Code Section Group

Business and Professions Code - BPC

DIVISION 2. HEALING ARTS [500 - 4999.129]

  ( Division 2 enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 399. )

CHAPTER 6.6. Psychologists [2900 - 2999]

  ( Chapter 6.6 repealed and added by Stats. 1967, Ch. 1677. )

ARTICLE 1. General Provisions [2900 - 2919]
  ( Article 1 added by Stats. 1967, Ch. 1677. )

2900.
  

The Legislature finds and declares that practice of psychology in California affects the public health, safety, and welfare and is to be subject to regulation and control in the public interest to protect the public from the unauthorized and unqualified practice of psychology and from unprofessional conduct by persons licensed to practice psychology.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1967, Ch. 1677.)

2901.
  

This chapter shall be known and may be cited as the “Psychology Licensing Law.”

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1967, Ch. 1677.)

2902.
  

As used in this chapter, unless the context clearly requires otherwise and except as in this chapter expressly otherwise provided the following definitions apply:

(a) “Licensed psychologist” means an individual to whom a license has been issued pursuant to the provisions of this chapter, which license is in force and has not been suspended or revoked.

(b) “Board” means the Board of Psychology.

(c) A person represents himself or herself to be a psychologist when the person holds himself or herself out to the public by any title or description of services incorporating the words “psychology,” “psychological,” “psychologist,” “psychology consultation,” “psychology consultant,” “psychometry,” “psychometrics” or “psychometrist,” “psychotherapy,” “psychotherapist,” “psychoanalysis,” or “psychoanalyst,” or when the person holds himself or herself out to be trained, experienced, or an expert in the field of psychology.

(d) “Accredited,” as used with reference to academic institutions, means the University of California, the California State University, or an institution that is accredited by a national or an applicable regional accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education.

(e) “Approved,” as used with reference to academic institutions, means an institution having “approval to operate”, as defined in Section 94718 of the Education Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2004, Ch. 695, Sec. 19. Effective January 1, 2005.)

2903.
  

(a) No person may engage in the practice of psychology, or represent himself or herself to be a psychologist, without a license granted under this chapter, except as otherwise provided in this chapter. The practice of psychology is defined as rendering or offering to render to individuals, groups, organizations, or the public any psychological service involving the application of psychological principles, methods, and procedures of understanding, predicting, and influencing behavior, such as the principles pertaining to learning, perception, motivation, emotions, and interpersonal relationships; and the methods and procedures of interviewing, counseling, psychotherapy, behavior modification, and hypnosis; and of constructing, administering, and interpreting tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, attitudes, personality characteristics, emotions, and motivations.

(b) The application of these principles and methods includes, but is not restricted to: assessment, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and intervention to increase effective functioning of individuals, groups, and organizations.

(c) Psychotherapy within the meaning of this chapter means the use of psychological methods in a professional relationship to assist a person or persons to acquire greater human effectiveness or to modify feelings, conditions, attitudes, and behaviors that are emotionally, intellectually, or socially ineffectual or maladaptive.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 529, Sec. 1. (AB 1374) Effective January 1, 2016.)

2903.1.
  

A psychologist licensed under this chapter may use biofeedback instruments which do not pierce or cut the skin to measure physical and mental functioning.

(Added by Stats. 1976, Ch. 734.)

2904.
  

The practice of psychology shall not include prescribing drugs, performing surgery or administering electroconvulsive therapy.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1967, Ch. 1677.)

2904.5.
  

A psychologist licensed under this chapter is a licentiate for purposes of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 805, and thus is a health care provider subject to the provisions of Section 2290.5.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 799, Sec. 17. (SB 1575) Effective January 1, 2013.)

2905.
  

The practice of psychology shall be as defined as in Section 2903, any existing statute in the State of California to the contrary notwithstanding.

(Added by Stats. 1967, Ch. 1677.)

2907.
  

Corporations shall have no professional rights, privileges, or powers, and shall not be permitted to practice psychology, nor shall the liability of any licensed psychologist be limited by a corporation.

(Added by Stats. 1967, Ch. 1677.)

