a given market.

(13) “Market” means, in relation to a given horse race or a given set of horse races, a particular outcome that is subject to exchange wagering as determined by an exchange wagering licensee.

(14) “Matched wager” means the wager that is formed when two or more persons are confirmed by the exchange operator as having placed identically opposing wagers in a given market on the exchange.

(15) “Net winnings” means the aggregate amounts payable to a person as a result of that person’s winning matched wagers in a pool less the aggregate amount paid by that person as a result of that person’s losing matched wagers in that pool.

(16) “Parimutuel” means any system whereby wagers with respect to the outcome of a horse race are placed with, or in, a wagering pool conducted by an authorized person, and in which the participants are wagering with each other and not against the person conducting the wagering pool.

(17) “Person” means any individual, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, or other association or organization.

(18) “Pool” means the total of all matched wagers in a given market.

(19) “Price” means the odds for a given exchange wager.

(20) “Unmatched wager” means a wager or portion of a wager placed in a given market within an exchange that does not become part of a matched wager because there are not one or more available exchange wagers in that market with which to form one or more identically opposing wagers.

(21) “Zone” has the same meaning as defined in Section 19530.5, as modified by subdivision (f) of Section 19601, except that for purposes of this section the combined central and southern zones shall be considered one “central/southern” zone.

(b) Notwithstanding any other law, rule, or regulation, exchange wagering by residents of California and residents of jurisdictions outside of California on the results of horse races conducted in California, and by residents of California on the results of horse races conducted outside of California, shall be lawful provided that all of the following apply:

(1) Exchange wagering shall only be conducted by an exchange wagering licensee pursuant to a valid exchange wagering license issued by the board.

(2) No exchange wagering licensee shall accept exchange wagers on races conducted in California from a resident of California or a resident of a jurisdiction outside California, or conducted outside California from a resident of California, unless an exchange wagering agreement exists allowing these wagers.

(3) Exchange wagering shall be conducted pursuant to and in compliance with the provisions of the Interstate Horseracing Act of 1978 (15 U.S.C. Sec. 3001 et seq.), as amended, this section, all applicable federal laws, and rules and regulations promulgated by the board pursuant to this section.

(4) An exchange wagering licensee may only offer exchange wagering on thoroughbred horse races, whether these thoroughbred races are conducted within or outside of this state, to persons whose primary residence address is in the northern zone of this state if it has an exchange wagering agreement with (A) the racing association or racing fair located in the northern zone authorized by the board to conduct a live thoroughbred racing meeting in accordance with the provisions of Article 4 (commencing with Section 19480) at that time, or during the calendar period, when the exchange wagering licensee is offering exchange wagering to persons whose primary residence is in the northern zone of this state, and (B) the horsemen’s organization responsible for negotiating purse agreements for a live thoroughbred racing meeting.

(5) An exchange wagering licensee may only offer exchange wagering on thoroughbred horse races, whether these thoroughbred races are conducted within or outside of this state, to persons whose primary residence address is in the central/southern zone of this state if it has an exchange wagering agreement with (A) the racing association or racing fair located in the central/southern zone authorized by the board to conduct a live thoroughbred racing meeting in accordance with the provisions of Article 4 (commencing with Section 19480) at that time, or during the calendar period, when the exchange wagering licensee is offering exchange wagering to persons whose primary residence is in the central/southern zone of this state, and (B) the horsemen’s organization responsible for negotiating purse agreements for a live thoroughbred racing meeting.

(6) An exchange wagering licensee may only offer exchange wagering on quarter horse races, whether these quarter horse races are conducted within or outside of this state, to persons whose primary residence address is in this state if it has an exchange wagering agreement with (A) the racing association or racing fair located in the state authorized by the board to conduct a live quarter horse racing meeting in accordance with the provisions of Article 4 (commencing with Section 19480) at that time, or during the calendar period, when the exchange wagering licensee is offering exchange wagering to persons whose primary residence is this state, and (B) the horsemen’s organization responsible for negotiating purse agreements for the live quarter horse racing meeting.

(7) An exchange wagering licensee may only offer exchange wagering on standardbred horse races, whether these standardbred horse races are conducted within or outside of this state, to persons whose primary residence address is in this state if it has an exchange wagering agreement with (A) the racing association or racing fair located in the state authorized by the board to conduct a live standardbred racing meeting in accordance with the provisions of Article 4 (commencing with Section 19480) at that time, or during the calendar period, when the exchange wagering licensee is offering exchange wagering to persons whose primary residence is this state, and (B) the horsemen’s organization responsible for negotiating purse agreements for the live standardbred racing meeting.

(8) Exchange wagers are submitted to, and accepted by, an exchange wagering licensee in person, by direct telephone call, or by communication through other electronic media.

(c) A person shall not be permitted to open an exchange wagering account, or place an exchange wager, except in accordance with federal law, this section, and rules and regulations promulgated by the board. Only natural persons with valid exchange wagering accounts may place wagers through an exchange. To establish an exchange wagering account, a person shall be at least 18 years of age and a resident of California or of another jurisdiction within which the placement of exchange wagers would not be unlawful under United States federal law or the law of that jurisdiction.

