Code Section

Welfare and Institutions Code - WIC

DIVISION 2. CHILDREN [100 - 1500]

  ( Division 2 enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 369. )
  

PART 1. DELINQUENTS AND WARDS OF THE JUVENILE COURT [100 - 1455]

  ( Part 1 enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 369. )
  

CHAPTER 2. Juvenile Court Law [200 - 987]

  ( Chapter 2 repealed and added by Stats. 1961, Ch. 1616. )
  

ARTICLE 18. Wards—Judgments and Orders [725 - 742]
  ( Heading of Article 18 renumbered from Article 9 by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1068. )

  
730.6.  

(a) (1) It is the intent of the Legislature that a victim of conduct for which a minor is found to be a person described in Section 602 who incurs an economic loss as a result of the minor’s conduct shall receive restitution directly from that minor.

(2) Upon a minor being found to be a person described in Section 602, the court shall consider levying a fine in accordance with Section 730.5. In addition, the court shall order the minor to pay, in addition to any other penalty provided or imposed under the law, both of the following:

(A) A restitution fine in accordance with subdivision (b).

(B) Restitution to the victim or victims, if any, in accordance with subdivision (h).

(b) If a minor is found to be a person described in Section 602, the court shall impose a separate and additional restitution fine. The restitution fine shall be set at the discretion of the court and commensurate with the seriousness of the offense as follows:

(1) If the minor is found to be a person described in Section 602 by reason of the commission of one or more felony offenses, the restitution fine shall not be less than one hundred dollars ($100) and not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000). A separate hearing for the fine shall not be required.

(2) If the minor is found to be a person described in Section 602 by reason of the commission of one or more misdemeanor offenses, the restitution fine shall not exceed one hundred dollars ($100). A separate hearing for the fine shall not be required.

(c) The restitution fine shall be in addition to any other disposition or fine imposed and shall be imposed regardless of the minor’s inability to pay. This fine shall be deposited in the Restitution Fund.

(d) (1) In setting the amount of the fine pursuant to subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), the court shall consider any relevant factors including, but not limited to, the minor’s ability to pay, the seriousness and gravity of the offense and the circumstances of its commission, any economic gain derived by the minor as a result of the offense, and the extent to which others suffered losses as a result of the offense. The losses may include pecuniary losses to the victim or his or her dependents as well as intangible losses such as psychological harm caused by the offense.

(2) The consideration of a minor’s ability to pay may include his or her future earning capacity. A minor shall bear the burden of demonstrating a lack of his or her ability to pay.

(e) Express findings of the court as to the factors bearing on the amount of the fine shall not be required.

(f) Except as provided in subdivision (g), under no circumstances shall the court fail to impose the separate and additional restitution fine required by subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a). This fine shall not be subject to penalty assessments pursuant to Section 1464 of the Penal Code.

(g) (1) In a case in which the minor is a person described in Section 602 by reason of having committed a felony offense, if the court finds that there are compelling and extraordinary reasons, the court may waive imposition of the restitution fine required by subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a). If a waiver is granted, the court shall state on the record all reasons supporting the waiver.

(2) If the minor is a person described in subdivision (a) of Section 241.1, the court shall waive imposition of the restitution fine required by subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a).

(h) (1) Restitution ordered pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) shall be imposed in the amount of the losses, as determined. If the amount of loss cannot be ascertained at the time of sentencing, the restitution order shall include a provision that the amount shall be determined at the direction of the court at any time during the term of the commitment or probation. The court shall order full restitution unless it finds compelling and extraordinary reasons for not doing so, and states them on the record. A minor’s inability to pay shall not be considered a compelling or extraordinary reason not to impose a restitution order, nor shall inability to pay be a consideration in determining the amount of the restitution order. A restitution order pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), to the extent possible, shall identify each victim, unless the court for good cause finds that the order should not identify a victim or victims, and the amount of each victim’s loss to which it pertains, and shall be of a dollar amount sufficient to fully reimburse the victim or victims for all determined economic losses incurred as the result of the minor’s conduct for which the minor was found to be a person described in Section 602, including all of the following:

(A) Full or partial payment for the value of stolen or damaged property. The value of stolen or damaged property shall be the replacement cost of like property, or the actual cost of repairing the property when repair is possible.

(B) Medical expenses.

(C) Wages or profits lost due to injury incurred by the victim, and if the victim is a minor, wages or profits lost by the minor’s parent, parents, guardian, or guardians, while caring for the injured minor. Lost wages shall include any commission income as well as any base wages. Commission income shall be established by evidence of commission income during the 12-month period prior to the date of the crime for which restitution is being ordered, unless good cause for a shorter time period is shown.

