Code Section Group

Welfare and Institutions Code - WIC

DIVISION 2. CHILDREN [100 - 1500]

  ( Division 2 enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 369. )

PART 1. DELINQUENTS AND WARDS OF THE JUVENILE COURT [100 - 1455]

  ( Part 1 enacted by Stats. 1937, Ch. 369. )

CHAPTER 2. Juvenile Court Law [200 - 987]

  ( Chapter 2 repealed and added by Stats. 1961, Ch. 1616. )

ARTICLE 18. Wards—Judgments and Orders [725 - 742]
  ( Heading of Article 18 renumbered from Article 9 by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1068. )

725.
  

After receiving and considering the evidence on the proper disposition of the case, the court may enter judgment as follows:

(a) If the court has found that the minor is a person described by Section 601 or 602, by reason of the commission of an offense other than any of the offenses set forth in Section 654.3, it may, without adjudging the minor a ward of the court, place the minor on probation, under the supervision of the probation officer, for a period not to exceed six months. The minor’s probation shall include the conditions required in Section 729.2 except in any case in which the court makes a finding and states on the record its reasons that any of those conditions would be inappropriate. If the offense involved the unlawful possession, use, or furnishing of a controlled substance, as defined in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 11053) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code, a violation of subdivision (f) of Section 647 of the Penal Code, or a violation of Section 25662 of the Business and Professions Code, the minor’s probation shall include the conditions required by Section 729.10. If the minor fails to comply with the conditions of probation imposed, the court may order and adjudge the minor to be a ward of the court.

(b) If the court has found that the minor is a person described by Section 601 or 602, it may order and adjudge the minor to be a ward of the court.

(Amended by Stats. 1989, Ch. 1117, Sec. 14.)

725.5.
  

In determining the judgment and order to be made in any case in which the minor is found to be a person described in Section 602, the court shall consider, in addition to other relevant and material evidence, (1) the age of the minor, (2) the circumstances and gravity of the offense committed by the minor, and (3) the minor’s previous delinquent history.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1090, Sec. 1.)

726.
  

(a) In all cases in which a minor is adjudged a ward or dependent child of the court, the court may limit the control to be exercised over the ward or dependent child by any parent or guardian and shall, in its order, clearly and specifically set forth all those limitations, but no ward or dependent child shall be taken from the physical custody of a parent or guardian, unless upon the hearing the court finds one of the following facts:

(1) That the parent or guardian is incapable of providing or has failed or neglected to provide proper maintenance, training, and education for the minor.

(2) That the minor has been tried on probation while in custody and has failed to reform.

(3) That the welfare of the minor requires that custody be taken from the minor’s parent or guardian.

(b) Whenever the court specifically limits the right of the parent or guardian to make educational or developmental services decisions for the minor, the court shall at the same time appoint a responsible adult to make educational or developmental services decisions for the child until one of the following occurs:

(1) The minor reaches 18 years of age, unless the child chooses not to make educational or developmental services decisions for himself or herself, or is deemed by the court to be incompetent.

(2) Another responsible adult is appointed to make educational or developmental services decisions for the minor pursuant to this section.

(3) The right of the parent or guardian to make educational or developmental services decisions for the minor is fully restored.

(4) A successor guardian or conservator is appointed.

(5) The child is placed into a planned permanent living arrangement pursuant to paragraph (5) or (6) of subdivision (b) of Section 727.3, at which time, for educational decisionmaking, the foster parent, relative caretaker, or nonrelative extended family member, as defined in Section 362.7, has the right to represent the child in educational matters pursuant to Section 56055 of the Education Code, and for decisions relating to developmental services, unless the court specifies otherwise, the foster parent, relative caregiver, or nonrelative extended family member of the planned permanent living arrangement has the right to represent the child in matters related to developmental services.

(c) An individual who would have a conflict of interest in representing the child, as specified under federal regulations, may not be appointed to make educational decisions. The limitations applicable to conflicts of interest for educational rights holders shall also apply to authorized representatives for developmental services decisions pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 4701.6. For purposes of this section, “an individual who would have a conflict of interest” means a person having any interests that might restrict or bias his or her ability to make educational or developmental services decisions, including, but not limited to, those conflicts of interest prohibited by Section 1126 of the Government Code, and the receipt of compensation or attorneys’ fees for the provision of services pursuant to this section. A foster parent may not be deemed to have a conflict of interest solely because he or she receives compensation for the provision of services pursuant to this section.

(1) If the court limits the parent’s educational rights pursuant to subdivision (a), the court shall determine whether there is a responsible adult who is a relative, nonrelative extended family member, or other adult known to the child and who is available and willing to serve as the child’s educational representative before appointing an educational representative or surrogate who is not known to the child.

If the court cannot identify a responsible adult who is known to the child and available to make educational decisions for the child and paragraphs (1) to (5), inclusive, of subdivision (b) do not apply, and the child has either been referred to the local educational agency for special education and related services or has a valid individualized education program, the court shall refer the child to the local educational agency for appointment of a surrogate parent pursuant to Section 7579.5 of the Government Code.

(2) All educational and school placement decisions shall seek to ensure that the child is in the least restrictive educational programs and has access to the academic resources, services, and extracurricular and enrichment activities that are available to all pupils. In all instances, educational and school placement decisions shall be based on the best interests of the child. If an educational representative or surrogate is appointed for the child, the representative or surrogate shall meet with the child, shall investigate the child’s educational needs and whether those needs are being met, and shall, before each review hearing held under Article 10 (commencing with Section 360), provide information and recommendations concerning the child’s educational needs to the child’s social worker, make written recommendations to the court, or attend the hearing and participate in those portions of the hearing that concern the child’s education.

(3) Nothing in this section in any way removes the obligation to appoint surrogate parents for students with disabilities who are without parental representation in special education procedures as required by state and federal law, including Section 1415(b)(2) of Title 20 of the United States Code, Section 56050 of the Education Code, Section 7579.5 of the Government Code, and Rule 5.650 of the California Rules of Court.

If the court appoints a developmental services decisionmaker pursuant to this section, he or she shall have the authority to access the child’s information and records pursuant to subdivision (u) of Section 4514 and subdivision (y) of Section 5328, and to act on the child’s behalf for the purposes of the individual program plan process pursuant to Sections 4646, 4646.5, and 4648 and the fair hearing process pursuant to Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 4700) of Division 4.5, and as set forth in the court order.

(d) (1) If the minor is removed from the physical custody of his or her parent or guardian as the result of an order of wardship made pursuant to Section 602, the order shall specify that the minor may not be held in physical confinement for a period in excess of the maximum term of imprisonment which could be imposed upon an adult convicted of the offense or offenses which brought or continued the minor under the jurisdiction of the juvenile court.

(2) As used in this section and in Section 731, “maximum term of imprisonment” means the longest of the three time periods set forth in paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code, but without the need to follow the provisions of subdivision (b) of Section 1170 of the Penal Code or to consider time for good behavior or participation pursuant to Sections 2930, 2931, and 2932 of the Penal Code, plus enhancements which must be proven if pled.

(3) If the court elects to aggregate the period of physical confinement on multiple counts or multiple petitions, including previously sustained petitions adjudging the minor a ward within Section 602, the “maximum term of imprisonment” shall be the aggregate term of imprisonment specified in subdivision (a) of Section 1170.1 of the Penal Code, which includes any additional term imposed pursuant to Section 667, 667.5, 667.6, or 12022.1 of the Penal Code, and Section 11370.2 of the Health and Safety Code.

(4) If the charged offense is a misdemeanor or a felony not included within the scope of Section 1170 of the Penal Code, the “maximum term of imprisonment” is the longest term of imprisonment prescribed by law.

(5) “Physical confinement” means placement in a juvenile hall, ranch, camp, forestry camp or secure juvenile home pursuant to Section 730, or in any institution operated by the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Justice.

(6) This section does not limit the power of the court to retain jurisdiction over a minor and to make appropriate orders pursuant to Section 727 for the period permitted by Section 607.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 71, Sec. 183. (SB 1304) Effective January 1, 2015.)

726.4.
  

(a) At the disposition hearing, in any case where the court orders the care, custody, and control of the minor to be under the supervision of the probation officer for foster care placement pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 727, the court shall inquire of the mother and any other appropriate person as to the identity and address of all presumed or alleged fathers. The presence at the hearing of a man claiming to be the father shall not relieve the court of its duty of inquiry. The inquiry may include all of the following:

(1) Whether a judgment of paternity already exists.

(2) Whether the mother was married or believed she was married at the time of conception of the child or at any time thereafter.

(3) Whether the mother was cohabiting with a man at the time of conception or birth of the child.

(4) Whether the mother has received support payments or promises of support with respect to the child or in connection with her pregnancy.

(5) Whether any man has formally or informally acknowledged or declared his possible paternity of the child.

(6) Whether paternity tests have been administered and the results, if any.

(b) If, after the court inquiry, one or more men are identified as an alleged father, each alleged father shall be provided notice at his last and usual place of abode by certified mail return receipt requested alleging that he is or could be the father of the child. The notice shall state that the child is the subject of proceedings under Section 602 and that the proceedings could result in the termination of parental rights and adoption of the child. Nothing in this section shall preclude a court from terminating a father’s parental rights even if he appears at the hearing and files an action under Section 7630 or 7631 of the Family Code.

(c) The court may determine that the failure of an alleged father to return the certified mail receipt is not good cause to continue a hearing pursuant to Section 682.

(d) If a man appears in the delinquency action and files an action under Section 7630 or 7631 of the Family Code, the court shall determine if he is the father.

(e) After a petition has been filed to declare a minor a ward of the court, and until the time that the petition is dismissed, wardship is terminated, or parental rights are terminated pursuant to Section 727.31, the juvenile court which has jurisdiction of the wardship action shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear an action filed under Section 7630 or 7631 of the Family Code.

(Added by Stats. 1999, Ch. 997, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2000.)

726.5.
  

(a) At any time when (1) the minor is a ward of the juvenile court under Section 725, or the court terminates wardship while the minor remains under the age of 18 years, and (2) proceedings for dissolution of marriage, for nullity of marriage, or for legal separation of the minor’s parents, proceedings to determine custody of the child, or to establish paternity of the minor under the Uniform Parentage Act, Part 3 (commencing with Section 7600) of Division 12 of the Family Code are pending in the superior court of any county, or an order has been entered with regard to the custody of the minor, the juvenile court may issue a protective order as provided in Section 213.5 or as defined in Section 6218 of the Family Code and may issue an order determining parentage, custody of, or visitation with, the minor.

A custody or visitation order issued by the juvenile court pursuant to this subdivision shall be made in accordance with the procedures and criteria of Part 2 (commencing with Section 3020) of Division 8 of the Family Code. An order determining parentage issued by the juvenile court pursuant to this subdivision shall be made in accordance with the procedures and presumptions of the Uniform Parentage Act, Part 3 (commencing with Section 7600) of Division 12 of the Family Code.

(b) If the juvenile court decides to issue an order pursuant to subdivision (a), the juvenile court shall provide notice of that decision to the superior court in which the proceeding to decide parentage, custody of, or visitation with, the minor is pending. The clerk of the superior court, upon receipt of the notice, shall file the notice with other documents and records of the pending proceeding and send by first-class mail a copy of the notice to all parties of record in that proceeding.

(c) Any order issued under this section shall continue until modified or terminated by a subsequent order of the juvenile court. The order of the juvenile court shall be filed in the proceeding for nullity, dissolution, or legal separation, or in the proceeding to determine custody or to establish paternity, if that proceeding is pending at the time the juvenile court terminates its jurisdiction over the minor. The order shall then become a part of that proceeding and may be terminated or modified as the court in that proceeding deems appropriate.

(d) If no action is filed or pending relating to the custody of the minor in the superior court of any county at the time the juvenile court terminates its jurisdiction over the minor, the juvenile court order entered pursuant to subdivision (a) may be used as the sole basis for opening a file in the superior court of the county in which the parent who has been awarded physical custody resides. The clerk of the juvenile court shall transmit the order to the clerk of the superior court of the county in which the order is to be filed. The clerk of the superior court shall, upon receipt, open a file, without a filing fee, and assign a case number.

(e) The clerk of the superior court shall, upon the filing of any juvenile court order pursuant to subdivision (d), send by first-class mail a copy of the order with the case number, to the juvenile court and to the parents at the address listed on the order.

(f) The Judicial Council shall adopt forms for orders issued under this section. These orders shall not be confidential.

(Added by Stats. 1998, Ch. 390, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 1999.)

727.
  

(a) (1) If a minor or nonminor is adjudged a ward of the court on the ground that he or she is a person described by Section 601 or 602, the court may make any reasonable orders for the care, supervision, custody, conduct, maintenance, and support of the minor or nonminor, including medical treatment, subject to further order of the court.

(2) In the discretion of the court, a ward may be ordered to be on probation without supervision of the probation officer. The court, in so ordering, may impose on the ward any and all reasonable conditions of behavior as may be appropriate under this disposition. A minor or nonminor who has been adjudged a ward of the court on the basis of the commission of any of the offenses described in subdivision (b) or paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 707, Section 459 of the Penal Code, or subdivision (a) of Section 11350 of the Health and Safety Code, shall not be eligible for probation without supervision of the probation officer. A minor or nonminor who has been adjudged a ward of the court on the basis of the commission of any offense involving the sale or possession for sale of a controlled substance, except misdemeanor offenses involving marijuana, as specified in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 11053) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code, or of an offense in violation of Section 32625 of the Penal Code, shall be eligible for probation without supervision of the probation officer only when the court determines that the interests of justice would best be served and states reasons on the record for that determination.

(3) In all other cases, the court shall order the care, custody, and control of the minor or nonminor to be under the supervision of the probation officer.

