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AB-1445 Planning and zoning: regional housing need allocation: climate change impacts.(2021-2022)

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Date Published: 02/19/2021 09:00 PM
AB1445:v99#DOCUMENT


CALIFORNIA LEGISLATURE— 2021–2022 REGULAR SESSION

Assembly Bill
No. 1445


Introduced by Assembly Member Levine

February 19, 2021


An act to amend Sections 65584.04 and 65584.06 of the Government Code, relating to housing.


LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST


AB 1445, as introduced, Levine. Planning and zoning: regional housing need allocation: climate change impacts.
The Planning and Zoning Law requires each county and city to adopt a comprehensive, long-term general plan for the physical development of the county or city, and specified land outside its boundaries, that includes, among other mandatory elements, a housing element. For the 4th and subsequent revisions of the housing element, existing law requires the Department of Housing and Community Development to determine the existing and projected need for housing for each region. Existing law requires the appropriate council of governments, or the department for cities and counties without a council of governments, to adopt a final regional housing need plan that allocates a share of the regional housing need to each city, county, or city and county, as provided. Existing law requires that the final regional housing plan adopted by a council of governments, or a delegate subregion, as applicable, be based on a methodology that includes specified factors, and similarly requires that the department take into consideration specified factors in distributing regional housing need, as provided.
This bill would require that a council of governments, a delegate subregion, or the department, as applicable, additionally consider among these factors emergency evacuation route capacity, wildfire risk, sea level rise, and other impacts caused by climate change. By adding to the duties of local officials in allocating regional housing need, this bill would impose a state-mandated local program.
The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse local agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the state. Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that reimbursement.
This bill would provide that no reimbursement is required by this act for a specified reason.
Vote: MAJORITY   Appropriation: NO   Fiscal Committee: YES   Local Program: YES  

The people of the State of California do enact as follows:


SECTION 1.

 Section 65584.04 of the Government Code is amended to read:

