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AB-600 Hate crimes: immigration status.(2021-2022)

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Date Published: 06/17/2021 09:00 PM

Amended  IN  Senate  June 17, 2021
Amended  IN  Assembly  April 08, 2021


Assembly Bill
No. 600

Introduced by Assembly Member Arambula

February 11, 2021

An act to amend Section 422.56 of the Penal Code, relating to hate crimes.


AB 600, as amended, Arambula. Hate crimes: immigration status.
Existing law makes an act punishable as a hate crime if it is a criminal act committed, in whole or in part, because of an actual or perceived characteristic of the victim relating to the victim’s disability, gender, nationality, race or ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, or association with a person or group with one or more of these actual or perceived characteristics. Existing law defines “nationality” for this purpose to include citizenship, country of origin, and national origin. Under existing law, a person who commits a crime that is a hate crime is required to receive an enhanced sentence.
This bill would expand the definition of nationality to include immigration status, thereby making it a hate crime to commit a criminal act, in whole or in part, because of the victim’s actual or perceived immigration status. By expanding the scope of an enhancement, this bill would impose a state-mandated local program. This bill would also make technical, conforming changes.
The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse local agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the state. Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that reimbursement.
This bill would provide that no reimbursement is required by this act for a specified reason.
Vote: MAJORITY   Appropriation: NO   Fiscal Committee: YES   Local Program: YES  

The people of the State of California do enact as follows:


 Section 422.56 of the Penal Code is amended to read:

 For purposes of this title, the following definitions shall apply:
(a) “Association with a person or group with one or more of these actual or perceived characteristics” includes advocacy for, identification with, or being on the premises owned or rented by, or adjacent to, any of the following: a community center, educational facility, family, individual, office, meeting hall, place of worship, private institution, public agency, library, or other entity, group, or person that has, or is identified with people who have, one or more of the characteristics listed in the definition of “hate crime” under paragraphs (1) to (6), inclusive, of subdivision (a) of Section 422.55.
(b) “Disability” includes mental disability and physical disability, as defined in Section 12926 of the Government Code, regardless of whether those disabilities are temporary, permanent, congenital, or acquired by heredity, accident, injury, advanced age, or illness. This definition is declaratory of existing law.
(c) “Gender” means sex, and includes a person’s gender identity and gender expression. “Gender expression” means a person’s gender-related appearance and behavior regardless of whether it is stereotypically associated with the person’s assigned sex at birth.
(d) “In whole or in part because of” means that the bias motivation must be a cause in fact of the offense, whether or not other causes also exist. When multiple concurrent motives exist, the prohibited bias must be a substantial factor in bringing about the particular result. There is no requirement that the bias be a main factor, or that the crime would not have been committed but for the actual or perceived characteristic. This subdivision does not constitute a change in, but is declaratory of, existing law under In re M.S. (1995) 10 Cal.4th 698 and People v. Superior Court (Aishman) (1995) 10 Cal.4th 735.
(e) “Nationality” includes citizenship, means country of origin, immigration status, including citizenship, and national origin. This definition is declaratory of existing law.
(f) “Race or ethnicity” includes ancestry, color, and ethnic background.
(g) “Religion” includes all aspects of religious belief, observance, and practice and includes agnosticism and atheism.
(h) “Sexual orientation” means heterosexuality, homosexuality, or bisexuality.
(i) “Victim” includes, but is not limited to, a community center, educational facility, entity, family, group, individual, office, meeting hall, person, place of worship, private institution, public agency, library, or other victim or intended victim of the offense.

SEC. 2.

 No reimbursement is required by this act pursuant to Section 6 of Article XIII B of the California Constitution because the only costs that may be incurred by a local agency or school district will be incurred because this act creates a new crime or infraction, eliminates a crime or infraction, or changes the penalty for a crime or infraction, within the meaning of Section 17556 of the Government Code, or changes the definition of a crime within the meaning of Section 6 of Article XIII B of the California Constitution.