(4) It is the responsibility, pursuant to Section 672(a)(2)(B) of Title 42 of the United States Code, of the probation agency to determine the appropriate placement for the ward once the court issues a placement order. In determination of the appropriate placement for the ward, the probation officer shall consider any recommendations of the child and family. The probation agency may place the minor or nonminor in any of the following:

(A) The approved home of a relative or the approved home of a nonrelative, extended family member, as defined in Section 362.7. If a decision has been made to place the minor in the home of a relative, the court may authorize the relative to give legal consent for the minor’s medical, surgical, and dental care and education as if the relative caregiver were the custodial parent of the minor.

(B) A foster home, the approved home of a resource family as defined in Section 16519.5, or a home or facility in accordance with the federal Indian Child Welfare Act (25 U.S.C. Sec. 1901 et seq.).

(C) A suitable licensed community care facility, as identified by the probation officer, except a runaway and homeless youth shelter licensed by the State Department of Social Services pursuant to Section 1502.35 of the Health and Safety Code.

(D) A foster family agency, as defined in subdivision (g) of Section 11400 and paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) of Section 1502 of the Health and Safety Code, in a suitable certified family home or with a resource family.

(E) A minor or nonminor dependent may be placed in a group home or short-term residential therapeutic program as defined in subdivision (ad) of Section 11400 and paragraph (18) of subdivision (a) of Section 1502 of the Health and Safety Code. The placing agency shall also comply with requirements set forth in paragraph (9) of subdivision (e) of Section 361.2, which includes, but is not limited to, authorization, limitation on length of stay, extensions, and additional requirements related to minors. For youth 13 years of age and older, the chief probation officer of the county probation department, or his or her designee, shall approve the placement if it is longer than 12 months, and no less frequently than every 12 months thereafter.

(F) (i) Every minor adjudged a ward of the juvenile court shall be entitled to participate in age-appropriate extracurricular, enrichment, and social activities. A state or local regulation or policy shall not prevent, or create barriers to, participation in those activities. Each state and local entity shall ensure that private agencies that provide foster care services to wards have policies consistent with this section and that those agencies promote and protect the ability of wards to participate in age-appropriate extracurricular, enrichment, and social activities. A short-term residential therapeutic program or a group home administrator, a facility manager, or his or her responsible designee, and a caregiver, as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 362.04, shall use a reasonable and prudent parent standard, as defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 362.04, in determining whether to give permission for a minor residing in foster care to participate in extracurricular, enrichment, and social activities. A short-term residential therapeutic program or a group home administrator, a facility manager, or his or her responsible designee, and a caregiver shall take reasonable steps to determine the appropriateness of the activity taking into consideration the minor’s age, maturity, and developmental level. For every minor placed in a setting described in subparagraphs (A) through (E), inclusive, age-appropriate extracurricular, enrichment, and social activities shall include access to computer technology and the Internet.

(ii) A short-term residential therapeutic program or a group home administrator, facility manager, or his or her responsible designee, is encouraged to consult with social work or treatment staff members who are most familiar with the minor at the group home in applying and using the reasonable and prudent parent standard.

(G) For nonminors, an approved supervised independent living setting as defined in Section 11400, including a residential housing unit certified by a licensed transitional housing placement provider.

(5) The minor or nonminor shall be released from juvenile detention upon an order being entered under paragraph (3), unless the court determines that a delay in the release from detention is reasonable pursuant to Section 737.

(b) (1) To facilitate coordination and cooperation among agencies, the court may, at any time after a petition has been filed, after giving notice and an opportunity to be heard, join in the juvenile court proceedings any agency that the court determines has failed to meet a legal obligation to provide services to a minor, for whom a petition has been filed under Section 601 or 602, to a nonminor, as described in Section 303, or to a nonminor dependent, as defined in subdivision (v) of Section 11400. In any proceeding in which an agency is joined, the court shall not impose duties upon the agency beyond those mandated by law. The purpose of joinder under this section is to ensure the delivery and coordination of legally mandated services to the minor. The joinder shall not be maintained for any other purpose. Nothing in this section shall prohibit agencies that have received notice of the hearing on joinder from meeting prior to the hearing to coordinate services.

(2) The court has no authority to order services unless it has been determined through the administrative process of an agency that has been joined as a party, that the minor, nonminor, or nonminor dependent is eligible for those services. With respect to mental health assessment, treatment, and case management services pursuant to an individualized education program developed pursuant to Article 2 (commencing with Section 56320) of Chapter 4 of Part 30 of Division 4 of Title 2 of the Education Code, the court’s determination shall be limited to whether the agency has complied with that chapter.

(3) For the purposes of this subdivision, “agency” means any governmental agency or any private service provider or individual that receives federal, state, or local governmental funding or reimbursement for providing services directly to a child, nonminor, or nonminor dependent.

(c) If a minor has been adjudged a ward of the court on the ground that he or she is a person described in Section 601 or 602, and the court finds that notice has been given in accordance with Section 661, and if the court orders that a parent or guardian shall retain custody of that minor either subject to or without the supervision of the probation officer, the parent or guardian may be required to participate with that minor in a counseling or education program, including, but not limited to, parent education and parenting programs operated by community colleges, school districts, or other appropriate agencies designated by the court.

(d) The juvenile court may direct any reasonable orders to the parents and guardians of the minor who is the subject of any proceedings under this chapter as the court deems necessary and proper to carry out subdivisions (a), (b), and (c), including orders to appear before a county financial evaluation officer, to ensure the minor’s regular school attendance, and to make reasonable efforts to obtain appropriate educational services necessary to meet the needs of the minor.

If counseling or other treatment services are ordered for the minor, the parent, guardian, or foster parent shall be ordered to participate in those services, unless participation by the parent, guardian, or foster parent is deemed by the court to be inappropriate or potentially detrimental to the minor.

(e) The court may, after receipt of relevant testimony and other evidence from the parties, affirm or reject the placement determination. If the court rejects the placement determination, the court may instruct the probation department to determine an alternative placement for the ward, or the court may modify the placement order to an alternative placement recommended by a party to the case after the court has received the probation department’s assessment of that recommendation and other relevant evidence from the parties.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 997, Sec. 2. (AB 2448) Effective January 1, 2019.)

727.1.
  

(a) If the court orders the care, custody, and control of the minor to be under the supervision of the probation officer for foster care placement pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 727, the decision regarding choice of placement, pursuant to Section 706.6, shall be based upon selection of a safe setting that is the least restrictive or most familylike, and the most appropriate setting that meets the individual needs of the minor and is available, in proximity to the parent’s home, consistent with the selection of the environment best suited to meet the minor’s special needs and best interests. The selection shall consider, in order of priority, placement with relatives, tribal members, and foster family, group care, and residential treatment pursuant to Section 7950 of the Family Code.

(b) Unless otherwise authorized by law, the court shall not order the placement of a minor who is adjudged a ward of the court on the basis that he or she is a person described by either Section 601 or 602 in a private residential facility or program that provides 24-hour supervision, outside of the state, unless the court finds, in its order of placement, that all of the following conditions are met:

(1) In-state facilities or programs have been determined to be unavailable or inadequate to meet the needs of the minor.

(2) The State Department of Social Services or its designee has performed initial and continuing inspection of the out-of-state residential facility or program and has either certified that the facility or program meets the greater of all licensure standards required of group homes or of short-term residential therapeutic programs operated in California, or that the department has granted a waiver to a specific licensing standard upon a finding that there exists no adverse impact to health and safety, pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 7911.1 of the Family Code.

(3) The requirements of Section 7911.1 of the Family Code are met.

(c) If, upon inspection, the probation officer of the county in which the minor is adjudged a ward of the court determines that the out-of-state facility or program is not in compliance with the standards required under paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) or has an adverse impact on the health and safety of the minor, the probation officer may temporarily remove the minor from the facility or program. The probation officer shall promptly inform the court of the minor’s removal, and shall return the minor to the court for a hearing to review the suitability of continued out-of-state placement. The probation officer shall, within one business day of removing the minor, notify the State Department of Social Services’ Compact Administrator, and, within five working days, submit a written report of the findings and actions taken.

(d) The court shall review each of these placements for compliance with the requirements of subdivision (b) at least once every six months.

(e) The county shall not be entitled to receive or expend any public funds for the placement of a minor in an out-of-state group home or short-term residential therapeutic program, unless the conditions of subdivisions (b) and (d) are met.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 561, Sec. 267. (AB 1516) Effective January 1, 2018.)

727.2.
  

The purpose of this section is to provide a means to monitor the safety and well-being of every minor in foster care who has been declared a ward of the juvenile court pursuant to Section 601 or 602 and to ensure that everything reasonably possible is done to facilitate the safe and early return of the minor to his or her home or to establish an alternative permanent plan for the minor.

(a) If the court orders the care, custody, and control of the minor to be under the supervision of the probation officer for placement pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 727, the juvenile court shall order the probation department to ensure the provision of reunification services to facilitate the safe return of the minor to his or her home or the permanent placement of the minor, and to address the needs of the minor while in foster care, except as provided in subdivision (b).

(b) Reunification services need not be provided to a parent or legal guardian if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that one or more of the following is true:

(1) Reunification services were previously terminated for that parent or guardian, pursuant to Section 366.21, 366.22, or 366.25, or not offered, pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 361.5, in reference to the same minor.

(2) The parent has been convicted of any of the following:

(A) Murder of another child of the parent.

(B) Voluntary manslaughter of another child of the parent.

(C) Aiding or abetting, attempting, conspiring, or soliciting to commit that murder or manslaughter described in subparagraph (A) or (B).

(D) A felony assault that results in serious bodily injury to the minor or another child of the parent.

(3) The parental rights of the parent with respect to a sibling have been terminated involuntarily, and it is not in the best interest of the minor to reunify with his or her parent or legal guardian.

If no reunification services are offered to the parent or guardian, the permanency planning hearing, as described in Section 727.3, shall occur within 30 days of the date of the hearing at which the decision is made not to offer services.

(c) The status of every minor declared a ward and ordered to be placed in foster care shall be reviewed by the court no less frequently than once every six months. The six-month time periods shall be calculated from the date the minor entered foster care, as defined in paragraph (4) of subdivision (d) of Section 727.4. If the court so elects, the court may declare the hearing at which the court orders the care, custody, and control of the minor to be under the supervision of the probation officer for foster care placement pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 727 at the first status review hearing. It shall be the duty of the probation officer to prepare a written social study report including an updated case plan, pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 706.5, and submit the report to the court prior to each status review hearing, pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 727.4. The social study report shall include all reports the probation officer relied upon in making his or her recommendations.

(d) Prior to any status review hearing involving a minor in the physical custody of a community care facility or foster family agency, the facility or agency may provide the probation officer with a report containing its recommendations. Prior to any status review hearing involving the physical custody of a foster parent, relative caregiver, preadoptive parent, or legal guardian, that person may present to the court a report containing his or her recommendations. The court shall consider all reports and recommendations filed pursuant to subdivision (c) and pursuant to this subdivision.

(e) At any status review hearing prior to the first permanency planning hearing, the court shall consider the safety of the minor and make findings and orders which determine the following:

(1) The continuing necessity for and appropriateness of the placement.

(2) The extent of the probation department’s compliance with the case plan in making reasonable efforts, or in the case of a child 16 years of age or older with another planned permanent living arrangement, the ongoing and intensive efforts to safely return the minor to the minor’s home or to complete whatever steps are necessary to finalize the permanent placement of the minor.

(3) Whether there should be any limitation on the right of the parent or guardian to make educational decisions for the minor. That limitation shall be specifically addressed in the court order and may not exceed what is necessary to protect the minor. If the court specifically limits the right of the parent or guardian to make educational decisions for the minor, the court shall at the same time appoint a responsible adult to make educational decisions for the minor pursuant to Section 726.

(4) The extent of progress that has been made by the minor and parent or guardian toward alleviating or mitigating the causes necessitating placement in foster care.

(5) The likely date by which the minor may be returned to and safely maintained in the home or placed for adoption, appointed a legal guardian, permanently placed with a fit and willing relative, or, if the minor is 16 years of age or older, referred to another planned permanent living arrangement.

(6) In the case of a minor who has reached 16 years of age, the court shall, in addition, determine the services needed to assist the minor to make the transition from foster care to successful adulthood.

The court shall make these determinations on a case-by-case basis and reference in its written findings the probation officer’s report and any other evidence relied upon in reaching its decision.

(f) At any status review hearing prior to the first permanency hearing, after considering the admissible and relevant evidence, the court shall order return of the minor to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian unless the court finds, by a preponderance of evidence, that the return of the minor to his or her parent or legal guardian would create a substantial risk of detriment to the safety, protection, or physical or emotional well-being of the minor. The probation department shall have the burden of establishing that detriment. In making its determination, the court shall review and consider the social study report, recommendations, and the case plan pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 706.5, the report and recommendations of any child advocate appointed for the minor in the case, and any other reports submitted to the court pursuant to subdivision (d), and shall consider the efforts or progress, or both, demonstrated by the minor and family and the extent to which the minor availed himself or herself of the services provided.

(g) At all status review hearings subsequent to the first permanency planning hearing, the court shall consider the safety of the minor and make the findings and orders as described in paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive, and (6) of subdivision (e). The court shall either make a finding that the previously ordered permanent plan continues to be appropriate or shall order that a new permanent plan be adopted pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 727.3. However, the court shall not order a permanent plan of “return to the physical custody of the parent or legal guardian after further reunification services are offered,” as described in paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 727.3.

(h) The status review hearings required by subdivision (c) may be heard by an administrative review panel, provided that the administrative panel meets all of the requirements listed in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (7) of subdivision (d) of Section 727.4.