65584.04.
 (a) At least two years before a scheduled revision required by Section 65588, each council of governments, or delegate subregion as applicable, shall develop, in consultation with the department, a proposed methodology for distributing the existing and projected regional housing need to cities, counties, and cities and counties within the region or within the subregion, where applicable pursuant to this section. The methodology shall further the objectives listed in subdivision (d) of Section 65584.
(b) (1) No more than six months before the development of a proposed methodology for distributing the existing and projected housing need, each council of governments shall survey each of its member jurisdictions to request, at a minimum, information regarding the factors listed in subdivision (e) that will allow the development of a methodology based upon the factors established in subdivision (e).
(2) With respect to the objective in paragraph (5) of subdivision (d) of Section 65584, the survey shall review and compile information that will allow the development of a methodology based upon the issues, strategies, and actions that are included, as available, in an Analysis of Impediments to Fair Housing Choice or an Assessment of Fair Housing completed by any city or county or the department that covers communities within the area served by the council of governments, and in housing elements adopted pursuant to this article by cities and counties within the area served by the council of governments.
(3) The council of governments shall seek to obtain the information in a manner and format that is comparable throughout the region and utilize readily available data to the extent possible.
(4) The information provided by a local government pursuant to this section shall be used, to the extent possible, by the council of governments, or delegate subregion as applicable, as source information for the methodology developed pursuant to this section. The survey shall state that none of the information received may be used as a basis for reducing the total housing need established for the region pursuant to Section 65584.01.
(5) If the council of governments fails to conduct a survey pursuant to this subdivision, a city, county, or city and county may submit information related to the items listed in subdivision (e) before the public comment period provided for in subdivision (d).
(c) The council of governments shall electronically report the results of the survey of fair housing issues, strategies, and actions compiled pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (b). The report shall describe common themes and effective strategies employed by cities and counties within the area served by the council of governments, including common themes and effective strategies around avoiding the displacement of lower income households. The council of governments shall also identify significant barriers to affirmatively furthering fair housing at the regional level and may recommend strategies or actions to overcome those barriers. A council of governments or metropolitan planning organization, as appropriate, may use this information for any other purpose, including publication within a regional transportation plan adopted pursuant to Section 65080 or to inform the land use assumptions that are applied in the development of a regional transportation plan.
(d) Public participation and access shall be required in the development of the methodology and in the process of drafting and adoption of the allocation of the regional housing needs. Participation by organizations other than local jurisdictions and councils of governments shall be solicited in a diligent effort to achieve public participation of all economic segments of the community as well as members of protected classes under Section 12955. The proposed methodology, along with any relevant underlying data and assumptions, an explanation of how information about local government conditions gathered pursuant to subdivision (b) has been used to develop the proposed methodology, how each of the factors listed in subdivision (e) is incorporated into the methodology, and how the proposed methodology furthers the objectives listed in subdivision (e) of Section 65584, shall be distributed to all cities, counties, any subregions, and members of the public who have made a written or electronic request for the proposed methodology and published on the council of governments’, or delegate subregion’s, internet website. The council of governments, or delegate subregion, as applicable, shall conduct at least one public hearing to receive oral and written comments on the proposed methodology.
(e) To the extent that sufficient data is available from local governments pursuant to subdivision (b) or other sources, each council of governments, or delegate subregion as applicable, shall include the following factors to develop the methodology that allocates regional housing needs:
(1) Each member jurisdiction’s existing and projected jobs and housing relationship. This shall include an estimate based on readily available data on the number of low-wage jobs within the jurisdiction and how many housing units within the jurisdiction are affordable to low-wage workers as well as an estimate based on readily available data, of projected job growth and projected household growth by income level within each member jurisdiction during the planning period.
(2) The opportunities and constraints to development of additional housing in each member jurisdiction, including all of the following:
(A) Lack of capacity for sewer or water service due to federal or state laws, regulations or regulatory actions, or supply and distribution decisions made by a sewer or water service provider other than the local jurisdiction that preclude the jurisdiction from providing necessary infrastructure for additional development during the planning period.
(B) The availability of land suitable for urban development or for conversion to residential use, the availability of underutilized land, and opportunities for infill development and increased residential densities. The council of governments may not limit its consideration of suitable housing sites or land suitable for urban development to existing zoning ordinances and land use restrictions of a locality, but shall consider the potential for increased residential development under alternative zoning ordinances and land use restrictions. The determination of available land suitable for urban development may exclude lands where the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or the Department of Water Resources has determined that the flood management infrastructure designed to protect that land is not adequate to avoid the risk of flooding.
(C) Lands preserved or protected from urban development under existing federal or state programs, or both, designed to protect open space, farmland, environmental habitats, and natural resources on a long-term basis, including land zoned or designated for agricultural protection or preservation that is subject to a local ballot measure that was approved by the voters of that jurisdiction that prohibits or restricts conversion to nonagricultural uses.
(D) County policies to preserve prime agricultural land, as defined pursuant to Section 56064, within an unincorporated area and land within an unincorporated area zoned or designated for agricultural protection or preservation that is subject to a local ballot measure that was approved by the voters of that jurisdiction that prohibits or restricts its conversion to nonagricultural uses.
(3) The distribution of household growth assumed for purposes of a comparable period of regional transportation plans and opportunities to maximize the use of public transportation and existing transportation infrastructure.
(4) Agreements between a county and cities in a county to direct growth toward incorporated areas of the county and land within an unincorporated area zoned or designated for agricultural protection or preservation that is subject to a local ballot measure that was approved by the voters of the jurisdiction that prohibits or restricts conversion to nonagricultural uses.
(5) The loss of units contained in assisted housing developments, as defined in paragraph (9) of subdivision (a) of Section 65583, that changed to non-low-income use through mortgage prepayment, subsidy contract expirations, or termination of use restrictions.
(6) The percentage of existing households at each of the income levels listed in subdivision (e) of Section 65584 that are paying more than 30 percent and more than 50 percent of their income in rent.
(7) The rate of overcrowding.
(8) The housing needs of farmworkers.
(9) The housing needs generated by the presence of a private university or a campus of the California State University or the University of California within any member jurisdiction.
(10) The housing needs of individuals and families experiencing homelessness. If a council of governments has surveyed each of its member jurisdictions pursuant to subdivision (b) on or before January 1, 2020, this paragraph shall apply only to the development of methodologies for the seventh and subsequent revisions of the housing element.
(11) The loss of units during a state of emergency that was declared by the Governor pursuant to the California Emergency Services Act (Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 8550) of Division 1 of Title 2), during the planning period immediately preceding the relevant revision pursuant to Section 65588 that have yet to be rebuilt or replaced at the time of the analysis.
(12) The region’s greenhouse gas emissions targets provided by the State Air Resources Board pursuant to Section 65080.
(13) Emergency evacuation route capacity, wildfire risk, sea level rise, and other impacts caused by climate change.

