Today's Law As Amended


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SB-717 Complex Needs Patient Act.(2021-2022)



As Amends the Law Today


SECTION 1.
 This act shall be known, and may be cited, as the Complex Needs Patient Act.
SEC. 2.
 It is the intent of the Legislature to do all of the following:
(a) Provide the support necessary for patients with complex needs to stay in their homes or community settings, prevent avoidable institutionalization, and reduce secondary medical complications.
(b) Ensure adequate access to appropriate complex rehabilitation technology and support services to promote independence, self-care, and community access for complex needs patients.
(c) Recognize the value of preventive and specialized services in the treatment of complex needs patients.
(d) Acknowledge the importance of the hands-on professional resources required for effective evaluation, configuration, and fitting of complex rehabilitation technology.
(e) Establish or improve safeguards related to the delivery of, and training on, complex rehabilitation technology.
(f) Provide adequate Medi-Cal payment for complex rehabilitation technology for the purpose of allowing continued access to medically necessary products and related services, including maintenance and repair.
(g) Ensure cost efficiency in the provision of complex rehabilitation technology.

SECTION 1.SEC. 3.

 Section 14105.192 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is amended to read:

14105.192.
 (a) The Legislature finds and declares all of  the following:
(1) Costs within the Medi-Cal program continue to grow due to the rising cost of providing health care throughout the state and also due to  increases in enrollment, which are more pronounced during difficult economic times.
(2) In order to minimize the need for drastically cutting enrollment standards or benefits during times of economic crisis, it is crucial to find areas within the Medi-Cal  program where  that have  reimbursement levels are  higher than required under the standard provided in Section 1902(a)(30)(A) of the federal Social Security Act and can may  be reduced in accordance with federal law.
(3) The Medi-Cal program delivers its services and benefits to Medi-Cal beneficiaries through a wide variety of health care providers, some of which deliver care via managed care or other contract models while others do so through  providers and delivery systems, including managed care, other contract models, and  fee-for-service arrangements.
(4) The setting of rates within the Medi-Cal program is complex and is  subject to close supervision by the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
(5) As the single state agency for the  Medicaid program  in California, the department has unique expertise that can inform decisions that set or adjust reimbursement methodologies and levels consistent with the requirements of federal law.
(b) Therefore, it is the intent of the Legislature for the department to analyze and identify where reimbursement levels can be reduced consistent with the standard provided in Section 1902(a)(30)(A) of the federal Social Security Act and consistent with federal and state law and policies, including any  exemptions contained in the provisions of the  act that added this section, provided that the reductions in reimbursement shall not exceed 10 percent on an aggregate basis for all providers, services services,  and products.
(c) Notwithstanding any other law, the director shall adjust provider payments, as specified in this section.
(d) (1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, payments shall be reduced by 10 percent for Medi-Cal fee-for-service benefits for dates of service on and after June 1, 2011.
(2) For managed health care plans that contract with the department pursuant to this chapter or Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 14200), except contracts with Senior Care Action Network and AIDS Healthcare Foundation, payments shall be reduced by the actuarial equivalent amount of the payment reductions specified in this section pursuant to contract amendments or change orders effective on July 1, 2011, or thereafter.
(3) Payments shall be reduced by 10 percent for non-Medi-Cal programs described in Article 6 (commencing with Section 124025) of Chapter 3 of Part 2 of Division 106 of the Health and Safety Code, and Section 14105.18, for dates of service on and after June 1, 2011. This paragraph shall not apply to inpatient hospital services provided in a hospital that is paid under contract pursuant to Article 2.6 (commencing with Section 14081).
(4) (A) Notwithstanding any other law, the director may adjust the payments specified in paragraphs (1) and (3) of this subdivision  with respect to one or more categories of Medi-Cal providers, or for one or more products or services rendered, or any combination thereof, so long as  if  the resulting reductions to any category of Medi-Cal providers, in the aggregate, total no more than 10 percent.
(B) The adjustments authorized in subparagraph (A) shall be implemented only if the director determines that, for each affected product, service, or provider category, the payments resulting from the adjustment comply with subdivision (m).