(i) (1) On and after January 1, 2012, at any status review hearing at which a recommendation to terminate delinquency jurisdiction is being considered, or at the status review hearing held closest to the ward attaining 18 years of age, but no fewer than 90 days before the ward’s 18th birthday, the court shall consider whether to modify its jurisdiction pursuant to Section 601 or 602 and assume transition jurisdiction over the minor pursuant to Section 450. The probation department shall address this issue in its report to the court and make a recommendation as to whether transition jurisdiction is appropriate for the minor.

(2) The court shall order the probation department or the minor’s attorney to submit an application to the child welfare services department pursuant to Section 329 to declare the minor a dependent of the court and modify its jurisdiction from delinquency to dependency jurisdiction if it finds both of the following:

(A) The ward does not come within the description set forth in Section 450, but jurisdiction as a ward may no longer be required.

(B) The ward appears to come within the description of Section 300 and cannot be returned home safely.

(3) The court shall set a hearing within 20 judicial days of the date of its order issued pursuant to paragraph (2) to review the decision of the child welfare services department and may either affirm the decision not to file a petition pursuant to Section 300 or order the child welfare services department to file a petition pursuant to Section 300.

(j) On and after January 1, 2012, if a review hearing pursuant to this section is the last review hearing to be held before the minor attains 18 years of age, the court shall ensure that the minor’s transitional independent living case plan includes a plan for the minor to meet one or more of the criteria in paragraphs (1) to (5), inclusive, of subdivision (b) of Section 11403, so that the minor can become a nonminor dependent, and that the minor has been informed of his or her right to decline to become a nonminor dependent and to seek termination of the court’s jurisdiction pursuant to Section 607.2.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 425, Sec. 18. (SB 794) Effective January 1, 2016.)

727.25.
  

(a) Notwithstanding any other law, the court may order family reunification services to continue for a nonminor dependent, as defined in subdivision (v) of Section 11400, if all parties are in agreement that the continued provision of court-ordered family reunification services is in the best interests of the nonminor dependent, and there is a substantial probability that the nonminor dependent will be able to safely reside in the home of the parent or guardian by the next review hearing. The continuation of court-ordered family reunification services shall not exceed the timeframes in Section 727.3.

(b) If all parties are not in agreement or the court finds there is not a substantial probability that the nonminor will be able to return and safely reside in the home of the parent or guardian, the court shall terminate reunification services to the parents or guardian.

(c) The continuation of court-ordered family reunification services under this section does not affect the nonminor’s eligibility for extended foster care benefits as a nonminor dependent as defined in subdivision (v) of Section 11400. The reviews conducted for any nonminor dependent shall be pursuant to Section 366.31.

(d) The extension of reunification services only applies to youth under the delinquency jurisdiction of the court.

(Added by Stats. 2012, Ch. 846, Sec. 31. (AB 1712) Effective January 1, 2013.)

727.3.
  

The purpose of this section is to provide a means to monitor the safety and well-being of every minor in foster care who has been declared a ward of the juvenile court pursuant to Section 601 or 602 and to ensure that everything reasonably possible is done to facilitate the safe and early return of the minor to his or her own home or to establish an alternative permanent plan for the minor.

(a) (1) For every minor declared a ward and ordered to be placed in foster care, a permanency planning hearing shall be conducted within 12 months of the date the minor entered foster care, as defined in paragraph (4) of subdivision (d) of Section 727.4. Subsequent permanency planning hearings shall be conducted periodically, but no less frequently than once every 12 months thereafter during the period of placement. It shall be the duty of the probation officer to prepare a written social study report including an updated case plan and a recommendation for a permanent plan, pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 706.5, and submit the report to the court prior to each permanency planning hearing, pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 727.4.

(2) Prior to any permanency planning hearing involving a minor in the physical custody of a community care facility or foster family agency, the facility or agency may file with the court a report containing its recommendations, in addition to the probation officer’s social study. Prior to any permanency planning hearing involving the physical custody of a foster parent, relative caregiver, preadoptive parent, or legal guardian, that person may present to the court a report containing his or her recommendations. The court shall consider all reports and recommendations filed pursuant to this subdivision.

(3) If the minor has a continuing involvement with his or her parents or legal guardians, the parents or legal guardians shall be involved in the planning for a permanent placement. The court order placing the minor in a permanent placement shall include a specification of the nature and frequency of visiting arrangements with the parents or legal guardians and, if any, the siblings.

(4) At each permanency planning hearing, the court shall order a permanent plan for the minor, as described in subdivision (b). The court shall also make findings, as described in subdivision (e) of Section 727.2. In the case of a minor who has reached 16 years of age or older, the court shall, in addition, determine the services needed to assist the minor to make the transition from foster care to successful adulthood. The court shall make all of these determinations on a case-by-case basis and make reference to the probation officer’s report, the case plan, or other evidence relied upon in making its decisions.

(5) When the minor is 16 years of age or older, and is in another planned permanent living arrangement, the court, at each permanency planning hearing, shall do all of the following:

(A) Ask the minor about his or her desired permanency outcome.

(B) Make a judicial determination explaining why, as of the hearing date, another planned permanent living arrangement is the best permanency plan for the minor.

(C) State for the record the compelling reason or reasons why it continues not to be in the best interest of the minor to return home, be placed for adoption, be placed with a legal guardian, or be placed with a fit and willing relative.

(b) At all permanency planning hearings, the court shall determine the permanent plan for the minor. The court shall order one of the following permanent plans, in order of priority:

(1) Return of the minor to the physical custody of the parent or legal guardian. After considering the admissible and relevant evidence, the court shall order the return of the minor to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian unless:

(A) Reunification services were not offered, pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 727.2.

(B) The court finds, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the return of the minor to his or her parent or legal guardian would create a substantial risk of detriment to the safety, protection, or physical or emotional well-being of the minor. The probation department shall have the burden of establishing that detriment. In making its determination, the court shall review and consider the social study report and recommendations pursuant to Section 706.5, the report and recommendations of any child advocate appointed for the minor in the case, and any other reports submitted pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), and shall consider the efforts or progress, or both, demonstrated by the minor and family and the extent to which the minor availed himself or herself of the services provided.

(2) Order that the permanent plan for the minor will be to return the minor to the physical custody of the parent or legal guardian, order further reunification services to be provided to the minor and his or her parent or legal guardian for a period not to exceed six months and continue the case for up to six months for a subsequent permanency planning hearing, provided that the subsequent hearing shall occur within 18 months of the date the minor was originally taken from the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian. The court shall continue the case only if it finds that there is a substantial probability that the minor will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian and safely maintained in the home within the extended period of time or that reasonable services have not been provided to the parent or guardian. For purposes of this section, in order to find that there is a substantial probability that the minor will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian, the court shall be required to find that the minor and his or her parent or legal guardian have demonstrated the capacity and ability to complete the objectives of the case plan.

The court shall inform the parent or legal guardian that if the minor cannot be returned home by the next permanency planning hearing, a proceeding pursuant to Section 727.31 may be initiated.

The court shall not continue the case for further reunification services if it has been 18 months or more since the date the minor was originally taken from the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian.

(3) Identify adoption as the permanent plan and order that a hearing be held within 120 days, pursuant to the procedures described in Section 727.31. The court shall only set a hearing pursuant to Section 727.31 if there is clear and convincing evidence that reasonable services have been provided or offered to the parents. When the court sets a hearing pursuant to Section 727.31, it shall order that an adoption assessment report be prepared, pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 727.31.

(4) Order a legal guardianship, pursuant to procedures described in subdivisions (c) to (f), inclusive, of Section 728.

(5) Place the minor with a fit and willing relative. “Placement with a fit and willing relative” means placing the minor with an appropriate approved relative who is willing to provide a permanent and stable home for the minor, but is unable or unwilling to become the legal guardian. When a minor is placed with a fit and willing relative, the court may authorize the relative to provide the same legal consent for the minor’s medical, surgical, and dental care, and education as the custodial parent of the minor.

(6) (A) If he or she is 16 years of age or older, place the minor in another planned permanent living arrangement. For purposes of this section, “planned permanent living arrangement” means any permanent living arrangement described in Section 11402 that is ordered by the court for a minor 16 years of age or older when there is a compelling reason or reasons to determine that it is not in the best interest of the minor to have any permanent plan listed in paragraphs (1) to (5), inclusive. These plans include, but are not limited to, placement in a specific, identified foster home, program, or facility on a permanent basis, or placement with a transitional housing placement provider. When the court places a minor in a planned permanent living arrangement, the court shall specify the goal of the placement, which may include, but shall not be limited to, return home, emancipation, guardianship, or permanent placement with a relative.

The court shall only order that the minor remain in a planned permanent living arrangement if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence, based upon the evidence already presented to it, that there is a compelling reason, as defined in subdivision (c), for determining that a plan of termination of parental rights and adoption is not in the best interest of the minor.

(B) If the minor is under 16 years of age and the court finds by clear and convincing evidence, based upon the evidence already presented to it, that there is a compelling reason, as defined in subdivision (c), for determining that a plan of termination of parental rights and adoption is not in the best interest of the minor as of the hearing date, the court shall order the minor to remain in a foster care placement with a permanent plan of return home, adoption, legal guardianship, or placement with a fit and willing relative, as appropriate. The court shall make factual findings identifying any barriers to achieving the permanent plan as of the hearing date.

(c) A compelling reason for determining that a plan of termination of parental rights and adoption is not in the best interest of the minor is any of the following:

(1) Documentation by the probation department that adoption is not in the best interest of the minor and is not an appropriate permanency goal. That documentation may include, but is not limited to, documentation that:

(A) The minor is 12 years of age or older and objects to termination of parental rights.

(B) The minor is 17 years of age or older and specifically requests that transition to independent living with the identification of a caring adult to serve as a lifelong connection be established as his or her permanent plan. On and after January 1, 2012, this includes a minor who requests that his or her transitional independent living case plan include modification of his or her jurisdiction to that of dependency jurisdiction pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 607.2 or subdivision (i) of Section 727.2, or to that of transition jurisdiction pursuant to Section 450, in order to be eligible as a nonminor dependent for the extended benefits pursuant to Section 11403.

(C) The parent or guardian and the minor have a significant bond, but the parent or guardian is unable to care for the minor because of an emotional or physical disability, and the minor’s caregiver has committed to raising the minor to the age of majority and facilitating visitation with the disabled parent or guardian.

(D) The minor agrees to continued placement in a residential treatment facility that provides services specifically designed to address the minor’s treatment needs, and the minor’s needs could not be served by a less restrictive placement.

The probation department’s recommendation that adoption is not in the best interest of the minor shall be based on the present family circumstances of the minor and shall not preclude a different recommendation at a later date if the minor’s family circumstances change.

(2) Documentation by the probation department that no grounds exist to file for termination of parental rights.

(3) Documentation by the probation department that the minor is an unaccompanied refugee minor, or there are international legal obligations or foreign policy reasons that would preclude terminating parental rights.

(4) A finding by the court that the probation department was required to make reasonable efforts to reunify the minor with the family pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 727.2, and did not make those efforts.

(5) Documentation by the probation department that the minor is living with a relative who is unable or unwilling to adopt the minor because of exceptional circumstances that do not include an unwillingness to accept legal or financial responsibility for the minor, but who is willing to provide, and capable of providing, the minor with a stable and permanent home environment, and the removal of the minor from the physical custody of his or her relative would be detrimental to the minor’s emotional well-being.

(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the ability of a parent to voluntarily relinquish his or her child to the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency or to a county adoption agency at any time while the minor is a ward of the juvenile court if the department or county adoption agency is willing to accept the relinquishment.

(e) Any change in the permanent plan of a minor placed with a fit and willing relative or in a planned permanent living arrangement shall be made only by order of the court pursuant to a petition filed in accordance with Section 778 or at a regularly scheduled and noticed status review hearing or permanency planning hearing. Any change in the permanent plan of a minor placed in a guardianship shall be made only by order of the court pursuant to a motion filed in accordance with Section 728.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 731, Sec. 6. (SB 612) Effective January 1, 2018.)

727.31.
  

(a) This section applies to all minors placed in out-of-home care pursuant to Section 727.2 or 727.3 and for whom the juvenile court orders a hearing to consider permanently terminating parental rights to free the minor for adoption.

Except for subdivision (j) of Section 366.26, the procedures for permanently terminating parental rights for minors described by this section shall proceed exclusively pursuant to Section 366.26.

At the beginning of any proceeding pursuant to this section, if the minor is not being represented by previously retained or appointed counsel, the court shall appoint counsel to represent the minor, and the minor shall be present in court unless the minor or the minor’s counsel so requests and the court so orders. If a parent appears without counsel and is unable to afford counsel, the court shall appoint counsel for the parent, unless this representation is knowingly and intelligently waived. The same counsel shall not be appointed to represent both the minor and the parent. Private counsel appointed under this section shall receive a reasonable sum for compensation and expenses as specified in subdivision (f) of paragraph (3) of Section 366.26.

(b) Whenever the court orders that a hearing pursuant to this section shall be held, it shall direct the agency supervising the minor and the county adoption agency, or the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency, to prepare an assessment that shall include all of the following:

(1) Current search efforts for an absent parent or parents.

(2) A review of the amount and nature of any contact between the minor and his or her parents and other members of his or her extended family since the time of placement. Although the extended family of each minor shall be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, “extended family” for the purpose of the paragraph shall include, but not be limited to, the minor’s siblings, grandparents, aunts, and uncles.

(3) An evaluation of the minor’s medical, developmental, scholastic, mental, and emotional status.

(4) A preliminary assessment of the eligibility and commitment of any identified prospective adoptive parent or guardian, particularly the caretaker, to include a social history, including screening for criminal records and prior referrals for child abuse or neglect, the capability to meet the minor’s needs, and the understanding of the legal and financial rights and responsibilities of adoption and guardianship. If a proposed guardian is a relative of the minor, the assessment shall also consider, but need not be limited to, all of the factors specified in subdivision (a) of Section 361.3 and Section 361.4.