(d) The board shall approve, as part of the exchange wagering licensee’s application for an exchange wagering license, security policies and safeguards to ensure player protection and integrity, including, but not limited to, provisions governing the acceptance of electronic applications for persons establishing exchange wagering accounts, location and age verification confirmation for persons establishing exchange wagering accounts, the use of identifying factors to ensure security of individual accounts, and the requirements for management of funds in exchange wagering accounts. An exchange wagering licensee may not accept a wager, or series of wagers, if the results of the wager or wagers would create a liability for the exchange wagering accountholder that is in excess of the funds on deposit in the exchange wagering account of that holder.

(e) Notwithstanding any other law, rule, or regulation:

(1) The board shall have full power to prescribe rules, regulations, and conditions under which exchange wagering may be conducted in California consistent with this section, including the manner in which exchange wagers may be accepted and the requirements for any person to participate in exchange wagering.

(2) Before promulgating rules, regulations, and conditions under which exchange wagering may be conducted in California, the board shall consider studies or comments submitted by interested parties on the impact of exchange wagering on parimutuel betting and the economics of the California horse racing industry to assist the board in developing rules, regulations, and conditions for exchange wagering that are in the best interest of the public and the California horse racing industry. The board may set a timeframe for comments and studies to be submitted by interested parties and for the board to consider the studies and comments so as to allow sufficient time, in the discretion of the board, to allow for the promulgation of rules, regulations, and conditions for exchange wagering and the issuance of licenses for exchange wagering before May 1, 2012.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the board shall adopt the following rules:

(A) An owner, authorized agent, trainer, jockey, jockey’s agent, driver, or stable employee shall not place an exchange wager to lay any entrant in a horse race that is owned in whole or part by that owner or the owner represented by that authorized agent, trained by that trainer or stable employee, ridden by that jockey or the jockey represented by that jockey’s agent, or driven by that driver.

(B) No exchange wagers shall be placed on a market after the conclusion of a live race. Exchange wagering on previously run races is prohibited.

(C) The exchange wagering licensee shall provide a person with information on the race, including the track where the race will take place and the names of the participating horses, before the person may place an exchange wager.

(D) The exchange wagering licensee shall require the person making the exchange wager to select the specific race and horse for the wager. The use of automatic, quick-pick, or similar features to aid in the placing of a wager shall be prohibited.

(E) The results of a wager shall not be displayed through the use of video or mechanical reels or other slot machine or casino game themes, including, but not limited to, dice games, wheel games, card games, and lotto.

(4) The board shall have full power to prescribe rules, regulations, and conditions under which all exchange wagering licenses are issued or renewed in California, including requiring an annual audit of the exchange wagering licensee’s books and records pertaining to exchange wagering, and to revoke, suspend, or refuse to renew a license pursuant to the authority granted to the board in this chapter.

(5) The board may reasonably require licensure or registration of officers or directors of any exchange wagering licensee.

(6) The board may recover any costs associated with the licensing or regulation of exchange wagering from the exchange wagering licensee by imposing an assessment on the exchange wagering licensee in an amount that does not exceed the reasonable costs associated with the licensing or regulation of exchange wagering. Funds received pursuant to this subdivision shall be deposited in the Horse Racing Fund, to be available upon appropriation by the Legislature for the sole purpose of regulating exchange wagering.

(f) (1) The board shall not approve an application for an original or renewal license as an exchange wagering licensee unless the entity, if requested in writing by a bona fide labor organization no later than 90 days before licensing, has entered into a contractual agreement with that labor organization that provides all of the following:

(A) The labor organization has historically represented employees who accept or process any form of wagering at the nearest horse racing meeting located in California.

(B) The agreement establishes the method by which the exchange wagering licensee will agree to recognize and bargain in good faith with a labor organization that has demonstrated majority status by submitting authorization cards signed by those employees who accept or process any form of wagering for which a California exchange wagering license is required.

(C) The agreement requires the exchange wagering licensee to maintain its neutrality concerning the choice of those employees who accept or process any form of wagering for which a California exchange wagering license is required and whether or not to authorize the labor organization to represent them with regard to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment.

(D) The agreement applies to those classifications of employees who accept or process wagers for which a California exchange wagering license is required, whether the facility is located within or outside of California.

(2) (A) The agreement required by paragraph (1) shall not be conditioned by either party upon the other party agreeing to matters outside the requirements of paragraph (1).

(B) The requirement in paragraph (1) shall not apply to an exchange wagering licensee that has entered into a collective bargaining agreement with a bona fide labor organization that is the exclusive bargaining representative of employees who accept or process parimutuel wagers on races for which an exchange wagering license is required, whether the facility is located within or outside of California.

(3) Permanent state or county employees and nonprofit organizations that have historically performed certain services at county, state, or district fairs may continue to provide those services.