(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of  this section, payments to hospitals that are not under contract with the State Department of Health Care Services  department  pursuant to Article 2.6 (commencing with Section 14081) for inpatient hospital services provided to Medi-Cal beneficiaries and that are subject to the former  Section 14166.245 shall be governed by that section.
(f) Notwithstanding any other provision of  this section, all of  the following shall  apply:
(1) Payments to providers that are paid pursuant to Article 3.8 (commencing with Section 14126) shall be governed by that article.
(2) (A) Subject to subparagraph (B), for dates of service on and after June 1, 2011, Medi-Cal reimbursement rates for intermediate care facilities for the developmentally disabled licensed pursuant to subdivision (e), (g), or (h) of Section 1250 of the Health and Safety Code, and facilities providing continuous skilled nursing care to developmentally disabled individuals pursuant to the pilot project established by Section 14132.20, as determined by the applicable methodology for setting reimbursement rates for these facilities, shall not exceed the reimbursement rates that were applicable to providers in the 2008–09 rate year.
(B) (i) If Section 14105.07 is added to the Welfare and Institutions Code during the 2011–12 Regular Session of the Legislature, subparagraph (A) shall become inoperative.
(ii) If Section 14105.07 is added to the Welfare and Institutions Code during the 2011–12 Regular Session of the Legislature, then for dates of service on and after June 1, 2011, payments to intermediate care facilities for the developmentally disabled licensed pursuant to subdivision (e), (g), or (h) of Section 1250 of the Health and Safety Code, and facilities providing continuous skilled nursing care to developmentally disabled individuals pursuant to the pilot project established by Section 14132.20, shall be governed by the applicable methodology for setting reimbursement rates for these facilities and by Section 14105.07.
(g) The department may enter into contracts with a vendor for the purposes of implementing this section on a bid or nonbid basis. In order to achieve maximum cost savings, the Legislature declares that an expedited process for contracts under this subdivision is necessary. Therefore, contracts entered into to implement this section and all contract amendments and change orders shall be exempt from Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 10290) of Part 2 Division 2 of the Public Contract Code.
(h) To the extent applicable, all of  the following  services, facilities, and payments listed in this subdivision  shall be exempt from the payment reductions specified in subdivision (d) as follows: (d): 
(1) Acute hospital inpatient services that are paid under contracts pursuant to Article 2.6 (commencing with Section 14081).
(2) Federally qualified health center services, including those facilities deemed to have federally qualified health center status pursuant to a waiver pursuant to subsection (a) of Section 1115 of the federal Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 1315(a)).
(3) Rural health clinic services.
(4) Payments to facilities owned or operated by the State Department of State Hospitals or the State Department of Developmental Services.
(5) Hospice services.
(6) Contract services, as designated by the director pursuant to subdivision (k).
(7) Payments to providers to the extent that the payments are funded by means of a certified public expenditure or an intergovernmental transfer pursuant to Section 433.51 of Title 42 of the Code of Federal Regulations. This paragraph shall apply to payments described in paragraph (3) of subdivision (d) only to the extent that they are also exempt from reduction pursuant to subdivision (l).
(8) Services pursuant to local assistance contracts and interagency agreements to the extent the funding is not included in the funds appropriated to the department in the annual Budget Act.
(9) Breast and cervical cancer treatment provided pursuant to Section 14007.71 and as described in paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 14105.18 or Article 1.5 (commencing with Section 104160) of Chapter 2 of Part 1 of Division 103 of the Health and Safety Code.
(10) The Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment (Family PACT) Program pursuant to subdivision (aa) of Section 14132.
(11) (A) Effective for dates of service on or after July 1, 2015, or the effective date of any necessary federal approvals as required by subdivisions (n) and (o), whichever is later, dental services and applicable ancillary services.
(B) For dental managed care plans that contract with the department pursuant to this chapter or Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 14200), payments pursuant to contract amendments or change orders effective on or after July 1, 2015, or the effective date of any necessary federal approvals as required by subdivisions (n) and (o), whichever is later.
(12) For dates of service on and after January 1, 2022, or the effective date of any necessary federal approvals as required by subdivisions (n) and (o), whichever is later, providers of complex rehabilitation technology and complex rehabilitation technology services, as described in Section 14132.85.