(5) The relationship of the minor to any identified prospective adoptive parent or guardian, the duration and character of the relationship, the degree of attachment of the child to the prospective relative guardian or adoptive parent, the relative’s or adoptive parent’s strong commitment to caring permanently for the child, the motivation for seeking adoption or guardianship, a statement from the minor concerning placement and the adoption or guardianship, and whether the minor, if over 12 years of age, has been consulted about the proposed relative guardianship arrangements, unless the minor’s age or physical, emotional, or other condition precludes his or her meaningful response, and if so, a description of the condition.

(6) An analysis of the likelihood that the minor will be adopted if parental rights are terminated.

(c) A relative caregiver’s preference for legal guardianship over adoption, if it is due to circumstances that do not include an unwillingness to accept legal or financial responsibility for the child, shall not constitute the sole basis for recommending removal of the child from the relative caregiver for purposes of adoptive placement. A relative caregiver shall be given information regarding the permanency options of guardianship and adoption, including the long-term benefits and consequences of each option, prior to establishing legal guardianship or pursuing adoption.

(d) If at any hearing held pursuant to Section 366.26, a legal guardianship is established for the minor with an approved relative caregiver and juvenile court dependency is subsequently dismissed, the minor shall be eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program, as provided for in Article 4.5 (commencing with Section 11360) or Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385), as applicable, of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9.

(e) For purposes of this section, “relative” means an adult who is related to the child by blood, adoption, or affinity within the fifth degree of kinship, including stepparents, stepsiblings, and all relatives whose status is preceded by the words “great,” “great-great,” or “grand,” or the spouse of any of those persons, even if the marriage was terminated by death or dissolution.

(f) Whenever the court orders that a hearing pursuant to procedures described in this section be held, it shall order that the county adoption agency, or the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency, has exclusive responsibility for determining the adoptive placement and making all adoption-related decisions.

(g) If the court, by order of judgment declares the minor free from the custody and control of both parents, or one parent if the other does not have custody and control, the court shall at the same time order the minor referred to the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency or a county adoption agency for adoptive placement by the agency. The order shall state that responsibility for custody of the minor shall be held jointly by the probation department and the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency or the county adoption agency. The order shall also state that the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency or the county adoption agency has exclusive responsibility for determining the adoptive placement and for making all adoption-related decisions. However, no petition for adoption may be granted until the appellate rights of the natural parents have been exhausted.

(h) The notice procedures for terminating parental rights for minors described by this section shall proceed exclusively pursuant to Section 366.23.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 35, Sec. 63. (SB 1013) Effective June 27, 2012.)

727.32.
  

(a) In any case where a minor has been declared a ward of the juvenile court and has been in foster care for 15 of the most recent 22 months, the probation department shall follow the procedures described in Section 727.31 to terminate the parental rights of the minor’s parents, unless the probation department has documented in the probation department file a compelling reason for determining that termination of the parental rights would not be in the minor’s best interests, or the probation department has not provided the family with reasonable efforts necessary to achieve reunification. For purposes of this section, compelling reasons for not terminating parental rights are those described in subdivision (c) of Section 727.3.

(b) For the purposes of this section, 15 out of the 22 months shall be calculated from the “date entered foster care,” as defined in paragraph (4) of subdivision (d) of Section 727.4. When a minor experiences multiple exits from and entries into foster care during the 22-month period, the 15 months shall be calculated by adding together the total number of months the minor spent in foster care in the past 22 months. However, trial home visits and runaway episodes should not be included in calculating 15 months in foster care.

(c) If the probation department documented a compelling reason at the time of the permanency planning hearing, pursuant to subdivision (l) of Section 706.6, the probation department need not provide any additional documentation to comply with the requirements of this section.

(d) When the probation department sets a hearing pursuant to Section 727.31, it shall concurrently make efforts to identify an approved family for adoption, and follow the procedures described in subdivision (b) of Section 727.31.

(Added by Stats. 2001, Ch. 831, Sec. 14. Effective January 1, 2002.)

727.4.
  

(a) (1) Notice of any hearing pursuant to Section 727, 727.2, or 727.3 shall be served by the probation officer to the minor, the minor’s parent or guardian, any adult provider of care to the minor including, but not limited to, foster parents, relative caregivers, preadoptive parents, resource family, community care facility, or foster family agency, and to the counsel of record if the counsel of record was not present at the time that the hearing was set by the court, by first-class mail addressed to the last known address of the person to be notified, by personal service on those persons, or by electronic service pursuant to Section 212.5, not earlier than 30 days nor later than 15 days preceding the date of the hearing. The notice shall contain a statement regarding the nature of the status review or permanency planning hearing and any change in the custody or status of the minor being recommended by the probation department. The notice shall also include a statement informing the foster parents, relative caregivers, or preadoptive parents that he or she may attend all hearings or may submit any information he or she deems relevant to the court in writing. The foster parents, relative caregiver, and preadoptive parents are entitled to notice and opportunity to be heard but need not be made parties to the proceedings. Proof of notice shall be filed with the court.

(2) If the court or probation officer knows or has reason to know that the minor is or may be an Indian child, any notice sent under this section shall comply with the requirements of Section 224.2.

(b) At least 10 calendar days before each status review and permanency planning hearing, after the hearing during which the court orders that the care, custody, and control of the minor to be under the supervision of the probation officer for placement pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 727, the probation officer shall file a social study report with the court, pursuant to the requirements listed in Section 706.5.

(c) The probation department shall inform the minor, the minor’s parent or guardian, and all counsel of record that a copy of the social study prepared for the hearing will be available 10 days before the hearing and may be obtained from the probation officer.

(d) As used in Article 15 (commencing with Section 625) to Article 18 (commencing with Section 725), inclusive:

(1) “Foster care” means residential care provided in any of the settings described in Section 11402 or 11402.01.

(2) “At risk of entering foster care” means that conditions within a minor’s family may necessitate his or her entry into foster care unless those conditions are resolved.

(3) “Preadoptive parent” means a licensed foster parent who has been approved for adoption by the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency or by a licensed adoption agency.

(4) “Date of entry into foster care” means the date that is 60 days after the date on which the minor was removed from his or her home, unless one of the exceptions below applies:

(A) If the minor is detained pending foster care placement, and remains detained for more than 60 days, then the date of entry into foster care means the date the court adjudges the minor a ward and orders the minor placed in foster care under the supervision of the probation officer.

(B) If, before the minor is placed in foster care, the minor is committed to a ranch, camp, school, or other institution pending placement, and remains in that facility for more than 60 days, then the “date of entry into foster care” is the date the minor is physically placed in foster care.

(C) If at the time the wardship petition was filed, the minor was a dependent of the juvenile court and in out-of-home placement, then the “date of entry into foster care” is the earlier of the date the juvenile court made a finding of abuse or neglect, or 60 days after the date on which the child was removed from his or her home.

(5) “Reasonable efforts” means:

(A) Efforts made to prevent or eliminate the need for removing the minor from the minor’s home.

(B) Efforts to make it possible for the minor to return home, including, but not limited to, case management, counseling, parenting training, mentoring programs, vocational training, educational services, substance abuse treatment, transportation, and therapeutic day services.

(C) Efforts to complete whatever steps are necessary to finalize a permanent plan for the minor.

(D) In child custody proceedings involving an Indian child, “reasonable efforts” shall also include “active efforts” as defined in Section 361.7.

(6) “Relative” means an adult who is related to the minor by blood, adoption, or affinity within the fifth degree of kinship including stepparents, stepsiblings, and all relatives whose status is preceded by the words “great,” “great-great,” “grand,” or the spouse of any of these persons even if the marriage was terminated by death or dissolution. “Relative” shall also include an “extended family member” as defined in the federal Indian Child Welfare Act (25 U.S.C. Sec. 1903(2)).

(7) “Hearing” means a noticed proceeding with findings and orders that are made on a case-by-case basis, heard by either of the following:

(A) A judicial officer, in a courtroom, recorded by a court reporter.

(B) An administrative panel, provided that the hearing is a status review hearing and that the administrative panel meets the following conditions:

(i) The administrative review shall be open to participation by the minor and parents or legal guardians and all those persons entitled to notice under subdivision (a).

(ii) The minor and his or her parents or legal guardians receive proper notice as required in subdivision (a).

(iii) The administrative review panel is composed of persons appointed by the presiding judge of the juvenile court, the membership of which shall include at least one person who is not responsible for the case management of, or delivery of services to, the minor or the parents who are the subjects of the review.

(iv) The findings of the administrative review panel shall be submitted to the juvenile court for the court’s approval and shall become part of the official court record.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 319, Sec. 141. (AB 976) Effective January 1, 2018.)

727.5.
  

If a minor is found to be a person described in Section 601, the court may order the minor to perform community service, including, but not limited to, graffiti cleanup, for a total time not to exceed 20 hours over a period not to exceed 30 days, during a time other than his or her hours of school attendance or employment.

(Added by Stats. 1991, Ch. 1202, Sec. 19.)

727.6.
  

Where any minor has been adjudged a ward of the court for the commission of a “sexually violent offense,” as defined in Section 6600, and committed to the Department of the Youth Authority, the ward shall be given sexual offender treatment consistent with protocols for that treatment developed or implemented by the Department of the Youth Authority.

(Added by renumbering Section 727.2 (as added by Stats. 1999, Ch. 995) by Stats. 2000, Ch. 287, Sec. 27. Effective January 1, 2001.)

727.7.
  

(a) If a minor is found to be a person described in Section 601 or 602 and the court finds that the minor is a first-time offender and orders that a parent or guardian retain custody of that minor, the court may order the parent or guardian to attend antigang violence parenting classes if the court finds the presence of significant risk factors for gang involvement on the part of the minor.

(b) The Department of Justice shall establish curriculum for the antigang violence parenting classes required pursuant to this section, including, but not limited to, all of the following criteria:

(1) A meeting in which the families of innocent victims of gang violence share their experience.

(2) A meeting in which the surviving parents of a deceased gang member share their experience.

(3) How to identify gang and drug activity in children.

(4) How to communicate effectively with adolescents.

(5) An overview of pertinent support agencies and organizations for intervention, education, job training, and positive recreational activities, including telephone numbers, locations, and contact names of those agencies and organizations.

(6) The potential fines and periods of incarceration for the commission of additional gang-related offenses.

(7) The potential penalties that may be imposed upon parents for aiding and abetting crimes committed by their children.

(c) For purposes of this section, “gang-related” means that the minor was an active participant in a criminal street gang, as specified in subdivision (a) of Section 186.22 of the Penal Code, or committed an offense for the benefit of, or at the direction of, a criminal street gang, as specified in subdivision (b) or (d) of Section 186.22 of the Penal Code.

(d) The father, mother, spouse, or other person liable for the support of the minor, the estate of that person, and the estate of the minor shall be liable for the cost of classes ordered pursuant to this section, unless the court finds that the person or estate does not have the financial ability to pay. In evaluating financial ability to pay, the court shall take into consideration the combined household income, the necessary obligations of the household, the number of persons dependent upon this income, and whether reduced monthly payments would obviate the need to waive liability for the full costs.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 258, Sec. 1. (AB 177) Effective January 1, 2012.)

728.
  

(a) The juvenile court may terminate or modify a guardianship of the person of a minor previously established under the Probate Code, or appoint a coguardian or successor guardian of the person of the minor, if the minor is the subject of a petition filed under Section 300, 601, or 602. If the probation officer supervising the minor provides information to the court regarding the minor’s present circumstances and makes a recommendation to the court regarding a motion to terminate or modify a guardianship established in any county under the Probate Code, or to appoint a coguardian or successor guardian, of the person of a minor who is before the juvenile court under a petition filed under Section 300, 601, or 602, the court shall order the appropriate county department, or the district attorney or county counsel, to file the recommended motion. The motion may also be made by the guardian or the minor’s attorney. The hearing on the motion may be held simultaneously with any regularly scheduled hearing held in proceedings to declare the minor a dependent child or ward of the court, or at any subsequent hearing concerning the dependent child or ward. Notice requirements of Section 294 shall apply to the proceedings in juvenile court under this subdivision.

(b) If the juvenile court decides to terminate or modify a guardianship previously established under the Probate Code pursuant to subdivision (a), the juvenile court shall provide notice of that decision to the court in which the guardianship was originally established. The clerk of the superior court, upon receipt of the notice, shall file the notice with other documents and records of the pending proceeding and deliver by first-class mail or by electronic service pursuant to Section 1215 of the Probate Code a copy of the notice to all parties of record in the superior court.

(c) If, at any time during the period a minor under the age of 18 years is a ward of the juvenile court, the probation officer supervising the minor recommends to the court that the court establish a guardianship of the person of the minor and appoint a specific adult to act as guardian, or on the motion of the minor’s attorney, or on the order of the court that a guardianship shall be established as the minor’s permanent plan pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (b) of Section 727.3, the court shall set a hearing to consider the recommendation or motion and shall order the clerk to notice the minor’s parents and relatives as required in Section 294. If the motion is not made by the minor’s attorney, the court may appoint the district attorney or county counsel to prosecute the action.

(d) The procedures for appointment of a guardian shall be conducted exclusively pursuant to Section 366.26, except that subdivision (j) of Section 366.26 shall not apply.

(e) Upon the appointment of a guardian pursuant to subdivision (d), the court may continue wardship and conditions of probation, or may terminate the wardship of the minor.

(f) Notwithstanding Section 1601 of the Probate Code, the proceedings to modify or terminate a guardianship granted under this section shall be held in the juvenile court unless the termination is due to the emancipation or adoption of the minor.

(g) The Judicial Council shall develop rules of court and adopt appropriate forms for the findings and orders under this section.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 319, Sec. 142. (AB 976) Effective January 1, 2018.)