2907.5.
  

Nothing in Section 2907 shall be deemed to apply to the acts of a psychological corporation practicing pursuant to the Moscone-Knox Professional Corporation Act, as contained in Part 4 (commencing with Section 13400) of Division 3 of Title 1 of the Corporations Code and Article 9 (commencing with Section 2995) when the psychological corporation is in compliance with (a) the Moscone-Knox Professional Corporation Act; (b) Article 9 (commencing with Section 2995); and (c) all other statutes now or hereafter enacted or adopted pertaining to such corporation and the conduct of its affairs.

(Amended by Stats. 1980, Ch. 1314, Sec. 11.)

2908.
  

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent qualified members of other recognized professional groups licensed to practice in the State of California, such as, but not limited to, physicians, clinical social workers, educational psychologists, marriage and family therapists, optometrists, psychiatric technicians, or registered nurses, or attorneys admitted to the California State Bar, or persons utilizing hypnotic techniques by referral from persons licensed to practice medicine, dentistry or psychology, or persons utilizing hypnotic techniques which offer avocational or vocational self-improvement and do not offer therapy for emotional or mental disorders, or duly ordained members of the recognized clergy, or duly ordained religious practitioners from doing work of a psychological nature consistent with the laws governing their respective professions, provided they do not hold themselves out to the public by any title or description of services incorporating the words “psychological,” “psychologist,” “psychology,” “psychometrist,” “psychometrics,” or “psychometry,” or that they do not state or imply that they are licensed to practice psychology; except that persons licensed under Article 5 (commencing with Section 4986) of Chapter 13 of Division 2 may hold themselves out to the public as licensed educational psychologists.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 1013, Sec. 10. Effective January 1, 2003.)

2909.
  

This chapter shall not be construed as restricting or preventing activities of a psychological nature or the use of the official title of the position for which they were employed on the part of the following persons, provided those persons are performing those activities as part of the duties for which they were employed, are performing those activities solely within the confines of or under the jurisdiction of the organization in which they are employed, and do not render or offer to render psychological services, as defined in Section 2903:

(a) Persons who hold a valid and current credential as a school psychologist issued by the Commission on Teacher Credentialing.

(b) Persons who are employed in positions as psychologists or psychological assistants by accredited or approved colleges, junior colleges, or universities, or by federal, state, county, or municipal governmental organizations that are not primarily involved in the provision of direct health or mental health services, may conduct research and disseminate their research findings and scientific information.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 218, Sec. 1. (AB 705) Effective January 1, 2016.)

2909.5.
  

This chapter shall not be construed as restricting or preventing activities of a psychological nature or the use of the official title of the position for which persons were employed on the part of persons who meet the educational requirements of subdivision (b) of Section 2914 and who have one year or more of the supervised professional experience referenced in subdivision (c) of Section 2914, if they are employed by nonprofit community agencies that receive a minimum of 25 percent of their financial support from any federal, state, county, or municipal governmental organizations for the purpose of training and providing services, provided those persons are performing those activities as part of the duties for which they were employed, are performing those activities solely within the confines of or under the jurisdiction of the organization in which they are employed and do not render or offer to render psychological services to the public, as defined in Section 2903. Those persons shall be registered by the agency with the board at the time of employment and shall be identified in the setting as a “registered psychologist.” Those persons shall be exempt from this chapter for a maximum period of 30 months from the date of registration.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 484, Sec. 1. (SB 1193) Effective January 1, 2017.)

2910.
  

(a) This chapter shall not be construed to restrict the practice of psychology on the part of persons who are salaried employees of accredited or approved academic institutions, public schools, or governmental agencies, if those employees are complying with the following:

(1) Performing those psychological activities as part of the duties for which they were hired.

(2) Performing those activities solely within the jurisdiction or confines of those organizations.

(3) Do not hold themselves out to the public by any title or description of activities incorporating the words “psychology,” “psychological,” or “psychologist.”

(4) Are primarily gaining the supervised professional experience required for licensure that is being accrued consistent with the board’s regulations and the employees have as the primary supervisor a psychologist licensed in the state.

