Code Section Group

Water Code - WAT

DIVISION 6. CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND UTILIZATION OF STATE WATER RESOURCES [10000 - 12999]

  ( Heading of Division 6 amended by Stats. 1957, Ch. 1932. )

PART 2.55. SUSTAINABLE WATER USE AND DEMAND REDUCTION [10608 - 10609.42]

  ( Part 2.55 added by Stats. 2009, 7th Ex. Sess., Ch. 4, Sec. 1. )

CHAPTER 9. Urban Water Use Objectives and Water Use Reporting [10609 - 10609.38]
  ( Chapter 9 added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. )

10609.
  

(a) The Legislature finds and declares that this chapter establishes a method to estimate the aggregate amount of water that would have been delivered the previous year by an urban retail water supplier if all that water had been used efficiently. This estimated aggregate water use is the urban retail water supplier’s urban water use objective. The method is based on water use efficiency standards and local service area characteristics for that year. By comparing the amount of water actually used in the previous year with the urban water use objective, local urban water suppliers will be in a better position to help eliminate unnecessary use of water; that is, water used in excess of that needed to accomplish the intended beneficial use.

(b) The Legislature further finds and declares all of the following:

(1) This chapter establishes standards and practices for the following water uses:

(A) Indoor residential use.

(B) Outdoor residential use.

(C) CII water use.

(D) Water losses.

(E) Other unique local uses and situations that can have a material effect on an urban water supplier’s total water use.

(2) This chapter further does all of the following:

(A) Establishes a method to calculate each urban water use objective.

(B) Considers recycled water quality in establishing efficient irrigation standards.

(C) Requires the department to provide or otherwise identify data regarding the unique local conditions to support the calculation of an urban water use objective.

(D) Provides for the use of alternative sources of data if alternative sources are shown to be as accurate as, or more accurate than, the data provided by the department.

(E) Requires annual reporting of the previous year’s water use with the urban water use objective.

(F) Provides a bonus incentive for the amount of potable recycled water used the previous year when comparing the previous year’s water use with the urban water use objective, of up to 10 percent of the urban water use objective.

(3) This chapter requires the department and the board to solicit broad public participation from stakeholders and other interested persons in the development of the standards and the adoption of regulations pursuant to this chapter.

(4) This chapter preserves the Legislature’s authority over long-term water use efficiency target setting and ensures appropriate legislative oversight of the implementation of this chapter by doing all of the following:

(A) Requiring the Legislative Analyst to conduct a review of the implementation of this act, including compliance with the adopted standards and regulations, accuracy of the data, use of alternate data, and other issues the Legislative Analyst deems appropriate.

(B) Stating legislative intent that the director of the department and the chairperson of the board appear before the appropriate Senate and Assembly policy committees to report on progress in implementing this chapter.

(C) Providing one-time-only authority to the department and board to adopt water use efficiency standards, except as explicitly provided in this chapter. Authorization to update the standards shall require separate legislation.

(c) It is the intent of the Legislature that the following principles apply to the development and implementation of long-term standards and urban water use objectives:

(1) Local urban retail water suppliers should have primary responsibility for meeting standards-based water use targets, and they shall retain the flexibility to develop their water supply portfolios, design and implement water conservation strategies, educate their customers, and enforce their rules.

(2) Long-term standards and urban water use objectives should advance the state’s goals to mitigate and adapt to climate change.

(3) Long-term standards and urban water use objectives should acknowledge the shade, air quality, and heat-island reduction benefits provided to communities by trees through the support of water-efficient irrigation practices that keep trees healthy.

(4) The state should identify opportunities for streamlined reporting, eliminate redundant data submissions, and incentivize open access to data collected by urban and agricultural water suppliers.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. (AB 1668) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.2.
  

(a) The board, in coordination with the department, shall adopt long-term standards for the efficient use of water pursuant to this chapter on or before June 30, 2022.

(b) Standards shall be adopted for all of the following:

(1) Outdoor residential water use.

(2) Outdoor irrigation of landscape areas with dedicated irrigation meters in connection with CII water use.

(3) A volume for water loss.

(c) When adopting the standards under this section, the board shall consider the policies of this chapter and the proposed efficiency standards’ effects on local wastewater management, developed and natural parklands, and urban tree health. The standards and potential effects shall be identified by May 30, 2022. The board shall allow for public comment on potential effects identified by the board under this subdivision.

(d) The long-term standards shall be set at a level designed so that the water use objectives, together with other demands excluded from the long-term standards such as CII indoor water use and CII outdoor water use not connected to a dedicated landscape meter, would exceed the statewide conservation targets required pursuant to Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 10608.16).

(e) The board, in coordination with the department, shall adopt by regulation variances recommended by the department pursuant to Section 10609.14 and guidelines and methodologies pertaining to the calculation of an urban retail water supplier’s urban water use objective recommended by the department pursuant to Section 10609.16.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. (AB 1668) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.4.
  

(a) (1) Until January 1, 2025, the standard for indoor residential water use shall be 55 gallons per capita daily.

(2) Beginning January 1, 2025, and until January 1, 2030, the standard for indoor residential water use shall be the greater of 52.5 gallons per capita daily or a standard recommended pursuant to subdivision (b).