729.
  

If a minor is found to be a person described in Section 602 by reason of the commission of a battery on school property as described in Penal Code Section 243.5, and the court does not remove the minor from the physical custody of the parent or guardian, the court as a condition of probation, except in any case in which the court makes a finding and states on the record its reasons that the condition would be inappropriate, shall require the minor to make restitution to the victim of the battery. If restitution is found to be inappropriate, the court, except in any case in which the court makes a finding and states on the record its reasons that the condition would be inappropriate, shall require the minor to perform specified community service. Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the authority of a juvenile court to provide conditions of probation.

(Amended by Stats. 1994, Ch. 146, Sec. 223. Effective January 1, 1995.)

729.1.
  

(a) (1) If a minor is found to be a person described in Section 602 by reason of the commission of a crime which takes place on a public transit vehicle, and the court does not remove the minor from the physical custody of the parent or guardian, the court as a condition of probation, except in any case in which the court makes a finding and states on the record its reasons that the condition would be inappropriate, shall require the minor to wash, paint, repair or replace the damaged or destroyed property, or otherwise make restitution to the property owner. If restitution is found to be inappropriate, the court, except in any case in which the court makes a finding and states on the record its reasons that the condition would be inappropriate, shall require the minor to perform specified community service. Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the authority of a juvenile court to provide conditions of probation.

(2) In lieu of the community service required pursuant to paragraph (1), the court may, if a jurisdiction has adopted a graffiti abatement program as defined in subdivision (f) of Section 594 of the Penal Code, order the defendant, and his or her parents or guardians, as a condition of probation, to keep a specified property in the community free of graffiti for 90 days. Participation of a parent or guardian is not required under this paragraph if the court deems this participation to be detrimental to the defendant, or if the parent or guardian is a single parent who must care for young children.

(b) As used in subdivision (a), “public transit vehicle” means any motor vehicle, street car, trackless trolley, bus, shuttle, light rail system, rapid transit system, subway, train, taxi cab, or jitney, which transports members of the public for hire.

(c) The court may order any person ordered to perform community service or graffiti removal pursuant to subdivision (a) to undergo counseling.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 600, Sec. 10. Effective January 1, 1997.)

729.2.
  

If a minor is found to be a person described in Section 601 or 602 and the court does not remove the minor from the physical custody of the parent or guardian, the court as a condition of probation, except in any case in which the court makes a finding and states on the record its reasons that that condition would be inappropriate, shall:

(a) Require the minor to attend a school program approved by the probation officer without absence.

(b) Require the parents or guardian of the minor to participate with the minor in a counseling or education program, including, but not limited to, parent education and parenting programs operated by community colleges, school districts, or other appropriate agencies designated by the court or the probation department, unless the minor has been declared a dependent child of the court pursuant to Section 300 or a petition to declare the minor a dependent child of the court pursuant to Section 300 is pending.

(c) Require the minor to be at his or her legal residence between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. unless the minor is accompanied by his or her parent or parents, legal guardian or other adult person having the legal care or custody of the minor.

(Added by Stats. 1989, Ch. 1117, Sec. 15.)

729.3.
  

If a minor is found to be a person described in Section 601 or 602 and the court does not remove the minor from the physical custody of his or her parent or guardian, the court, as a condition of probation, may require the minor to submit to urine testing upon the request of a peace officer or probation officer for the purpose of determining the presence of alcohol or drugs.

(Added by Stats. 1989, Ch. 1117, Sec. 16.)

729.5.
  

(a) If a petition alleges that a minor is a person described by Section 602 and the petition is sustained, the court, in addition to the notice required by any other provision of law, may issue a citation to the minor’s parents or guardians, ordering them to appear in the court at the time and date stated for a hearing to impose a restitution fine pursuant to Section 730.6.

(b) The citation shall notify the parent or guardian that, at the hearing, the parent or guardian may be held liable for the payment of restitution if the minor is ordered to make restitution to the victim.The citation shall contain a warning that the failure to appear at the time and date stated may result in an order that the parent or guardian pay restitution up to the limits provided for in Sections 1714.1 and 1714.3 of the Civil Code.

(c) The hearing described in subdivision (b) may be held immediately following the disposition hearing or at a later date, at the option of the court.

(d) If the parent or guardian fails to appear pursuant to this section, the court may hold the parent or guardian jointly and severally liable with the minor for restitution, subject to the limitations contained in subdivision (b).

(e) Execution may be issued on an order holding a parent or guardian jointly or severally liable with the minor for restitution in the same manner as on a judgment in a civil action, including any balance unpaid at the termination of the court’s jurisdiction over the minor.

(f) At any time prior to the full payment of restitution ordered pursuant to this section, a person held liable for payment of restitution may petition the court to modify or vacate the order based on a showing of change in circumstances.

(g) Service of the citation shall be made on all parents or guardians of the minor whose names and addresses are known to the petitioner.

(h) Service of the citation shall be made at least 10 days prior to the time and date stated therein for appearance, in the manner provided by law for the service of a summons in a civil action, other than by publication.

(i) This section shall not apply to any case where a citation has been issued pursuant to Section 742.18.

(j) Nothing in this section shall be interpreted to make an insurer liable for a loss caused by the willful act of the insured or the insured’s dependents within the meaning of Section 533 of the Insurance Code.

(k) This section does not apply to foster parents.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 520, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1997.)

729.6.
  

If a minor is found to be a person described in Section 602 by reason of the commission of an offense described in Section 241.2 or 243.2 of the Penal Code, the court shall, in addition to any other fine, sentence, or as a condition of probation, order the minor to attend counseling at the expense of the minor’s parents. The court shall take into consideration the ability of the minor’s parents consistent with Section 730.7 to pay, however, no minor shall be relieved of attending counseling because of the minor’s parents’ inability to pay for the counseling imposed by this section.

(Added by Stats. 2001, Ch. 484, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 2002.)

729.7.
  

At the request of the victim, the probation officer shall assist in mediating a service contract between the victim and the minor under which the amount of restitution owed to the victim by the minor pursuant to Section 729.6, as operative on or before August 2, 1995, or Section 730.6 may be paid by performance of specified services. If the court approves of the contract, the court may make performance of services under the terms of the contract a condition of probation. Successful performance of service shall be credited as payment of restitution in accordance with the terms of the contract approved by the court.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 1077, Sec. 34. Effective January 1, 1997.)

729.8.
  

(a) If a minor is found to be a person described in Section 602 by reason of the unlawful possession, use, sale, or other furnishing of a controlled substance, as defined in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 11053) of the Health and Safety Code, an imitation controlled substance, as defined in Section 109550 of the Health and Safety Code, or toluene or a toxic, as described in Section 381 of the Penal Code, upon the grounds of any school providing instruction in kindergarten, or any of grades 1 to 12, inclusive, or any church or synagogue, playground, public or private youth center, child day care facility, or public swimming pool, during hours in which these facilities are open for business, classes, or school-related activities or programs, or at any time when minors are using the facility, the court, as a condition of probation, except in any case in which the court makes a finding and states on the record its reasons that the condition would be inappropriate, shall require the minor to perform not more than 100 hours of community service.

(b) The definitions contained in subdivision (e) of Section 11353.1 shall apply to this section.

(c) As used in this section, “community service” means any of the following:

(1) Picking up litter along public streets or highways.

(2) Cleaning up graffiti on school grounds or any public property.

(3) Performing services in a drug rehabilitation center.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 1023, Sec. 456. Effective September 29, 1996.)

729.9.
  

If a minor is found to be a person described in Section 602 by reason of the commission of an offense involving the unlawful possession, use, sale, or other furnishing of a controlled substance, as defined in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 11053) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code, and, unless it makes a finding that this condition would not serve the interests of justice, the court, when recommended by the probation officer, shall require, as a condition of probation, in addition to any other disposition authorized by law, that the minor shall not use or be under the influence of any controlled substance and shall submit to drug and substance abuse testing as directed by the probation officer.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 678, Sec. 14. (SB 190) Effective January 1, 2018.)

729.10.
  

(a) Whenever, in any county specified in subdivision (b), a judge of a juvenile court or referee of a juvenile court finds a minor to be a person described in Section 602 by reason of the commission of an offense involving the unlawful possession, use, sale, or other furnishing of a controlled substance, as defined in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 11053) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code, or for violating subdivision (f) of Section 647 of the Penal Code, or Section 25662 of the Business and Professions Code, the minor shall be required to participate in, and successfully complete, an alcohol or drug education program, or both of those programs, as designated by the court. Whenever it can be done without substantial additional cost, each county shall require that the program be provided for juveniles at a separate location from, or at a different time of day than, alcohol and drug education programs for adults.

(b) This section applies only in those counties that have one or more alcohol or drug education programs certified by the county alcohol program administrator and approved by the board of supervisors.

(Amended by Stats. 2017, Ch. 678, Sec. 15. (SB 190) Effective January 1, 2018.)

729.12.
  

(a) It is the intent of the Legislature to authorize an Assessment, Orientation, and Volunteer Mentor Pilot Program in San Diego County. The pilot project will operate under the authority of the county behavioral health director in conjunction with the San Diego Juvenile Court and the County of San Diego Probation Department.

(b) Whenever a judge of the San Diego County Juvenile Court or a referee of the San Diego Juvenile Court finds a minor to be a person described in Section 601 or 602 for any reason, the minor may be assessed and screened for drug and alcohol use and abuse; and if the assessment and screening determines the need for drug and alcohol education and intervention, the minor may be required to participate in, and successfully complete, an alcohol and drug orientation, and to participate in, and successfully complete, an alcohol or drug program with a local community-based service provider, as designated by the court.

(c) The Assessment, Orientation, and Volunteer Mentor Pilot Program may operate for a minimum of three years and may screen and assess for drug and alcohol problems, minors who are declared wards of San Diego Juvenile Court.

(d) Drug and alcohol assessments may be conducted utilizing a standardized instrument that shall be approved by the county behavioral health director in conjunction with San Diego Juvenile Court and the San Diego County Probation Department.

(e) Those minors who are determined to have drug and alcohol problems, may be required to participate in, and successfully complete, a drug and alcohol orientation. The orientation may provide drug and alcohol education and intervention, referral to community resources for followup education and intervention and arrange for volunteers to serve as mentors to assist each minor in addressing their drug and alcohol problem. Parents or guardians of minors will have the opportunity to participate in the orientation program in order to help juveniles address drug and alcohol use or abuse problems.

(f) As a condition of probation, each minor may be required to submit to drug testing. Drug testing may be conducted on a random basis by a qualified drug and alcohol service provider in coordination with the county probation department. All contested drug tests may be confirmed by a National Institute for Drug Abuse certified drug laboratory and the findings may be reported to the probation officer for appropriate action. The drug testing protocol may be approved by the county behavioral health director in conjunction with San Diego Juvenile Court and the County of San Diego Probation Department.

(g) An evaluation of the pilot program shall be conducted and results of the program shall be submitted to state alcohol and drug programs and to the Legislature at the conclusion of the pilot program. The evaluation shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following:

(1) The number and percentage of juveniles screened.

(2) The number and percentage of juveniles given followup education and intervention.

(3) The number of mentors recruited and trained.

(4) The number and percentage of juveniles assigned to a mentor.

(5) The length of time in an education and intervention program.

(6) The program completion rates.

(7) The number of subsequent violations.

(8) The number of re-arrests.

(9) The urine test results.

(10) The subsequent drug or alcohol use.

(11) The participant’s perceptions of program utility.

(12) The provider’s perceptions of program utility.

(13) The mentor’s perceptions of program utility.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 455, Sec. 12. (SB 804) Effective January 1, 2016.)

729.13.
  

(a) The Department of the Youth Authority shall recognize, on an annual basis, exemplary Californians who do any of the following:

(1) Voluntarily participate in a youth mentoring program in their communities.

(2) Perform special acts or special services that promote youth mentoring programs in their communities.

(3) By their superior accomplishments, make exceptional contributions to creating, maintaining, or fostering volunteer youth mentoring programs in California.

(b) The Department of the Youth Authority shall recognize, on an annual basis, the outstanding achievements of present and former wards of the juvenile court, whether committed to state institutions or community-based programs.

(c) Recognition awards shall be made in accordance with procedures and standards established by the department.

(d) Any expenditures made or costs incurred for the purposes of this section may be paid from funds appropriated for the support of the department that are otherwise unencumbered.

(e) As used in subdivision (a), “youth mentoring programs” means programs designed to foster positive, role-model relationships between adult community volunteers and minors who are living in conditions that place them at risk for delinquent or criminal conduct.

(Added by Stats. 1997, Ch. 281, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1998.)

730.
  

(a) When a minor is adjudged a ward of the court on the ground that he or she is a person described by Section 602, the court may order any of the types of treatment referred to in Section 727, and as an additional alternative, may commit the minor to a juvenile home, ranch, camp, or forestry camp. If there is no county juvenile home, ranch, camp, or forestry camp within the county, the court may commit the minor to the county juvenile hall.

(b) When a ward described in subdivision (a) is placed under the supervision of the probation officer or committed to the care, custody, and control of the probation officer, the court may make any and all reasonable orders for the conduct of the ward including the requirement that the ward go to work and earn money for the support of his or her dependents or to effect reparation and in either case that the ward keep an account of his or her earnings and report the same to the probation officer and apply these earnings as directed by the court. The court may impose and require any and all reasonable conditions that it may determine fitting and proper to the end that justice may be done and the reformation and rehabilitation of the ward enhanced.

(c) When a ward described in subdivision (a) is placed under the supervision of the probation officer or committed to the care, custody, and control of the probation officer, and is required as a condition of probation to participate in community service or graffiti cleanup, the court may impose a condition that if the minor unreasonably fails to attend or unreasonably leaves prior to completing the assigned daily hours of community service or graffiti cleanup, a law enforcement officer may take the minor into custody for the purpose of returning the minor to the site of the community service or graffiti cleanup.