(13)

(14) Any other factors adopted by the council of governments, that further the objectives listed in subdivision (d) of Section 65584, provided that the council of governments specifies which of the objectives each additional factor is necessary to further. The council of governments may include additional factors unrelated to furthering the objectives listed in subdivision (d) of Section 65584 so long as the additional factors do not undermine the objectives listed in subdivision (d) of Section 65584 and are applied equally across all household income levels as described in subdivision (f) of Section 65584 and the council of governments makes a finding that the factor is necessary to address significant health and safety conditions.
(f) The council of governments, or delegate subregion, as applicable, shall explain in writing how each of the factors described in subdivision (e) was incorporated into the methodology and how the methodology furthers the objectives listed in subdivision (d) of Section 65584. The methodology may include numerical weighting. This information, and any other supporting materials used in determining the methodology, shall be posted on the council of governments’, or delegate subregion’s, internet website.
(g) The following criteria shall not be a justification for a determination or a reduction in a jurisdiction’s share of the regional housing need:
(1) Any ordinance, policy, voter-approved measure, or standard of a city or county that directly or indirectly limits the number of residential building permits issued by a city or county.
(2) Prior underproduction of housing in a city or county from the previous regional housing need allocation, as determined by each jurisdiction’s annual production report submitted pursuant to subparagraph (H) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 65400.
(3) Stable population numbers in a city or county from the previous regional housing needs cycle.
(h) Following the conclusion of the public comment period described in subdivision (d) on the proposed allocation methodology, and after making any revisions deemed appropriate by the council of governments, or delegate subregion, as applicable, as a result of comments received during the public comment period, and as a result of consultation with the department, each council of governments, or delegate subregion, as applicable, shall publish a draft allocation methodology on its internet website and submit the draft allocation methodology, along with the information required pursuant to subdivision (e), to the department.
(i) Within 60 days, the department shall review the draft allocation methodology and report its written findings to the council of governments, or delegate subregion, as applicable. In its written findings the department shall determine whether the methodology furthers the objectives listed in subdivision (d) of Section 65584. If the department determines that the methodology is not consistent with subdivision (d) of Section 65584, the council of governments, or delegate subregion, as applicable, shall take one of the following actions:
(1) Revise the methodology to further the objectives listed in subdivision (d) of Section 65584 and adopt a final regional, or subregional, housing need allocation methodology.
(2) Adopt the regional, or subregional, housing need allocation methodology without revisions and include within its resolution of adoption findings, supported by substantial evidence, as to why the council of governments, or delegate subregion, believes that the methodology furthers the objectives listed in subdivision (d) of Section 65584 despite the findings of the department.
(j) If the department’s findings are not available within the time limits set by subdivision (i), the council of governments, or delegate subregion, may act without them.
(k) Upon either action pursuant to subdivision (i), the council of governments, or delegate subregion, shall provide notice of the adoption of the methodology to the jurisdictions within the region, or delegate subregion, as applicable, and to the department, and shall publish the adopted allocation methodology, along with its resolution and any adopted written findings, on its internet website.
(l) The department may, within 90 days, review the adopted methodology and report its findings to the council of governments, or delegate subregion.
(m) (1) It is the intent of the Legislature that housing planning be coordinated and integrated with the regional transportation plan. To achieve this goal, the allocation plan shall allocate housing units within the region consistent with the development pattern included in the sustainable communities strategy.
(2) The final allocation plan shall ensure that the total regional housing need, by income category, as determined under Section 65584, is maintained, and that each jurisdiction in the region receive an allocation of units for low- and very low income households.
(3) The resolution approving the final housing need allocation plan shall demonstrate that the plan is consistent with the sustainable communities strategy in the regional transportation plan and furthers the objectives listed in subdivision (d) of Section 65584.

