Code Section

Business and Professions Code - BPC


  ( Division 7 added by Stats. 1941, Ch. 61. )


  ( Part 3 added by Stats. 1941, Ch. 63. )

CHAPTER 1. Advertising [17500 - 17606]

  ( Chapter 1 added by Stats. 1941, Ch. 63. )

ARTICLE 1.6. Cyber Piracy [17525 - 17528.5]
  ( Article 1.6 added by Stats. 2000, Ch. 218, Sec. 1. )


(a) It is unlawful for a person, with a bad faith intent, to register, traffic in, or use a domain or subdomain name that is identical or confusingly similar to, because of, among other things, misspelling of the domain or subdomain name, either of the following:

(1) The personal name of another living person or deceased personality, without regard to the goods or services of the parties.

(2) The name of any of the following used to sell or resell, or offer to sell or resell, goods:

(A) A specific professional or collegiate sports team, professional or collegiate sports league, theme or amusement park, or venue where concerts, sports, or other live entertainment events are held.

(B) A specific event, performance, or exhibition, including the name of a person, professional or collegiate team, performance, group, or entity scheduled to perform or appear at that event.

(b) This section shall not apply in the case of a name registered as a domain name or subdomain name in either of the following circumstances:

(1) The personal name described in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) is connected to a work of authorship, including, but not limited to, fictional or nonfictional entertainment, and dramatic, literary, audiovisual, or musical works.

(2) The person whose personal name is described in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) or the authorized agent of an entity whose name is described by paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) consents to the registration, trafficking, or use of the name as a domain or subdomain name.

(c) A domain name registrar, a domain name registry, or any other domain name registration authority that takes any action described in subdivision (a) that affects a domain name shall not be liable to any person for that action, regardless of whether the domain name is finally determined to infringe or dilute a trademark or service mark.

(d) A party who has suffered injury in fact and has lost money or property as a result of a violation of this section may bring a civil action for recovery of actual, consequential, and punitive damages, if warranted, and shall be awarded reasonable attorney’s fees if the action is resolved in that party’s favor.

(e) For purposes of this section, “goods” includes tickets to a concert, sporting event, or other live entertainment event. “Goods” also includes clothing and memorabilia bearing the name or trademark of an entity described in paragraph (2) of subdivision (a).

(f) A person who registers, traffics in, or uses a domain or subdomain name in violation of paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (a) without the consent described in paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) is presumed to have done so with a bad faith intent. This presumption is a presumption affecting the burden of proof.

(g) The remedies provided by this section are cumulative and shall not be construed as restricting a remedy that is otherwise available, including, but not limited to, a remedy available under Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 14200) of Division 6, or Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 17000) of Part 2 of Division 7.

(Amended by Stats. 2020, Ch. 162, Sec. 1. (SB 342) Effective January 1, 2021.)