(b) Commencing January 1, 2016, an individual employed or who becomes employed by one or more employers as described in subdivision (a) shall be exempt under this section for a cumulative total of five years.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 218, Sec. 3. (AB 705) Effective January 1, 2016.)

2911.
  

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as restricting the activities and services of a graduate student or psychological intern in psychology pursuing a course of study leading to a graduate degree in psychology at an accredited or approved college or university and working in a training program, or a postdoctoral trainee working in a postdoctoral placement overseen by the American Psychological Association (APA), the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC), or the California Psychology Internship Council (CAPIC), provided that these activities and services constitute a part of his or her supervised course of study and that those persons are designated by the title “psychological intern,” “psychological trainee,” “postdoctoral intern,” or another title clearly indicating the training status appropriate to his or her level of training. The aforementioned terms shall be reserved for persons enrolled in the doctoral program leading to one of the degrees listed in subdivision (b) of Section 2914 at an accredited or approved college or university or in a formal postdoctoral internship overseen by APA, APPIC, or CAPIC.

(Amended by Stats. 2005, Ch. 658, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2006.)

2912.
  

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to restrict or prevent a person who is licensed as a psychologist at the doctoral level in another state or territory of the United States or in Canada from offering psychological services in this state for a period not to exceed 30 days in any calendar year.

(Amended by Stats. 2005, Ch. 658, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 2006.)

2913.
  

A person other than a licensed psychologist may perform psychological functions in preparation for licensure as a psychologist only if all of the following conditions are met:

(a) The person shall register himself or herself with the board as a “psychological assistant.” This registration shall be renewed annually in accordance with regulations adopted by the board.

(b) The person (1) has completed a master’s degree in psychology or education with the field of specialization in psychology or counseling psychology, or (2) has been admitted to candidacy for a doctoral degree in psychology or education with the field of specialization in psychology or counseling psychology, after having satisfactorily completed three or more years of postgraduate education in psychology and having passed preliminary doctoral examinations, or (3) has completed a doctoral degree that qualifies for licensure under Section 2914.

(c) (1) The psychological assistant is at all times under the immediate supervision, as defined in regulations adopted by the board, of a licensed psychologist, or a licensed physician and surgeon who is certified in psychiatry by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology or the American College of Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry, who shall be responsible for insuring that the extent, kind, and quality of the psychological services that the psychological assistant performs are consistent with his or her training and experience and be responsible for the psychological assistant’s compliance with this chapter and regulations.

(2) A licensed psychologist or board certified psychiatrist shall not supervise more than three psychological assistants at any given time. No psychological assistant may provide psychological services to the public except as a supervisee pursuant to this section.

(d) The psychological assistant shall comply with regulations that the board may, from time to time, duly adopt relating to the fulfillment of requirements in continuing education.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 484, Sec. 2. (SB 1193) Effective January 1, 2017.)

2914.
  

Each applicant for licensure shall comply with all of the following requirements:

(a) Is not subject to denial of licensure under Division 1.5 (commencing with Section 475).

(b) Possess an earned doctorate degree (1) in psychology, (2) in educational psychology, or (3) in education with the field of specialization in counseling psychology or educational psychology. Except as provided in subdivision (h), this degree or training shall be obtained from an accredited university, college, or professional school. The board shall make the final determination as to whether a degree meets the requirements of this section.

(c) (1) On or after January 1, 2020, possess an earned doctorate degree in psychology, in educational psychology, or in education with the field of specialization in counseling psychology or educational psychology from a college or institution of higher education that is accredited by a regional accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education. Until January 1, 2020, the board may accept an applicant who possesses a doctorate degree in psychology, educational psychology, or in education with the field of specialization in counseling psychology or educational psychology from an institution that is not accredited by an accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education, but is approved to operate in this state by the Bureau for Private Postsecondary Education.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to any student who was enrolled in a doctoral program in psychology, educational psychology, or in education with the field of specialization in counseling psychology or educational psychology at a nationally accredited or approved institution as of December 31, 2016.