(D) Wages or profits lost by the victim, and if the victim is a minor, wages or profits lost by the minor’s parent, parents, guardian, or guardians, due to time spent as a witness or in assisting the police or prosecution. Lost wages shall include any commission income as well as any base wages. Commission income shall be established by evidence of commission income during the 12-month period prior to the date of the crime for which restitution is being ordered, unless good cause for a shorter time period is shown.

(2) A minor shall have the right to a hearing before a judge to dispute the determination of the amount of restitution. The court may modify the amount on its own motion or on the motion of the district attorney, the victim or victims, or the minor. If a motion is made for modification of a restitution order, the victim shall be notified of that motion at least 10 days prior to the hearing on the motion. If the amount of victim restitution is not known at the time of disposition, the court order shall identify the victim or victims, unless the court finds for good cause that the order should not identify a victim or victims, and state that the amount of restitution for each victim is to be determined. If feasible, the court shall also identify on the court order, any co-offenders who are jointly and severally liable for victim restitution.

(i) A restitution order imposed pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) shall identify the losses to which it pertains, and shall be enforceable as a civil judgment pursuant to subdivision (r). The making of a restitution order pursuant to this subdivision shall not affect the right of a victim to recovery from the Restitution Fund in the manner provided elsewhere, except to the extent that restitution is actually collected pursuant to the order. Restitution collected pursuant to this subdivision shall be credited to any other judgments for the same losses obtained against the minor or the minor’s parent or guardian arising out of the offense for which the minor was found to be a person described in Section 602. Restitution imposed shall be ordered to be made to the Restitution Fund to the extent that the victim, as defined in subdivision (j), has received assistance from the Victims of Crime Program pursuant to Article 5 (commencing with Section 13959) of Chapter 5 of Part 4 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code.

(j) For purposes of this section, “victim” shall include:

(1)  The immediate surviving family of the actual victim.

(2) A governmental entity that is responsible for repairing, replacing, or restoring public or privately owned property that has been defaced with graffiti or other inscribed material, as defined in subdivision (e) of Section 594 of the Penal Code, and that has sustained an economic loss as the result of a violation of Section 594, 594.3, 594.4, 640.5, 640.6, or 640.7 of the Penal Code.

(3) A corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity when that entity is a direct victim of a crime.

(4) A person who has sustained economic loss as the result of a crime and who satisfies any of the following conditions:

(A) At the time of the crime was the parent, grandparent, sibling, spouse, child, or grandchild of the victim.

(B) At the time of the crime was living in the household of the victim.

(C) At the time of the crime was a person who had previously lived in the household of the victim for a period of not less than two years in a relationship substantially similar to a relationship listed in subparagraph (A).

(D) Is another family member of the victim, including, but not limited to, the victim’s fiancé or fiancée, and who witnessed the crime.

(E) Is the primary caretaker of a minor victim.

(k) If the direct victim of an offense is a group home or other facility licensed to provide residential care in which the minor was placed as a dependent or ward of the court, or an employee thereof, restitution shall be limited to out-of-pocket expenses that are not covered by insurance and that are paid by the facility or employee.

(l) Upon a minor being found to be a person described in Section 602, the court shall require, as a condition of probation, the payment of restitution fines and orders imposed under this section. Any portion of a restitution order that remains unsatisfied after a minor is no longer on probation shall continue to be enforceable by a victim pursuant to subdivision (r) until the obligation is satisfied in full.

(m) Probation shall not be revoked for failure of a person to make restitution pursuant to this section as a condition of probation unless the court determines that the person has willfully failed to pay or failed to make sufficient bona fide efforts to legally acquire the resources to pay.

(n) If the court finds and states on the record compelling and extraordinary reasons why restitution should not be required as provided in paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), the court shall order, as a condition of probation, that the minor perform specified community service.

(o) The court may avoid ordering community service as a condition of probation only if it finds and states on the record compelling and extraordinary reasons not to order community service in addition to the finding that restitution pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) should not be required.

(p) If a minor is committed to the Division of Juvenile Facilities, Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, the court shall order restitution to be paid to the victim or victims, if any. Payment of restitution to the victim or victims pursuant to this subdivision shall take priority in time over payment of any other restitution fine imposed pursuant to this section.

(q) At its discretion, the board of supervisors of any county may impose a fee to cover the actual administrative cost of collecting the restitution fine, not to exceed 10 percent of the amount ordered to be paid, to be added to the restitution fine and included in the order of the court, the proceeds of which shall be deposited in the general fund of the county.

(r) If the judgment is for a restitution fine ordered pursuant to subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), or a restitution order imposed pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), the judgment may be enforced in the manner provided in Section 1214 of the Penal Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 131, Sec. 1. (SB 651) Effective January 1, 2016.)