(i) Subject to the exception for services listed in subdivision (h), the payment reductions required by subdivision (d) shall apply to the benefits rendered by any provider who may be authorized to bill for the service, including, but not limited to, physicians, podiatrists, nurse practitioners, certified nurse-midwives, nurse anesthetists, and organized outpatient clinics.
(j) Notwithstanding any other law, for dates of service on and after June 1, 2011, Medi-Cal reimbursement rates applicable to the following classes of providers shall not exceed the reimbursement rates that were applicable to those classes of providers in the 2008–09 rate year, as described in subdivision (f) of Section 14105.191, reduced by 10 percent:
(1) Intermediate care facilities, excluding those facilities identified in paragraph (2) of subdivision (f). For purposes of this section, “intermediate care facility” has the same meaning as defined in Section 51118 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations.
(2) Skilled nursing facilities that are distinct parts of general acute care hospitals. For purposes of this section, “distinct part” has the same meaning as defined in Section 72041 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations.
(3) Rural swing-bed facilities.
(4) Subacute care units that are, or are parts of, distinct parts of general acute care hospitals. For purposes of this subparagraph, paragraph,  “subacute care unit” has the same meaning as defined in Section 51215.5 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations.
(5) Pediatric subacute care units that are, or are parts of, distinct parts of general acute care hospitals. For purposes of this subparagraph, paragraph,  “pediatric subacute care unit” has the same meaning as defined in Section 51215.8 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations.
(6) Adult day health care centers.
(7) Freestanding pediatric subacute care units, as defined in Section 51215.8 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations.
(k) Notwithstanding Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 11340) of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code, the department may implement and administer this section by means of provider bulletins or similar instructions, without taking regulatory action.
(l) The reductions described in this section shall apply only to payments for services when the General Fund share of the payment is paid with funds directly appropriated to the department in the annual Budget Act and shall not apply to payments for services paid with funds appropriated to other departments or agencies.
(m) Notwithstanding any other provision of  this section, the payment reductions and adjustments provided for  specified  in subdivision (d) shall be implemented only if the director determines that the payments that result from the application of this section will  comply with applicable federal Medicaid program  requirements and that federal financial participation will be available.
(1) In determining whether federal financial participation is available, the director shall determine whether the payments comply with applicable federal Medicaid program  requirements, including those set forth in Section 1396a(a)(30)(A) of Title 42 of the United States Code.
(2) To the extent that the director determines that the payments do not comply with the federal Medicaid program  requirements or that federal financial participation is not available  unavailable  with respect to any payment that is reduced pursuant to this section, the director retains  shall retain  the discretion to not implement the particular payment reduction or adjustment adjustment,  and they  may adjust the payment as necessary to comply with federal Medicaid program  requirements.
(n) The department shall seek any necessary federal approvals for the implementation of this section.
(o) (1) The payment reductions and adjustments set forth in this section shall not be implemented until federal approval is obtained.
(2) To the extent that federal approval is obtained for one or more of the payment reductions and adjustments in this section and Section 14105.07, the payment reductions and adjustments set forth in Section 14105.191 shall cease to be implemented for the same services provided by the same class of providers. In the event of  If there is  a conflict between this section and Section 14105.191, other than the provisions setting forth a payment reduction or adjustment, this section shall govern.
(3) When federal approval is obtained, the payments resulting from the application of this section shall be implemented retroactively to June 1, 2011, or on any other date or dates dates,  as may be applicable.
(4) The director may clarify the application of this subdivision by means of provider bulletins or similar instructions, pursuant to subdivision (k).
(p) Adjustments to pharmacy drug product payment pursuant to this section shall no longer apply when the department determines that the average acquisition cost methodology pursuant to Section 14105.45 has been fully implemented and the department’s pharmacy budget reduction targets, consistent with payment reduction levels pursuant to this section, have been met.