(3) No educational institution shall be denied recognition as an accredited academic institution solely because its program is not accredited by any professional organization of psychologists, and nothing in this chapter or in the administration of this chapter shall require the registration with the board by educational institutions of their departments of psychology or their doctoral programs in psychology.

(4) An applicant for licensure trained in an educational institution outside the United States or Canada shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the board that he or she possesses a doctorate degree in psychology that is equivalent to a degree earned from a regionally accredited university in the United States or Canada. These applicants shall provide the board with a comprehensive evaluation of the degree performed by a foreign credential evaluation service that is a member of the National Association of Credential Evaluation Services (NACES), and any other documentation the board deems necessary.

(d) (1) Have engaged for at least two years in supervised professional experience under the direction of a licensed psychologist, the specific requirements of which shall be defined by the board in its regulations, or under suitable alternative supervision as determined by the board in regulations duly adopted under this chapter, at least one year of which shall be after being awarded the doctorate in psychology. The supervisor shall submit verification of the experience required by this subdivision to the trainee in a manner prescribed by the board. If the supervising licensed psychologist fails to provide verification to the trainee in a timely manner, the board may establish alternative procedures for obtaining the necessary documentation. Absent good cause, the failure of a supervising licensed psychologist to provide the verification to the board upon request shall constitute unprofessional conduct.

(2) The board shall establish qualifications by regulation for supervising psychologists.

(e) Take and pass the examination required by Section 2941 unless otherwise exempted by the board under this chapter.

(f) Show by evidence satisfactory to the board that he or she has completed training in the detection and treatment of alcohol and other chemical substance dependency. This requirement applies only to applicants who matriculate on or after September 1, 1985.

(g) (1) Show by evidence satisfactory to the board that he or she has completed coursework in spousal or partner abuse assessment, detection, and intervention. This requirement applies to applicants who began graduate training during the period commencing on January 1, 1995, and ending on December 31, 2003.

(2) An applicant who began graduate training on or after January 1, 2004, shall show by evidence satisfactory to the board that he or she has completed a minimum of 15 contact hours of coursework in spousal or partner abuse assessment, detection, and intervention strategies, including knowledge of community resources, cultural factors, and same gender abuse dynamics. An applicant may request an exemption from this requirement if he or she intends to practice in an area that does not include the direct provision of mental health services.

(3) Coursework required under this subdivision may be satisfactory if taken either in fulfillment of other educational requirements for licensure or in a separate course. This requirement for coursework shall be satisfied by, and the board shall accept in satisfaction of the requirement, a certification from the chief academic officer of the educational institution from which the applicant graduated that the required coursework is included within the institution’s required curriculum for graduation.

(h) Until January 1, 2020, an applicant holding a doctoral degree in psychology from an approved institution is deemed to meet the requirements of this section if both of the following are true:

(1) The approved institution offered a doctoral degree in psychology designed to prepare students for a license to practice psychology and was approved by the former Bureau for Private Postsecondary and Vocational Education on or before July 1, 1999.

(2) The approved institution has not, since July 1, 1999, had a new location, as described in Section 94823.5 of the Education Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 484, Sec. 3. (SB 1193) Effective January 1, 2017.)

2914.1.
  

The board shall encourage every licensed psychologist to take continuing professional development in geriatric pharmacology.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 484, Sec. 4. (SB 1193) Effective January 1, 2017.)

2914.2.
  

The board shall encourage licensed psychologists to take continuing professional development in psychopharmacology and biological basis of behavior.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 484, Sec. 5. (SB 1193) Effective January 1, 2017.)

2914.3.
  

(a) The board shall encourage institutions that offer a doctorate degree program in psychology to include in their biobehavioral curriculum, education and training in psychopharmacology and related topics including pharmacology and clinical pharmacology.

(b) The board shall develop guidelines for the basic education and training of psychologists whose practices include patients with medical conditions and patients with mental and emotional disorders, who may require psychopharmacological treatment and whose management may require collaboration with physicians and other licensed prescribers. In developing these guidelines for training, the board shall consider, but not be limited to, all of the following:

(1) The American Psychological Association’s guidelines for training in the biological bases of mental and emotional disorders.