(d) When a minor is adjudged or continued as a ward of the court on the ground that he or she is a person described by Section 602 by reason of the commission of rape, sodomy, oral copulation, or an act of sexual penetration specified in Section 289 of the Penal Code, the court shall order the minor to complete a sex offender treatment program, if the court determines, in consultation with the county probation officer, that suitable programs are available. In determining what type of treatment is appropriate, the court shall consider all of the following: the seriousness and circumstances of the offense, the vulnerability of the victim, the minor’s criminal history and prior attempts at rehabilitation, the sophistication of the minor, the threat to public safety, the minor’s likelihood of reoffending, and any other relevant information presented. If ordered by the court to complete a sex offender treatment program, the minor shall pay all or a portion of the reasonable costs of the sex offender treatment program after a determination is made of the ability of the minor to pay.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 919, Sec. 3. (SB 838) Effective January 1, 2015.)

730.5.
  

When a minor is adjudged a ward of the court on the ground that he or she is a person described in Section 602, in addition to any of the orders authorized by Section 726, 727, 730, or 731, the court may levy a fine against the minor up to the amount that could be imposed on an adult for the same offense, if the court finds that the minor has the financial ability to pay the fine. Section 1464 of the Penal Code applies to fines levied pursuant to this section.

(Amended by Stats. 1988, Ch. 99, Sec. 2.)

730.6.
  

(a) (1) It is the intent of the Legislature that a victim of conduct for which a minor is found to be a person described in Section 602 who incurs an economic loss as a result of the minor’s conduct shall receive restitution directly from that minor.

(2) Upon a minor being found to be a person described in Section 602, the court shall consider levying a fine in accordance with Section 730.5. In addition, the court shall order the minor to pay, in addition to any other penalty provided or imposed under the law, both of the following:

(A) A restitution fine in accordance with subdivision (b).

(B) Restitution to the victim or victims, if any, in accordance with subdivision (h).

(b) If a minor is found to be a person described in Section 602, the court shall impose a separate and additional restitution fine. The restitution fine shall be set at the discretion of the court and commensurate with the seriousness of the offense as follows:

(1) If the minor is found to be a person described in Section 602 by reason of the commission of one or more felony offenses, the restitution fine shall not be less than one hundred dollars ($100) and not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000). A separate hearing for the fine shall not be required.

(2) If the minor is found to be a person described in Section 602 by reason of the commission of one or more misdemeanor offenses, the restitution fine shall not exceed one hundred dollars ($100). A separate hearing for the fine shall not be required.

(c) The restitution fine shall be in addition to any other disposition or fine imposed and shall be imposed regardless of the minor’s inability to pay. This fine shall be deposited in the Restitution Fund.

(d) (1) In setting the amount of the fine pursuant to subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), the court shall consider any relevant factors including, but not limited to, the minor’s ability to pay, the seriousness and gravity of the offense and the circumstances of its commission, any economic gain derived by the minor as a result of the offense, and the extent to which others suffered losses as a result of the offense. The losses may include pecuniary losses to the victim or his or her dependents as well as intangible losses such as psychological harm caused by the offense.

(2) The consideration of a minor’s ability to pay may include his or her future earning capacity. A minor shall bear the burden of demonstrating a lack of his or her ability to pay.

(e) Express findings of the court as to the factors bearing on the amount of the fine shall not be required.

(f) Except as provided in subdivision (g), under no circumstances shall the court fail to impose the separate and additional restitution fine required by subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a). This fine shall not be subject to penalty assessments pursuant to Section 1464 of the Penal Code.

(g) (1) In a case in which the minor is a person described in Section 602 by reason of having committed a felony offense, if the court finds that there are compelling and extraordinary reasons, the court may waive imposition of the restitution fine required by subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a). If a waiver is granted, the court shall state on the record all reasons supporting the waiver.

(2) If the minor is a person described in subdivision (a) of Section 241.1, the court shall waive imposition of the restitution fine required by subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a).

(h) (1) Restitution ordered pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) shall be imposed in the amount of the losses, as determined. If the amount of loss cannot be ascertained at the time of sentencing, the restitution order shall include a provision that the amount shall be determined at the direction of the court at any time during the term of the commitment or probation. The court shall order full restitution unless it finds compelling and extraordinary reasons for not doing so, and states them on the record. A minor’s inability to pay shall not be considered a compelling or extraordinary reason not to impose a restitution order, nor shall inability to pay be a consideration in determining the amount of the restitution order. A restitution order pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), to the extent possible, shall identify each victim, unless the court for good cause finds that the order should not identify a victim or victims, and the amount of each victim’s loss to which it pertains, and shall be of a dollar amount sufficient to fully reimburse the victim or victims for all determined economic losses incurred as the result of the minor’s conduct for which the minor was found to be a person described in Section 602, including all of the following:

(A) Full or partial payment for the value of stolen or damaged property. The value of stolen or damaged property shall be the replacement cost of like property, or the actual cost of repairing the property when repair is possible.

(B) Medical expenses.

(C) Wages or profits lost due to injury incurred by the victim, and if the victim is a minor, wages or profits lost by the minor’s parent, parents, guardian, or guardians, while caring for the injured minor. Lost wages shall include any commission income as well as any base wages. Commission income shall be established by evidence of commission income during the 12-month period prior to the date of the crime for which restitution is being ordered, unless good cause for a shorter time period is shown.

(D) Wages or profits lost by the victim, and if the victim is a minor, wages or profits lost by the minor’s parent, parents, guardian, or guardians, due to time spent as a witness or in assisting the police or prosecution. Lost wages shall include any commission income as well as any base wages. Commission income shall be established by evidence of commission income during the 12-month period prior to the date of the crime for which restitution is being ordered, unless good cause for a shorter time period is shown.

(2) A minor shall have the right to a hearing before a judge to dispute the determination of the amount of restitution. The court may modify the amount on its own motion or on the motion of the district attorney, the victim or victims, or the minor. If a motion is made for modification of a restitution order, the victim shall be notified of that motion at least 10 days prior to the hearing on the motion. If the amount of victim restitution is not known at the time of disposition, the court order shall identify the victim or victims, unless the court finds for good cause that the order should not identify a victim or victims, and state that the amount of restitution for each victim is to be determined. If feasible, the court shall also identify on the court order, any co-offenders who are jointly and severally liable for victim restitution.

(i) A restitution order imposed pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) shall identify the losses to which it pertains, and shall be enforceable as a civil judgment pursuant to subdivision (r). The making of a restitution order pursuant to this subdivision shall not affect the right of a victim to recovery from the Restitution Fund in the manner provided elsewhere, except to the extent that restitution is actually collected pursuant to the order. Restitution collected pursuant to this subdivision shall be credited to any other judgments for the same losses obtained against the minor or the minor’s parent or guardian arising out of the offense for which the minor was found to be a person described in Section 602. Restitution imposed shall be ordered to be made to the Restitution Fund to the extent that the victim, as defined in subdivision (j), has received assistance from the Victims of Crime Program pursuant to Article 5 (commencing with Section 13959) of Chapter 5 of Part 4 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code.

(j) For purposes of this section, “victim” shall include:

(1)  The immediate surviving family of the actual victim.

(2) A governmental entity that is responsible for repairing, replacing, or restoring public or privately owned property that has been defaced with graffiti or other inscribed material, as defined in subdivision (e) of Section 594 of the Penal Code, and that has sustained an economic loss as the result of a violation of Section 594, 594.3, 594.4, 640.5, 640.6, or 640.7 of the Penal Code.

(3) A corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or commercial entity when that entity is a direct victim of a crime.

(4) A person who has sustained economic loss as the result of a crime and who satisfies any of the following conditions:

(A) At the time of the crime was the parent, grandparent, sibling, spouse, child, or grandchild of the victim.

(B) At the time of the crime was living in the household of the victim.

(C) At the time of the crime was a person who had previously lived in the household of the victim for a period of not less than two years in a relationship substantially similar to a relationship listed in subparagraph (A).

(D) Is another family member of the victim, including, but not limited to, the victim’s fiancé or fiancée, and who witnessed the crime.

(E) Is the primary caretaker of a minor victim.

(k) If the direct victim of an offense is a group home or other facility licensed to provide residential care in which the minor was placed as a dependent or ward of the court, or an employee thereof, restitution shall be limited to out-of-pocket expenses that are not covered by insurance and that are paid by the facility or employee.

(l) Upon a minor being found to be a person described in Section 602, the court shall require, as a condition of probation, the payment of restitution fines and orders imposed under this section. Any portion of a restitution order that remains unsatisfied after a minor is no longer on probation shall continue to be enforceable by a victim pursuant to subdivision (r) until the obligation is satisfied in full.

(m) Probation shall not be revoked for failure of a person to make restitution pursuant to this section as a condition of probation unless the court determines that the person has willfully failed to pay or failed to make sufficient bona fide efforts to legally acquire the resources to pay.

(n) If the court finds and states on the record compelling and extraordinary reasons why restitution should not be required as provided in paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), the court shall order, as a condition of probation, that the minor perform specified community service.

(o) The court may avoid ordering community service as a condition of probation only if it finds and states on the record compelling and extraordinary reasons not to order community service in addition to the finding that restitution pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) should not be required.

(p) If a minor is committed to the Division of Juvenile Facilities, Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, the court shall order restitution to be paid to the victim or victims, if any. Payment of restitution to the victim or victims pursuant to this subdivision shall take priority in time over payment of any other restitution fine imposed pursuant to this section.

(q) At its discretion, the board of supervisors of any county may impose a fee to cover the actual administrative cost of collecting the restitution fine, not to exceed 10 percent of the amount ordered to be paid, to be added to the restitution fine and included in the order of the court, the proceeds of which shall be deposited in the general fund of the county.

(r) If the judgment is for a restitution fine ordered pursuant to subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), or a restitution order imposed pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), the judgment may be enforced in the manner provided in Section 1214 of the Penal Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 131, Sec. 1. (SB 651) Effective January 1, 2016.)

730.7.
  

(a) In a case in which a minor is ordered to make restitution to the victim or victims, or the minor is ordered to pay fines and penalty assessments under any provision of this code, a parent or guardian who has joint or sole legal and physical custody and control of the minor shall be rebuttably presumed to be jointly and severally liable with the minor in accordance with Sections 1714.1 and 1714.3 of the Civil Code for the amount of restitution, fines, and penalty assessments so ordered, up to the limits provided in those sections, subject to the court’s consideration of the parent’s or guardian’s inability to pay. When considering the parent’s or guardian’s inability to pay, the court may consider future earning capacity, present income, the number of persons dependent on that income, and the necessary obligations of the family, including, but not limited to, rent or mortgage payments, food, children’s school tuition, children’s clothing, medical bills, and health insurance. The parent or guardian shall have the burden of showing an inability to pay. The parent or guardian shall also have the burden of showing by a preponderance of the evidence that the parent or guardian was either not given notice of potential liability for payment of restitution, fines, and penalty assessments prior to the petition being sustained by an admission or adjudication, or that he or she was not present during the proceedings wherein the petition was sustained either by admission or adjudication and any hearing thereafter related to restitution, fines, or penalty assessments.

(b) In cases in which the court orders restitution to the victim or victims of the offense, each victim in whose favor the restitution order has been made shall be notified within 60 days after restitution has been ordered of the following:

(1) The name and address of the minor ordered to make restitution.

(2) The amount and any terms or conditions of restitution.

(3) The offense or offenses that were sustained.

(4) The name and address of the parent or guardian of the minor.

(5) The rebuttable presumption that the parent or guardian is jointly and severally liable with the minor for the amount of restitution so ordered in accordance with Sections 1714.1 and 1714.3 of the Civil Code, up to the limits provided in those sections, and that the parent or guardian has the burden of showing by a preponderance of the evidence that the parent or guardian was either not given notice of potential liability for payment of restitution prior to the petition being sustained by an admission or adjudication, or that he or she was not present during the proceedings wherein the petition was sustained by an admission or adjudication and any hearings thereafter related to restitution.

(6) Whether the notice and presence requirements of paragraph (5) were met.

(7) The victim’s rights to a certified copy of the order reflecting the information specified in this subdivision.

(c) The victim has a right, upon request, to a certified copy of the order reflecting the information specified in subdivision (b).

(d) This section does not apply to foster parents.

(e) Nothing in this section shall be construed to make an insurer liable for a loss caused by the willful act of the insured or the dependents of the insured pursuant to Section 533 of the Insurance Code.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 451, Sec. 4. Effective September 14, 1998.)

730.8.
  

(a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), the court shall require any minor who is ordered to pay restitution pursuant to Section 730.6, or to perform community service, to report to the court on his or her compliance with the court’s restitution order or order for community service, or both, no less than annually until the order is fulfilled.

(b) For any minor committed to the Department of the Youth Authority, the department shall monitor the compliance with any order of the court that requires the minor to pay restitution. Upon the minor’s discharge from the Department of the Youth Authority, the department shall notify the court regarding the minor’s compliance with an order to pay restitution.

(Added by renumbering Section 730.7 (as added by Stats. 1999, Ch. 996) by Stats. 2001, Ch. 854, Sec. 75. Effective January 1, 2002.)

731.
  

(a) If a minor is adjudged a ward of the court on the ground that he or she is a person described by Section 602, the court may order any of the types of treatment referred to in Sections 727 and 730 and, in addition, may do any of the following:

(1) Order the ward to make restitution, to pay a fine up to two hundred fifty dollars ($250) for deposit in the county treasury if the court finds that the minor has the financial ability to pay the fine, or to participate in uncompensated work programs.

(2) Commit the ward to a sheltered-care facility.

(3) Order that the ward and his or her family or guardian participate in a program of professional counseling as arranged and directed by the probation officer as a condition of continued custody of the ward.