SEC. 4.

 Section 14105.48 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is amended to read:

14105.48.
 (a) The department shall establish a list of covered services and maximum allowable reimbursement rates for durable medical equipment equipment,  as defined in Section 51160 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations Regulations,  and the list shall be published in provider manuals. The list shall specify utilization controls to be applied to each type of durable medical equipment.
(b) Reimbursement for durable medical equipment, except wheelchairs, wheelchair accessories, and speech-generating devices and related accessories, shall be the lesser of (1) the amount billed pursuant to Section 51008.1 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations, (2) an amount that does not exceed 80 percent of the lowest maximum allowance for California established by the federal Medicare Program for the same or similar item or service, or (3) the guaranteed acquisition cost negotiated by means of the contracting process provided for pursuant to Section 14105.3 plus a percentage markup to be established by the department.
(c) Reimbursement for wheelchairs, wheelchair accessories, and speech-generating devices and related accessories shall be the lesser of (1) the amount billed pursuant to Section 51008.1 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations, (2) an amount that does not exceed 100 percent of the lowest maximum allowance for California established by the federal Medicare Program for the same or similar item or service, or (3) the guaranteed acquisition cost negotiated by means of the contracting process provided for pursuant to Section 14105.3 plus a percentage markup to be established by the department.
(d) Reimbursement for all durable medical equipment billed to the Medi-Cal program utilizing codes with no specified maximum allowable rate shall be the lesser of (1) the amount billed pursuant to Section 51008.1 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations, (2) the guaranteed acquisition cost negotiated by means of the contracting process provided for pursuant to Section 14105.3 plus a percentage markup to be established by the department, (3) the actual acquisition cost plus a markup to be established by the department, (4) the manufacturer’s suggested retail purchase price on or prior to the date of service, and documented by a printed catalog or a hard copy of an electronic catalog page showing that price, reduced by a percentage discount not to exceed 20 percent, or not to exceed 15 percent for wheelchairs and wheelchair accessories if the provider employs or contracts with a qualified rehabilitation technology  professional, as defined in paragraph (3) of subdivision (c) of Section 14105.485, Section 14132.85,  or (5) a price established through targeted product-specific cost containment provisions developed with providers.
(e) Reimbursement for all durable medical equipment supplies and accessories billed to the Medi-Cal program shall be the lesser of (1) the amount billed pursuant to Section 51008.1 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations, or (2) the acquisition cost plus a 23 percent markup.
(f) Commencing January 1, 2007, reimbursement for oxygen delivery systems and oxygen contents shall utilize national HCPCS codes, and shall be the lesser of (1) the amount billed pursuant to Section 51008.1 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations, (2) an amount that does not exceed 80 percent of the lowest maximum allowance for California established by the federal Medicare Program for the same or a similar item or service, or (3) the guaranteed acquisition cost negotiated by means of the contracting process provided for pursuant to Section 14105.3, plus a percentage markup to be established by the department.
(g) Within six months of the effective date of the act that added this subdivision, the department shall review utilization of services and equipment resulting from the changes to this section made by that act, and shall assess whether the changes are contributing to inappropriate use of those services or equipment. If the department’s review finds an increase in inappropriate use of those services or equipment, the Department of Finance shall notify the Joint Legislative Budget Committee of the State Department of Health Services’ findings and recommended changes to ensure program integrity.
(h) Any regulation in Division 3 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations that contains provisions for reimbursement rates for durable medical equipment shall be amended or repealed effective for dates of service on or after the date of the act adding this section.
(i) Notwithstanding Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 11340) of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of  the Government Code, actions under this section shall not be subject to the Administrative Procedure Act or to the review and approval of the Office of Administrative Law.
(j) The department shall consult with interested parties and appropriate stakeholders in implementing this section with respect to all of the following:
(1) Notifying the provider representatives of the proposed change.
(2) Scheduling at least one meeting to discuss the change.
(3) Allowing for written input regarding the change.
(4) Providing advance notice on the implementation and effective date of the change.
(k) The department may require providers of durable medical equipment to appeal Medicare denials for dually eligible beneficiaries as a condition of Medi-Cal payment.