SEC. 2.

 Section 65584.06 of the Government Code is amended to read:

65584.06.
 (a) For cities and counties without a council of governments, the department shall determine and distribute the existing and projected housing need, in accordance with Section 65584 and this section. If the department determines that a county or counties, supported by a resolution adopted by the board or boards of supervisors, and a majority of cities within the county or counties representing a majority of the population of the county or counties, possess the capability and resources and has agreed to accept the responsibility, with respect to its jurisdiction, for the distribution of the regional housing need, the department shall delegate this responsibility to the cities and county or counties.
(b) The distribution of regional housing need shall, based upon available data and in consultation with the cities and counties, take into consideration market demand for housing, the distribution of household growth within the county assumed in the regional transportation plan where applicable, employment opportunities and commuting patterns, the availability of suitable sites and public facilities, the needs of individuals and families experiencing homelessness, agreements between a county and cities in a county to direct growth toward incorporated areas of the county, emergency evacuation route capacity, wildfire risk, sea level rise, and other impacts caused by climate change, or other considerations as may be requested by the affected cities or counties and agreed to by the department. As part of the allocation of the regional housing need, the department shall provide each city and county with data describing the assumptions and methodology used in calculating its share of the regional housing need. Consideration of suitable housing sites or land suitable for urban development is not limited to existing zoning ordinances and land use restrictions of a locality, but shall include consideration of the potential for increased residential development under alternative zoning ordinances and land use restrictions. The determination of available land suitable for urban development may exclude lands where the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or the Department of Water Resources has determined that the flood management infrastructure designed to protect that land is not adequate to avoid the risk of flooding.
(c) Within 90 days following the department’s determination of a draft distribution of the regional housing need to the cities and the county, a city or county may propose to revise the determination of its share of the regional housing need in accordance with criteria set forth in the draft distribution. The proposed revised share shall be based upon comparable data available for all affected jurisdictions, and accepted planning methodology, and shall be supported by adequate documentation.
(d) (1) Within 60 days after the end of the 90-day time period for the revision by the cities or county, the department shall accept the proposed revision, modify its earlier determination, or indicate why the proposed revision is inconsistent with the regional housing need.
(2) If the department does not accept the proposed revision, then, within 30 days, the city or county may request a public hearing to review the determination.
(3) The city or county shall be notified within 30 days by certified mail, return receipt requested, of at least one public hearing regarding the determination.
(4) The date of the hearing shall be at least 10 but not more than 15 days from the date of the notification.
(5) Before making its final determination, the department shall consider all comments received and shall include a written response to each request for revision received from a city or county.
(e) If the department accepts the proposed revision or modifies its earlier determination, the city or county shall use that share. If the department grants a revised allocation pursuant to subdivision (d), the department shall ensure that the total regional housing need is maintained. The department’s final determination shall be in writing and shall include information explaining how its action is consistent with this section. If the department indicates that the proposed revision is inconsistent with the regional housing need, the city or county shall use the share that was originally determined by the department. The department, within its final determination, may adjust the allocation of a city or county that was not the subject of a request for revision of the draft distribution.
(f) The department shall issue a final regional housing need allocation for all cities and counties within 45 days of the completion of the local review period.
(g) Statutory changes enacted after the date the department issued a final determination pursuant to this section shall not be a basis for a revision of the final determination.

SEC. 3.

 No reimbursement is required by this act pursuant to Section 6 of Article XIII B of the California Constitution because a local agency or school district has the authority to levy service charges, fees, or assessments sufficient to pay for the program or level of service mandated by this act, within the meaning of Section 17556 of the Government Code.