(2) The necessary educational foundation for understanding the biochemical and physiological bases for mental disorders.

(3) Evaluation of the response to psychotropic compounds, including the effects and side effects.

(4) Competent basic practical and theoretical knowledge of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and neurophysiology relevant to research and clinical practice.

(5) Knowledge of the biological bases of psychopharmacology.

(6) The locus of action of psychoactive substances and mechanisms by which these substances affect brain function and other systems of the body.

(7) Knowledge of the psychopharmacology of classes of drugs commonly used to treat mental disorders.

(8) Drugs that are commonly abused that may or may not have therapeutic uses.

(9) Education of patients and significant support persons in the risks, benefits, and treatment alternatives to medication.

(10) Appropriate collaboration or consultation with physicians or other prescribers to include the assessment of the need for additional treatment that may include medication or other medical evaluation and treatment and the patient’s mental capacity to consent to additional treatment to enhance both the physical and the mental status of the persons being treated.

(11) Knowledge of signs that warrant consideration for referral to a physician.

(c) This section is intended to provide for training of clinical psychologists to improve the ability of clinical psychologists to collaborate with physicians. It is not intended to provide for training psychologists to prescribe medication. Nothing in this section is intended to expand the scope of licensure of psychologists.

(Added by Stats. 1998, Ch. 822, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1999.)

2915.
  

(a) Except as provided in this section, the board shall issue a renewal license only to an applicant who has completed 36 hours of approved continuing professional development in the preceding two years.

(b) Each person who applies to renew or reinstate his or her license issued pursuant to this chapter shall certify under penalty of perjury that he or she is in compliance with this section and shall retain proof of this compliance for submission to the board upon request. False statements submitted pursuant to this section shall be a violation of Section 2970.

(c) Continuing professional development means certain continuing education learning activities approved in four different categories:

(1) Professional.

(2) Academic.

(3) Sponsored continuing education coursework.

(4) Board certification from the American Board of Professional Psychology.

The board may develop regulations further defining acceptable continuing professional development activities.

(d) (1) The board shall require a licensed psychologist who began graduate study prior to January 1, 2004, to take a continuing education course during his or her first renewal period after the operative date of this section in spousal or partner abuse assessment, detection, and intervention strategies, including community resources, cultural factors, and same gender abuse dynamics. Equivalent courses in spousal or partner abuse assessment, detection, and intervention strategies taken prior to the operative date of this section or proof of equivalent teaching or practice experience may be submitted to the board and at its discretion, may be accepted in satisfaction of this requirement.

(2) Continuing education courses taken pursuant to this subdivision shall be applied to the 36 hours of approved continuing professional development required under subdivision (a).

(e) Continuing education courses approved to meet the requirements of this section shall be approved by organizations approved by the board. An organization previously approved by the board to provide or approve continuing education is deemed approved under this section.

(f) The board may accept continuing education courses approved by an entity that has demonstrated to the board in writing that it has, at a minimum, a 10-year history of providing educational programming for psychologists and has documented procedures for maintaining a continuing education approval program. The board shall adopt regulations necessary for implementing this section.

(g) The board may grant an exemption, or an extension of the time for compliance with, from the continuing professional development requirement of this section.

(h) The administration of this section may be funded through professional license fees and continuing education provider and course approval fees, or both. The fees related to the administration of this section shall not exceed the costs of administering the corresponding provisions of this section.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 484, Sec. 6. (SB 1193) Effective January 1, 2017.)

2915.4.
  

(a) Effective January 1, 2020, an applicant for licensure as a psychologist shall show, as part of the application, that he or she has completed a minimum of six hours of coursework or applied experience under supervision in suicide risk assessment and intervention. This requirement shall be met in one of the following ways:

(1) Obtained as part of his or her qualifying graduate degree program. To satisfy this requirement, the applicant shall submit to the board a written certification from the registrar or training director of the educational institution or program from which the applicant graduated stating that the coursework required by this section is included within the institution’s curriculum required for graduation at the time the applicant graduated, or within the coursework that was completed by the applicant.