(4) Commit the ward to the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Facilities, if the ward has committed an offense described in subdivision (b) of Section 707 or subdivision (c) of Section 290.008 of the Penal Code, and is not otherwise ineligible for commitment to the division under Section 733.

(b) The Division of Juvenile Facilities shall notify the Department of Finance when a county recalls a ward pursuant to Section 731.1. The division shall provide the department with the date the ward was recalled and the number of months the ward has served in a state facility. The division shall provide this information in the format prescribed by the department and within the timeframes established by the department.

(c) A ward committed to the Division of Juvenile Justice shall not be confined in excess of the term of confinement set by the committing court. The court shall set a maximum term based upon the facts and circumstances of the matter or matters that brought or continued the ward under the jurisdiction of the court and as deemed appropriate to achieve rehabilitation. The court shall not commit a ward to the Division of Juvenile Justice for a period that exceeds the maximum term of imprisonment that could be imposed upon an adult convicted of the same offense. This subdivision does not limit the power of the Board of Juvenile Hearings to discharge a ward committed to the Division of Juvenile Justice pursuant to Sections 1719 and 1769. Upon discharge, the committing court may retain jurisdiction of the ward pursuant to Section 607.1 and establish the conditions of supervision pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 1766.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 766, Sec. 1. (AB 2595) Effective January 1, 2019.)

731.1.
  

(a) Notwithstanding any other law, the court committing a ward to the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Facilities, upon the recommendation of the chief probation officer of the county, may recall that commitment in the case of any ward confined in an institution operated by the division. Upon recall of the ward, the court shall set and convene a recall disposition hearing for the purpose of ordering an alternative disposition for the ward that is appropriate under all of the circumstances prevailing in the case. The court shall provide to the division no less than 15 days advance notice of the recall hearing date, and the division shall transport and deliver the ward to the custody of the probation department of the committing county no less than five days prior to the scheduled date of the recall hearing. Pending the recall disposition hearing, the ward shall be supervised, detained, or housed in the manner and place, consistent with the requirements of law, as may be directed by the court in its order of recall. The timing and procedure of the recall disposition hearing shall be consistent with the rules, rights, and procedures applicable to delinquency disposition hearings, as described in Article 17 (commencing with Section 675).

(b) A court may also convene a recall disposition hearing, as specified in subdivision (a), regarding any ward who remains under parole supervision by the Division of Juvenile Parole Operations.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 36, Sec. 75. (SB 92) Effective June 30, 2011. Became operative on December 13, 2011, pursuant to Sec. 84 of Ch. 36.)

731.2.
  

(a) The Department of the Youth Authority and Fresno County may enter into a partnership for the establishment and maintenance of a pilot program juvenile boot camp similar to the program described in Section 731.6, but developed primarily by the county with the Department of the Youth Authority and the county sharing the costs equally, except as specified in subdivision (b).

(b) Under the partnership, the Department of the Youth Authority shall bear all the costs of retrofitting a facility, which is to be provided by the county at county expense.

(c) The implementation of this pilot program shall be contingent upon the appropriation of funds to the Department of the Youth Authority for the pilot program in either the Budget Act of 1996 or subsequent legislation.

(Added by Stats. 1994, Ch. 1055, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1995.)

731.5.
  

In addition to the provisions of Section 731, if a minor’s conduct constitutes a violation of Section 490.5 of the Penal Code, the court may require the minor to perform public services designated by the court.

(Added by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1131.)

732.
  

Before a minor is conveyed to any state or county institution pursuant to this article, it shall be ascertained from the superintendent thereof that such person can be received.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1961, Ch. 1616.)

733.
  

A ward of the juvenile court who meets any condition described below shall not be committed to the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Facilities:

(a) The ward is under 11 years of age.

(b) The ward is suffering from any contagious, infectious, or other disease that would probably endanger the lives or health of the other inmates of any facility.

(c) The ward has been or is adjudged a ward of the court pursuant to Section 602, and the most recent offense alleged in any petition and admitted or found to be true by the court is not described in subdivision (b) of Section 707 or subdivision (c) of Section 290.008 of the Penal Code. This subdivision shall be effective on and after September 1, 2007.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 7, Sec. 2. (AB 324) Effective February 29, 2012.)

734.
  

No ward of the juvenile court shall be committed to the Youth Authority unless the judge of the court is fully satisfied that the mental and physical condition and qualifications of the ward are such as to render it probable that he will be benefited by the reformatory educational discipline or other treatment provided by the Youth Authority.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1961, Ch. 1616.)

735.
  

Accompanying the commitment papers, the court shall send to the Director of the Youth Authority a summary of all the facts in the possession of the court, covering the history of the ward committed and a statement of the mental and physical condition of the ward.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1961, Ch. 1616.)

736.
  

(a) Except as provided in Section 733, the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Facilities, shall accept a ward committed to it pursuant to this article if the Director of the Division of Juvenile Justice believes that the ward can be materially benefited by the division’s reformatory and educational discipline, and if the division has adequate facilities, staff, and programs to provide that care. A ward subject to this section shall not be transported to any facility under the jurisdiction of the division until the superintendent of the facility has notified the committing court of the place to which that ward is to be transported and the time at which he or she can be received.

(b) To determine who is best served by the Division of Juvenile Facilities, and who would be better served by the State Department of State Hospitals, the Director of the Division of Juvenile Justice and the Director of State Hospitals shall, at least annually, confer and establish policy with respect to the types of cases that should be the responsibility of each department.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 442, Sec. 13. (SB 1465) Effective September 18, 2014.)

737.
  

(a) Whenever a person has been adjudged a ward of the juvenile court and has been committed or otherwise disposed of as provided in this chapter for the care of wards of the juvenile court, the court may order that the ward be detained until the execution of the order of commitment or of other disposition.

(b) In any case in which a minor or nonminor is detained for more than 15 days pending the execution of the order of commitment or of any other disposition, the court shall periodically review the case to determine whether the delay is reasonable. These periodic reviews shall occur at a hearing held at least every 15 days, commencing from the time the minor or nonminor was initially detained pending the execution of the order of commitment or of any other disposition. Prior to the hearing, the probation officer shall contact appropriate placements in order to identify specific, appropriate, and available placements for the minor or nonminor. During the course of each review, the court shall inquire regarding the action taken by the probation department to carry out its order, the reasons for the delay, and the effect of the delay upon the minor or nonminor. The probation department shall explain to the court what steps have been taken to identify an appropriate placement for the minor or nonminor.

(c) (1) A court shall not consider any of the following to be a reasonable delay:

(A) The probation officer’s inability to identify a specific, appropriate, and available placement for the minor or nonminor when the court finds that the probation officer has not made reasonable efforts to identify a specific, appropriate, and available placement for the minor or nonminor.

(B) A delay caused by administrative processes, including, but not limited to, the workload of county personnel, transfer or reassignment of a case, or the availability of reports or records.

(C) A delay in convening any meetings between agencies. For purposes of this paragraph, “agency” has the same meaning as defined in Section 727.

(2) This subdivision does not preclude the court from determining that any other delay is not reasonable, including, but not limited to, in the case of a minor or nonminor who was previously adjudged to be a dependent child of the court and was in foster care at the time the petition was filed pursuant to Section 601 or 602, if the probation officer does not identify a specific, appropriate, and available placement for the minor or nonminor in the case plan described in Section 706.6 upon the court issuing its orders pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 727, unless the probation officer provides documentation that his or her efforts to find an appropriate placement were reasonable.

(d) (1) If the court finds the delay to be unreasonable, the court shall order the probation officer to assess the availability of any suitable temporary placements or other alternatives to continued detention of the minor or nonminor in a secure setting. The court may order that the minor or nonminor be placed in a suitable and available temporary nonsecure placement or alternative to continued detention after consultation with all interested parties present at the hearing, including the probation officer, the minor or nonminor, the family of the minor or nonminor, and other providers of services. In addition to the orders authorized by this subdivision, the court may issue any other orders or relief pursuant to its authority under paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 727.

(2) The court shall continue to periodically review the case, pursuant to subdivision (b), until the execution of the order of commitment or of other disposition.

(e) It is the intent of the Legislature, in amending this section in the 2013–14 Regular Session, that minors and nonminors are to be released to their court-ordered dispositions expeditiously, and that any unreasonable periods of detention must be eliminated because they are not in the best interests of the minor or nonminor.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 615, Sec. 2. (AB 2607) Effective January 1, 2015.)

738.
  

In a case where the residence of a minor placed on probation under the provisions of Section 725 or of a ward of the juvenile court is out of the state and in another state or foreign country, or in a case where such minor is a resident of this state but his parents, relatives, guardian, or person charged with his custody is in another state, the court may order such minor sent to his parents, relatives, or guardian, or to the person charged with his custody, or, if the minor is a resident of a foreign country, to an official of a juvenile court of such foreign country or an agency of such country authorized to accept the minor, and in such case may order transportation and accommodation furnished, with or without an attendant, as the court deems necessary. If the court deems an attendant necessary, the court may order the probation officer or other suitable person to serve as such attendant. The probation officer shall authorize the necessary expenses of such minor and of the attendant and claims therefor shall be audited, allowed and paid in the same manner as other county claims.

(Amended by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1068.)

739.
  

(a)  Upon referral to the probation officer of a minor who has been taken into temporary custody under Section 625, the probation officer may authorize a medical examination that complies with regulations adopted by the Corrections Standards Authority. If the minor is retained in custody by the probation officer, and prior to the court detention hearing required under Section 632, the probation officer may authorize medical or dental treatment or care based on the written recommendation of the examining physician and considered necessary for the health of the minor. No treatment or care under this subdivision may be authorized by the probation officer unless the probation officer has made a reasonable effort to notify and to obtain the consent of the parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis for the minor, and, if the parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis objects, the treatment or care shall be given only upon order of the court in the exercise of its discretion. The probation officer shall document the efforts made to notify and obtain parental consent under this subdivision and shall enter this information into the case file for the minor.

(b) Whenever it appears to the juvenile court that any person concerning whom a petition has been filed with the court is in need of medical, surgical, dental, or other remedial care, and that there is no parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis capable of authorizing or willing to authorize the remedial care or treatment for that person, the court, upon the written recommendation of a licensed physician and surgeon or, if the person needs dental care, a licensed dentist, and after due notice to the parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis, if any, may make an order authorizing the performance of the necessary medical, surgical, dental, or other remedial care for that person.

(c) Whenever a person is placed by order of the juvenile court within the care and custody or under the supervision of the probation officer of the county in which the person resides and it appears to the court that there is no parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis capable of authorizing or willing to authorize medical, surgical, dental, or other remedial care or treatment for the person, the court may, after due notice to the parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis, if any, order that the probation officer may authorize the medical, surgical, dental, or other remedial care for the person by licensed practitioners, as may from time to time appear necessary.

(d) (1) Whenever it appears that a minor otherwise within subdivision (a), (b), or (c) requires immediate emergency medical, surgical, or other remedial care in an emergency situation, that care may be provided by a licensed physician and surgeon or, if the minor needs dental care in an emergency situation, by a licensed dentist, without a court order and upon authorization of a probation officer. If the minor needs foot or ankle care within the scope of practice of podiatric medicine, as defined in Section 2472 of the Business and Professions Code, a probation officer may authorize the care to be provided by a podiatrist after obtaining the advice and concurrence of a physician and surgeon. The probation officer shall make reasonable efforts to obtain the consent of, or to notify, the parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis prior to authorizing emergency medical, surgical, dental, or other remedial care.

(2) For purposes of this subdivision, “emergency situation” means a minor requires immediate treatment for the alleviation of severe pain or an immediate diagnosis and treatment of an unforeseeable medical, surgical, dental, or other remedial condition or contagious disease that, if not immediately diagnosed and treated, would lead to serious disability or death. An emergency situation also includes known conditions or illnesses that, during any period of secure detention of the minor by the probation officer, require immediate laboratory testing, medication, or treatment to prevent an imminent and severe or life-threatening risk to the health of the minor.

(e) In any case in which the court orders the performance of any medical, surgical, dental, or other remedial care pursuant to this section, the court may also make an order authorizing the release of information concerning that care to probation officers, parole officers, or any other qualified individuals or agencies caring for or acting in the interest and welfare of the minor under order, commitment, or approval of the court.

(f) Nothing in this section shall be construed as limiting the right of a parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis, who has not been deprived of the custody or control of the minor by order of the court, in providing any medical, surgical, dental, or other remedial treatment recognized or permitted under the laws of this state.

(g) The parent of any person described in this section may authorize the performance of medical, surgical, dental, or other remedial care provided for in this section notwithstanding his or her age or marital status. In nonemergency situations the parent authorizing the care shall notify the other parent prior to the administration of the care.

(h) Nothing in this section shall be construed to interfere with a minor’s right to authorize or refuse medical, surgical, dental, or other care when the minor’s consent for care is sufficient or specifically required pursuant to existing law, or to interfere with a minor’s right to refuse, verbally or in writing, nonemergency medical and mental health care.

(Amended by Stats. 2011, Ch. 256, Sec. 1. (SB 913) Effective January 1, 2012.)

739.5.
  

(a) (1) If a minor who has been adjudged a ward of the court under Section 601 or 602 is removed from the physical custody of the parent under Section 726 and placed into foster care, as defined in Section 727.4, only a juvenile court judicial officer shall have authority to make orders regarding the administration of psychotropic medications for that minor. The juvenile court may issue a specific order delegating this authority to a parent upon making findings on the record that the parent poses no danger to the minor and has the capacity to authorize psychotropic medications. Court authorization for the administration of psychotropic medication shall be based on a request from a physician, indicating the reasons for the request, a description of the minor’s diagnosis and behavior, the expected results of the medication, and a description of any side effects of the medication.