SEC. 5.

 Section 14105.485 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is repealed.

14105.485.
 (a) Commencing July 1, 2006, any provider of custom rehabilitation equipment and custom rehabilitation technology services to a Medi-Cal beneficiary shall have on staff, either as an employee or independent contractor, or have a contractual relationship with, a qualified rehabilitation professional who was directly involved in determining the specific custom rehabilitation equipment needs of the patient and was directly involved with, or closely supervised, the final fitting and delivery of the custom rehabilitation equipment.
(b) Commencing January 1, 2006, a medical provider shall conduct a physical examination of an individual before prescribing a motorized wheelchair or scooter for a Medi-Cal beneficiary. The medical provider shall complete a certificate of medical necessity, developed by the department, that documents the medical condition that necessitates the motorized wheelchair or scooter, and verifies that the patient is capable of using the wheelchair or scooter safely.
(c) For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:
(1) “Custom rehabilitation equipment” means any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether modified or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities with respect to mobility and reduce anatomical degradation and complications of individuals with disabilities. Custom rehabilitation equipment includes, but is not limited to, nonstandard manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs and seating systems, power scooters that are specially configured, ordered, and measured based on patient height, weight, and disability, specialized wheelchair electronics and cushions, custom bath equipment, standers, gait trainers, and specialized strollers.
(2) “Custom rehabilitation technology services” means the application of enabling technology systems designed and assembled to meet the needs of a specific person experiencing any permanent or long-term loss or abnormality of physical or anatomical structure or function with respect to mobility. These services include, but are not limited to, the evaluation of the needs of a patient with a disability, including an assessment of the patient for the purpose of ensuring that the proposed equipment is appropriate, the documentation of medical necessity, the selection, fit, customization, maintenance, assembly, repair, replacement, pick up and delivery, and testing of equipment and parts, and the training of an assistant caregiver and of a patient who will use the equipment or individuals who will assist the client in using the equipment.
(3) “Qualified rehabilitation professional” means an individual to whom any one of the following applies:
(A) The individual is a physical therapist licensed pursuant to the Business and Professions Code, occupational therapist licensed pursuant to the Business and Professions Code, or other qualified health care professional approved by the department.
(B) The individual is a registered member in good standing of the National Registry of Rehabilitation Technology Suppliers (NRRTS), or other credentialing organization recognized by the department.
(C) The individual has successfully passed one of the following credentialing examinations administered by the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA):
(i) The Assistive Technology Supplier examination.
(ii) The Assistive Technology Practitioner examination.
(iii) The Rehabilitation Engineering Technologist examination.

SEC. 6.

 Section 14132.85 is added to the Welfare and Institutions Code, to read:

14132.85.
 (a) For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:
(1) “Complex needs patient” means an individual with a diagnosis or medical condition that results in significant physical impairment or functional limitation. “Complex needs patient” includes, but is not limited to, individuals with spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida, osteogenesis imperfecta, arthrogryposis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, demyelinating disease, myelopathy, myopathy, progressive muscular atrophy, anterior horn cell disease, post-polio syndrome, cerebellar degeneration, dystonia, Huntington’s disease, spinocerebellar disease, and the types of amputation, paralysis, or paresis that result in significant physical impairment or functional limitation. “Complex needs patient” does not negate the requirement that an individual meet medical necessity requirements under authority rules to qualify for receiving complex rehabilitation technology.
(2) “Complex rehabilitation technology” means items classified within the federal Medicare Program as of January 1, 2021, as durable medical equipment that are individually configured for individuals to meet their specific and unique medical, physical, and functional needs and capacities for basic activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living identified as medically necessary. These items include, but are not limited to, complex rehabilitation manual and power wheelchairs, power seat elevation or power standing components of power wheelchairs, seating and positioning items, other specialized equipment such as adaptive bath equipment, standing frames, gait trainers, and specialized strollers, and related options and accessories.
(3) “Complex rehabilitation technology services” includes the application of enabling systems designed and assembled to meet the needs of a patient experiencing any permanent or long-term loss or abnormality of physical or anatomical structure or function with respect to mobility or other function or need. These services include, but are not limited to, all of the following:
(A) Evaluating the needs of a patient with a disability, including an assessment of the patient for the purpose of ensuring that the proposed equipment is appropriate.
(B) Documenting medical necessity.
(C) Selecting, fitting, customizing, maintaining, assembling, repairing, replacing, picking up and delivering, and testing equipment and parts.
(D) Training the patient who will use the technology or any individual who assists the patient in using the complex rehabilitation technology.
(4) “Qualified health care professional” means an individual who has no financial relationship to the provider of complex rehabilitation technology and is any of the following:
(A) A physical therapist licensed pursuant to Chapter 5.7 (commencing with Section 2600) of Division 2 of the Business and Professions Code.
(B) An occupational therapist licensed pursuant to Chapter 5.6 (commencing with Section 2570) of Division 2 of the Business and Professions Code.
(C) Other licensed health care professional, approved by the department, and who performs specialty evaluations within the professional’s scope of practice.
(5) “Qualified rehabilitation technology professional” means an individual who meets either of the following:
(A) Holds the credential of Assistive Technology Professional (ATP) from the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America.
(B) Holds the credential of Certified Complex Rehabilitation Technology Supplier (CRTS) from the National Registry of Rehabilitation Technology Suppliers.
(b) A provider of complex rehabilitation technology to a Medi-Cal beneficiary shall comply with all of the following:
(1) Meet the supplier and quality standards established for a durable medical equipment supplier under the federal Medicare Program and be enrolled as a provider in the Medi-Cal program.
(2) Be accredited by a recognized accrediting organization as a supplier of complex rehabilitation technology.
(3) Employ at least one qualified rehabilitation technology professional as a W-2 employee (receiving a W-2 tax form from the provider) for each distribution location.
(4) Have the qualified rehabilitation technology professional physically present for the evaluation, either in person or remotely if necessary, directly involved in determining the specific complex rehabilitation technology appropriate for the patient, and directly involved with, or closely supervised in, the final fitting and delivery of the complex rehabilitation technology.
(5) Maintain a reasonable supply of parts, adequate physical facilities, and qualified service or repair technicians, and provide patients with prompt services and repair for all complex rehabilitation technology supplied.
(6) Provide written information at the time of delivery of complex rehabilitation technology regarding how the patient may receive services and repair.
(c) For complex needs patients receiving a complex rehabilitation manual wheelchair, power wheelchair, or seating component, the patient shall be evaluated, either in person or remotely if necessary, by both of the following:
(1) A qualified health care professional.
(2) A qualified rehabilitation technology professional.
(d) A medical provider shall conduct a physical examination of an individual, either in person or remotely if necessary, before prescribing a power wheelchair or scooter for a Medi-Cal beneficiary. The medical provider shall complete a certificate of medical necessity that documents the medical condition that necessitates the power wheelchair or scooter, and verifies that the patient is capable of using the wheelchair or scooter safely.
(e) In establishing policies and payment rates, the department shall take into account the significant resources, infrastructure, and staff needed to provide individually configured complex rehabilitation technology and the broad range of services necessary to meet the unique medical and functional needs of Medi-Cal beneficiaries with complex medical needs.
(f) The department may adopt utilization controls, including a specialty evaluation by a qualified health care professional, as defined in paragraph (4) of subdivision (a). The department may adopt any other additional utilization controls for complex rehabilitation technology, as appropriate.
(g) Notwithstanding Section 14133.05, complex rehabilitation technology shall be subject to a prior authorization process in which services are approved based on the medical, physical, and functional needs of the patient, as demonstrated in documents prescribed by the department. Prior authorization may be obtained through the treatment authorization request process set forth in Section 51321 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations.
(h) Contracts initiated by the department with managed care plans shall be consistent with the requirements of this section.
(i) The department shall seek any necessary federal approvals for the implementation of this section. This section shall be implemented only to the extent that any necessary federal approvals are obtained.