(2) Obtained as part of his or her applied experience. Applied experience can be met in any of the following settings: practicum, internship, or formal postdoctoral placement that meets the requirement of Section 2911, or other qualifying supervised professional experience. To satisfy this requirement, the applicant shall submit to the board a written certification from the director of training for the program or primary supervisor where the qualifying experience has occurred stating that the training required by this section is included within the applied experience.

(3) By taking a continuing education course that meets the requirements of subdivision (e) or (f) of Section 2915 and that qualifies as a continuing education learning activity category specified in paragraph (2) or (3) of subdivision (c) of Section 2915. To satisfy this requirement, the applicant shall submit to the board a certification of completion.

(b) Effective January 1, 2020, as a one-time requirement, a licensee prior to the time of his or her first renewal after the operative date of this section, or an applicant for reactivation or reinstatement to an active license status, shall have completed a minimum of six hours of coursework or applied experience under supervision in suicide risk assessment and intervention, as specified in subdivision (a). Proof of compliance with this section shall be certified under penalty of perjury that he or she is in compliance with this section and shall be retained for submission to the board upon request.

(Added by Stats. 2017, Ch. 182, Sec. 1. (AB 89) Effective January 1, 2018.)

2915.5.
  

(a) Any applicant for licensure as a psychologist who began graduate study on or after January 1, 2004, shall complete, as a condition of licensure, a minimum of 10 contact hours of coursework in aging and long-term care, which may include, but need not be limited to, the biological, social, and psychological aspects of aging. On and after January 1, 2012, this coursework shall include instruction on the assessment and reporting of, as well as treatment related to, elder and dependent adult abuse and neglect.

(b) Coursework taken in fulfillment of other educational requirements for licensure pursuant to this chapter, or in a separate course of study, may, at the discretion of the board, fulfill the requirements of this section.

(c) In order to satisfy the coursework requirement of this section, the applicant shall submit to the board a certification from the chief academic officer of the educational institution from which the applicant graduated stating that the coursework required by this section is included within the institution’s required curriculum for graduation, or within the coursework, that was completed by the applicant.

(d) The board shall not issue a license to the applicant until the applicant has met the requirements of this section.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 552, Sec. 2. (AB 2435) Effective January 1, 2011.)

2915.7.
  

(a) A licensee who began graduate study prior to January 1, 2004, shall complete a three-hour continuing education course in aging and long-term care during his or her first renewal period after the operative date of this section, and shall submit to the board evidence acceptable to the board of the person’s satisfactory completion of that course.

(b) The course should include, but is not limited to, the biological, social, and psychological aspects of aging. On and after January 1, 2012, this coursework shall include instruction on the assessment and reporting of, as well as treatment related to, elder and dependent adult abuse and neglect.

(c) Any person seeking to meet the requirements of subdivision (a) of this section may submit to the board a certificate evidencing completion of equivalent courses in aging and long-term care taken prior to the operative date of this section, or proof of equivalent teaching or practice experience. The board, in its discretion, may accept that certification as meeting the requirements of this section.

(d) The board may not renew an applicant’s license until the applicant has met the requirements of this section.

(e) A licensee whose practice does not include the direct provision of mental health services may apply to the board for an exception to the requirements of this section.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 552, Sec. 3. (AB 2435) Effective January 1, 2011.)

2916.
  

If any provision of this chapter or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, such invalidity shall not affect any of the provisions or applications of this chapter which can be given effect without such invalid provisions or application, and to this end the provisions of this chapter are declared to be severable.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1967, Ch. 1677.)

2918.
  

The confidential relations and communications between psychologist and client shall be privileged as provided by Article 7 (commencing with Section 1010) of Chapter 4 of Division 8 of the Evidence Code.

(Added by Stats. 1973, Ch. 757.)

2919.
  

A licensed psychologist shall retain a patient’s health service records for a minimum of seven years from the patient’s discharge date. If the patient is a minor, the patient’s health service records shall be retained for a minimum of seven years from the date the patient reaches 18 years of age.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 89, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2007.)

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