(4) Parimutuel clerks employed by racing associations or fairs or employees of exchange wagering licensees who accept or process any form of wagers who are laid off due to lack of work shall have preferential hiring rights for new positions with their employer in occupations whose duties include accepting or processing any form of wagers, or the operation, repair, service, or maintenance of equipment that accepts or processes any form of wagering at a racetrack, satellite wagering facility, or exchange wagering licensee licensed by the board. The preferential hiring rights established by this paragraph shall be conditioned upon the employee meeting the minimum qualification requirements of the new job.

(g) Notwithstanding any other law, rule, or regulation, an exchange wagering licensee shall not be required to include any pools of exchange wagers in the wagering pools at the racing association or racing fair conducting the races, nor shall an exchange wagering licensee be required to retain, withhold, or take out any amounts from any exchange wagers, except as expressly set forth in the applicable exchange wagering agreement.

(h) Subject to the approval of the board, an exchange wagering licensee shall be permitted to collect exchange revenues in the manner and amounts determined by the exchange wagering licensee, including, but not limited to, assessing a surcharge on any person’s net winnings.

(i) Notwithstanding any other law, rule, or regulation, the board shall require all of the following:

(1) Each exchange wagering licensee shall distribute all moneys in each pool, net of any fees, charges, or deductions of any kind assessed or collected by the exchange wagering licensee in connection with matched wagers in that pool, at the conclusion of the race or races associated with that pool.

(2) Each exchange wagering licensee shall distribute the portions of the exchange wagering licensee’s exchange revenues as may be required pursuant to the exchange wagering agreement pursuant to paragraphs (2) to (7), inclusive, of subdivision (b).

(3) Fifty percent of the amounts received by a racing association or racing fair from exchange wagering shall be paid to horsemen participating in the meetings conducted by that racing association or racing fair in the form of purses. The allocation of amounts received by a racing association or racing fair from exchange wagering between that racing association or racing fair and the horsemen participating in the meetings conducted by that racing association or racing fair may be modified by a written agreement between those entities.

(4) In addition to payments set forth in paragraphs (1) and (2), each exchange wagering licensee shall distribute, on an annual basis, for the purposes specified in Section 19612.9, an amount equal to the greater of (A) one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), or (B) an amount equal to 0.001 multiplied by the total amount of exchange revenues collected by the exchange wagering licensee in that calendar year. The distribution shall be made at the direction of the board pursuant to Section 19612.9. This paragraph shall become inoperative on January 1 immediately following the year in which the 10th annual distribution of funds is made pursuant to Section 19612.9, and, as of that date, is repealed.

(j) An exchange wagering licensee may cancel or allow to be canceled any unmatched wagers, without cause, at any time.

(k) The board may prescribe rules governing when an exchange wagering licensee may cancel or void a matched wager or part of a matched wager, and the actions that an exchange wagering licensee may take when all or part of a matched wager is canceled or voided. The rules may include, but are not limited to, permitting the exchange wagering licensee to place corrective wagers under circumstances approved in the rules adopted by the board. Exchange wagers placed on a market after the start of a race shall be lawful if authorized by the board, racing association, or racing fair conducting the races, and the horsemen’s organization responsible for negotiating purse agreements for the breed on which the exchange wager is made.

(l) The provisions of this section shall be deemed to be severable, and if any phrase, clause, sentence, or provision of this section is declared to be unconstitutional or the applicability thereof to any person is held invalid, the remainder of this section shall not thereby be deemed to be unconstitutional or invalid.

(m) The board shall promulgate administrative rules and regulations to effectuate the purposes of this section.

(n) No exchange wagering licensee may accept exchange wagers pursuant to this section before May 1, 2012.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 435, Sec. 2. (AB 1423) Effective January 1, 2014. Para. (4) of subd. (i) is inoperative on date prescribed by its own provisions. Inoperative May 1, 2020. Repealed as of January 1, 2021, pursuant to Section 19604.7.)

19604.6.
  

Any racing association or racing fair receiving distributions from any exchange wagering agreement, as may be required pursuant to paragraphs (4) and (5) of subdivision (b) of Section 19604.5, shall distribute revenue equal to 0.16 percent of the total exchange wagering revenues generated pursuant to the exchange wagering agreement to the official registering agency. The official registering agency shall distribute the funds received pursuant to this section in the manner prescribed in subdivisions (b) to (d), inclusive, of Section 19617.2.

(Added by Stats. 2013, Ch. 264, Sec. 1. (AB 432) Effective January 1, 2014. Inoperative May 1, 2020. Repealed as of January 1, 2021, pursuant to Section 19604.7.)

19604.7.
  

This article shall become inoperative on May 1, 2020, and, as of January 1, 2021, is repealed, unless a later enacted statute, that becomes operative on or before January 1, 2021, deletes or extends the dates on which it becomes inoperative and is repealed.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 335, Sec. 1. (AB 2808) Effective January 1, 2017. Inoperative May 1, 2020. Repealed as of January 1, 2021, by its own provisions. Note: Termination clause affects Article 9.1, commencing with Section 19604.5.)

BPCBusiness and Professions Code - BPC9.1