(2) (A) On or before July 1, 2016, the Judicial Council shall amend and adopt rules of court and develop appropriate forms for the implementation of this section, in consultation with the State Department of Social Services, the State Department of Health Care Services, and stakeholders, including, but not limited to, the County Welfare Directors Association of California, the County Behavioral Health Directors Association of California, the Chief Probation Officers of California, associations representing current and former foster children, caregivers, and minor’s attorneys. This effort shall be undertaken in coordination with the updates required under paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 369.5.

(B) The rules of court and forms developed pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall address all of the following:

(i) The minor and his or her caregiver and court-appointed special advocate, if any, have an opportunity to provide input on the medications being prescribed.

(ii) Information regarding the minor’s overall mental health assessment and treatment plan is provided to the court.

(iii) Information regarding the rationale for the proposed medication, provided in the context of past and current treatment efforts, is provided to the court. This information shall include, but not be limited to, information on other pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments that have been utilized and the minor’s response to those treatments, a discussion of symptoms not alleviated or ameliorated by other current or past treatment efforts, and an explanation of how the psychotropic medication being prescribed is expected to improve the minor’s symptoms.

(iv) Guidance is provided to the court on how to evaluate the request for authorization, including how to proceed if information, otherwise required to be included in a request for authorization under this section, is not included in a request for authorization submitted to the court.

(C) The rules of court and forms developed pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall include a process for periodic oversight by the court of orders regarding the administration of psychotropic medications that includes the caregiver’s and minor’s observations regarding the effectiveness of the medication and side effects, information on medication management appointments and other followup appointments with medical practitioners, and information on the delivery of other mental health treatments that are a part of the minor’s overall treatment plan. This oversight process shall be conducted in conjunction with other regularly scheduled court hearings and reports provided to the court by the county probation agency.

(b) (1) The agency that completes the request for authorization for the administration of psychotropic medication is encouraged to complete the request within three business days of receipt from the physician of the information necessary to fully complete the request.

(2) Nothing in this subdivision is intended to change current local practice or local court rules with respect to the preparation and submission of requests for authorization for the administration of psychotropic medication.

(c) (1) Within seven court days from receipt by the court of a completed request, the juvenile court judicial officer shall either approve or deny in writing a request for authorization for the administration of psychotropic medication to the minor, or shall, upon a request by the parent, the legal guardian, or the minor’s attorney, or upon its own motion, set the matter for hearing.

(2) Notwithstanding Section 827 or any other law, upon the approval or denial by the juvenile court judicial officer of a request for authorization for the administration of psychotropic medication, the county probation agency or other person or entity who submitted the request shall provide a copy of the court order approving or denying the request to the minor’s caregiver.

(d) Psychotropic medication or psychotropic drugs are those medications administered for the purpose of affecting the central nervous system to treat psychiatric disorders or illnesses. These medications include, but are not limited to, anxiolytic agents, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotic medications, anti-Parkinson agents, hypnotics, medications for dementia, and psychostimulants.

(e) Nothing in this section is intended to supersede local court rules regarding a minor’s right to participate in mental health decisions.

(f) This section does not apply to nonminor dependents, as defined in subdivision (v) of Section 11400.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 534, Sec. 6. (SB 238) Effective January 1, 2016.)

739.6.
  

(a) (1) The State Department of Social Services, in consultation with the State Department of Health Care Services, shall contract for child psychiatry services to complete a record review for all authorization requests for psychotropic medications for which a second opinion review is requested by a county. The second opinion review shall occur within three business days of the county request and shall include discussion of the psychosocial interventions that have been or will be offered to the child and caretaker, if appropriate, to address the behavioral health needs of the child.

(2) (A)  Recommended indicators for identifying those requests for authorizations of psychotropic medications for which a county may request a second opinion record review may include, but are not limited to, prescriptions for concurrent psychotropic medications, dosages that exceed recommended guidelines for use in children, off-label prescribing, and requests for psychotropic medication usage without any other concurrent psychosocial services.

(B) The State Department of Social Services shall, by July 1, 2018, issue guidance regarding the second opinion review process and may periodically revise that guidance following consultation with counties, other state departments, advocates for children and youth, and other stakeholders.

(3) The child psychiatry services contracted for by the State Department of Social Services shall be available to provide second opinion reviews to those counties that do not have a second opinion review program. This section does not prohibit a county from operating its own second opinion review program and does not supersede any county-operated second opinion review program.

(4) This section does not prevent the administration of medication in an emergency, as otherwise authorized or required by law or regulation.

(b) The State Department of Health Care Services shall seek any necessary federal approvals to obtain federal financial participation for the second opinion review service pursuant to this section, including any approvals necessary to obtain enhanced federal financial participation as applicable. Notwithstanding any other law, this section shall be implemented only if, and to the extent that, any necessary federal approvals are obtained by the department and federal financial participation is available and is not otherwise jeopardized.

(Added by Stats. 2017, Ch. 24, Sec. 12. (SB 89) Effective June 27, 2017.)

740.
  

(a) Any minor adjudged to be a ward of the court on the basis that he or she is a person described in Section 602 and who is placed in a community care facility shall be placed in a community care facility within his or her county of residence, unless both of the following apply:

(1) He or she has identifiable needs requiring specialized care that cannot be provided in a local facility or his or her needs dictate physical separation from his or her family.

(2) The county of residence agrees to pay the placement county the costs of providing services to the minor, pursuant to Section 1566.25 of the Health and Safety Code.

(b) (1) Before the placement of a minor adjudged to be a ward of the court on the basis that he or she is a person described in Section 602 in any community care facility outside the ward’s county of residence, the probation officer of the county making the placement, or in the case of a ward of the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Facilities, the parole officer in charge of his or her case, shall send, via mail, delivery, fax, or electronically, written notice of the placement, including the name of the ward, the juvenile record of the ward (including any known prior offenses), and the ward’s county of residence, to the probation officer of the county in which the community care facility is located. It is the intention of the Legislature, in regard to this requirement, that the probation officer of the county making the placement, or in the case of a ward of the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Facilities, the parole officer in charge of his or her case, shall make his or her best efforts to send, via mail, fax, or electronically, or to hand deliver, the notice at least 24 hours prior to the time the placement is made. When that placement is terminated, the probation officer of the county making the placement, or in the case of a ward of the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Facilities, the parole officer in charge of his or her case, shall send notice thereof to any person or agency receiving notification of the placement.

(2) When it has been determined that it is necessary for a ward whose board and care is funded through the Aid to Families with Dependent Children-Foster Care program to be placed in a county other than the ward’s parents’ or guardians’ county of residence, the specific reason the out-of-county placement is necessary shall be documented in the ward’s case plan. If the reason is lack of resources in the sending county to meet the specific needs of the ward, those specific resources needs shall be documented in the case plan.

(3) When it has been determined that a ward whose board and care is funded through the Aid to Families with Dependent Children-Foster Care program is to be placed out-of-county and that the sending county is to maintain responsibility for supervision and visitation of the ward, the sending county shall develop a plan of supervision and visitation activities to be performed, and shall specify that the sending county is responsible for performing those activities. In addition to the plan of supervision and visitation, the sending county shall document information regarding known or suspected gang affiliation or dangerous behavior of the ward that indicates the ward may pose a safety concern in the receiving county. The sending county shall send to the receiving county a copy of the plan of supervision and visitation, in addition to the notice of placement required in paragraph (1), prior to placement of the ward. If placement occurs on a holiday or weekend, the plan of supervision and visitation and the notice of placement shall be provided to the receiving county on or before the end of the next business day.

(4) When it has been determined that a ward whose placement is funded through the Aid to Families with Dependent Children-Foster Care program is to be placed out-of-county and the sending county plans that the receiving county shall be responsible for the supervision and visitation of the ward, the sending county shall develop a formal agreement between the sending and receiving counties. The formal agreement shall specify the supervision and visitation to be provided the ward, and shall specify that the receiving county is responsible for providing the supervision and visitation. The formal agreement shall be approved and signed by the sending and receiving counties prior to placement of the ward in the receiving county. Additionally, the notice of placement required by paragraph (1) shall be provided to the receiving county prior to placement of the ward in that county. Upon completion of the case plan, the sending county shall provide a copy of the completed case plan to the receiving county. The case plan shall include information regarding known or suspected gang affiliation or dangerous behavior of the ward that indicates the ward may pose a safety concern for the receiving county.

(5) The probation department of a receiving county that has a group home in which a minor is placed by the probation department of another county, after adjudication of the minor for any felony offense, may disclose to the sheriff of the receiving county or to the municipal police department of the city in which the group home is located, the name of the minor, the felony offense or offenses for which the minor has been adjudicated, and the address of the group home. This information shall be utilized only for law enforcement purposes and may not be utilized in a manner that is inconsistent with the rehabilitative program in which the minor has been placed or with the progress the minor may be making in the placement program. Notwithstanding any other law, the information provided by the probation department to a law enforcement agency under this paragraph may be provided to other law enforcement personnel for the limited law enforcement purposes described in this paragraph, but shall otherwise remain confidential.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (e) of Section 1538.5 of the Health and Safety Code, at the request of the probation department of the county in which the group home facility is located, the group home shall notify a probation official designated by the probation department to receive notifications pursuant to this subdivision, of unusual incidents concerning a ward placed by the sending county that involved a response by local law enforcement or emergency services personnel, including runaway incidents. The notification shall include identifying information about the ward. A group home facility shall notify the designated probation official of a requesting probation department of an unusual incident no later than the applicable deadline imposed by law or department regulation for a group home facility to notify the licensing agency of the unusual incident. The requesting probation department shall maintain the confidentiality of any identifying information about the ward contained in the notification and shall not share, transfer, or otherwise release the identifying information to a third party unless otherwise authorized by state or federal law.

(d) A minor, the parent or guardian of a minor, and counsel representing a minor or the parent or guardian of a minor may petition the juvenile court for the review of a placement decision concerning the minor made by the probation officer pursuant to subdivision (a). The petition shall state the petitioner’s relationship to the minor and shall set forth in concise language the grounds on which the review is sought. The court shall order that a hearing shall be held on the petition and shall give prior notice, or cause prior notice to be given, to the persons and by the means prescribed by Section 776, and, in instances in which the means of giving notice is not prescribed by that section, then by any means as the court prescribes.

(e) If a minor is placed in a community care facility out of his or her county of residence and is then arrested and placed in juvenile hall pending a jurisdictional hearing, the county of residence shall pay to the probation department of the county of placement all reasonable costs resulting directly from the minor’s stay in the juvenile hall, provided that these costs exceed one hundred dollars ($100).

(f) If, as a result of the hearing in subdivision (d), the minor is remanded back to his or her county of residence, the county of residence shall pay to the probation department of the county of placement, in addition to any payment made pursuant to subdivision (e), all reasonable costs resulting directly from transporting the minor to the county of residency, provided that these costs exceed one hundred dollars ($100).

(g) Claims made by the probation department in the county of placement to the county of residence, pursuant to subdivisions (e) and (f), shall be paid within 30 days of the submission of these claims and the probation department in the county of placement shall bear the remaining expense.

(h) As used in this section:

(1) “Community care facility” shall be defined as provided in Section 1502 of the Health and Safety Code.

(2) “Gang affiliation” shall have the same meaning as defined for data entry into the CalGang system.

(3) “Group home” has the same meaning as provided in paragraph (1) of subdivision (g) of Section 80001 of Title 22 of the California Code of Regulations.

(Amended by Stats. 2009, Ch. 46, Sec. 4. (SB 352) Effective January 1, 2010.)

740.1.
  

(a) Any minor adjudged to be a ward of the court on the basis that he or she is a person described in Section 602 of the Welfare and Institutions Code and who is placed in a community care facility outside his or her county of residence who is then arrested and after receiving a jurisdictional hearing is remanded back to his or her county of residence shall not be placed back into the placement county without the testimony and documentation or request, if any, from the placement county pursuant to subdivision (b).

(b) The placement county may provide to the juvenile court relevant testimony and documentation pertaining to the ward’s conduct while residing in the placement county, and may request that the ward not be returned to the placement county.

(c) “Community care facility,” as used in this section, shall be defined as provided in Section 1502 of the Health and Safety Code.

(Added by Stats. 1992, Ch. 1153, Sec. 7. Effective January 1, 1993.)

741.
  

The juvenile court may, in any case before it in which a petition has been filed as provided in Article 16 (commencing with Section 650), order that the probation officer obtain the services of such psychiatrists, psychologists, physicians and surgeons, dentists, optometrists, audiologists, or other clinical experts as may be required to assist in determining the appropriate treatment of the minor and as may be required in the conduct or implementation of the treatment. Payment for the services shall be a charge against the county.

Whenever diagnosis or treatment pursuant to this section is due to, or related to, drug or alcohol use, the cost thereof shall be considered for the use of funds made available to the county from state or federal sources for the purpose of providing care and treatment for drug- and alcohol-related illness or for drug or alcohol abuse.

(Amended by Stats. 1991, Ch. 482, Sec. 3. Effective October 4, 1991.)

742.
  

(a) Upon the request of an alleged victim of a crime, the probation officer shall, within 60 days of the final disposition of a case within which a petition has been filed pursuant to Section 602, inform that person by letter of the final disposition of the case. “Final disposition” means dismissal, acquittal, or findings made pursuant to this article. If the court orders that restitution shall be made to the victim of a crime, the amount, terms, and conditions thereof shall be included in the information provided pursuant to this section.

(b) In any case in which a petition has been filed pursuant to Section 602, the probation officer shall inform the victim of the offense, if any, of any victim-offender conferencing program or victim impact class available in the county, and of his or her right pursuant to subdivision (a) to be informed of the final disposition of the case, including his or her right, if any, to victim restitution, as permitted by law.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 761, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1999.)

WICWelfare and Institutions Code - WIC18