(3) Beginning January 1, 2030, the standard for indoor residential water use shall be the greater of 50 gallons per capita daily or a standard recommended pursuant to subdivision (b).

(b) (1) The department, in coordination with the board, shall conduct necessary studies and investigations and may jointly recommend to the Legislature a standard for indoor residential water use that more appropriately reflects best practices for indoor residential water use than the standard described in subdivision (a). A report on the results of the studies and investigations shall be made to the chairpersons of the relevant policy committees of each house of the Legislature by January 1, 2021, and shall include information necessary to support the recommended standard, if there is one. The studies and investigations shall also include an analysis of the benefits and impacts of how the changing standard for indoor residential water use will impact water and wastewater management, including potable water usage, wastewater, recycling and reuse systems, infrastructure, operations, and supplies.

(2) The studies, investigations, and report described in paragraph (1) shall include collaboration with, and input from, a broad group of stakeholders, including, but not limited to, environmental groups, experts in indoor plumbing, and water, wastewater, and recycled water agencies.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. (AB 1668) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.6.
  

(a) (1) The department, in coordination with the board, shall conduct necessary studies and investigations and recommend, no later than October 1, 2021, standards for outdoor residential use for adoption by the board in accordance with this chapter.

(2) (A) The standards shall incorporate the principles of the model water efficient landscape ordinance adopted by the department pursuant to the Water Conservation in Landscaping Act (Article 10.8 (commencing with Section 65591) of Chapter 3 of Division 1 of Title 7 of the Government Code).

(B) The standards shall apply to irrigable lands.

(C) The standards shall include provisions for swimming pools, spas, and other water features. Ornamental water features that are artificially supplied with water, including ponds, lakes, waterfalls, and fountains, shall be analyzed separately from swimming pools and spas.

(b) The department shall, by January 1, 2021, provide each urban retail water supplier with data regarding the area of residential irrigable lands in a manner that can reasonably be applied to the standards adopted pursuant to this section.

(c) The department shall not recommend standards pursuant to this section until it has conducted pilot projects or studies, or some combination of the two, to ensure that the data provided to local agencies are reasonably accurate for the data’s intended uses, taking into consideration California’s diverse landscapes and community characteristics.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. (AB 1668) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.8.
  

(a) The department, in coordination with the board, shall conduct necessary studies and investigations and recommend, no later than October 1, 2021, standards for outdoor irrigation of landscape areas with dedicated irrigation meters or other means of calculating outdoor irrigation use in connection with CII water use for adoption by the board in accordance with this chapter.

(b) The standards shall incorporate the principles of the model water efficient landscape ordinance adopted by the department pursuant to the Water Conservation in Landscaping Act (Article 10.8 (commencing with Section 65591) of Chapter 3 of Division 1 of Title 7 of the Government Code).

(c) The standards shall include an exclusion for water for commercial agricultural use meeting the definition of subdivision (b) of Section 51201 of the Government Code.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. (AB 1668) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.9.
  

For purposes of Sections 10609.6 and 10609.8, “principles of the model water efficient landscape ordinance” means those provisions of the model water efficient landscape ordinance applicable to the establishment or determination of the amount of water necessary to efficiently irrigate both new and existing landscapes. These provisions include, but are not limited to, all of the following:

(a) Evapotranspiration adjustment factors, as applicable.

(b) Landscape area.

(c) Maximum applied water allowance.

(d) Reference evapotranspiration.

(e) Special landscape areas, including provisions governing evapotranspiration adjustment factors for different types of water used for irrigating the landscape.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. (AB 1668) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.10.
  

(a) The department, in coordination with the board, shall conduct necessary studies and investigations and recommend, no later than October 1, 2021, performance measures for CII water use for adoption by the board in accordance with this chapter.

(b) Prior to recommending performance measures for CII water use, the department shall solicit broad public participation from stakeholders and other interested persons relating to all of the following:

(1) Recommendations for a CII water use classification system for California that address significant uses of water.

(2) Recommendations for setting minimum size thresholds for converting mixed CII meters to dedicated irrigation meters, and evaluation of, and recommendations for, technologies that could be used in lieu of requiring dedicated irrigation meters.

(3) Recommendations for CII water use best management practices, which may include, but are not limited to, water audits and water management plans for those CII customers that exceed a recommended size, volume of water use, or other threshold.

(c) Recommendations of appropriate performance measures for CII water use shall be consistent with the October 21, 2013, report to the Legislature by the Commercial, Industrial, and Institutional Task Force entitled “Water Use Best Management Practices,” including the technical and financial feasibility recommendations provided in that report, and shall support the economic productivity of California’s commercial, industrial, and institutional sectors.

(d) (1) The board, in coordination with the department, shall adopt performance measures for CII water use on or before June 30, 2022.

(2) Each urban retail water supplier shall implement the performance measures adopted by the board pursuant to paragraph (1).

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. (AB 1668) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.12.
  

The standards for water loss for urban retail water suppliers shall be the standards adopted by the board pursuant to subdivision (i) of Section 10608.34.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. (AB 1668) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.14.
  

(a) The department, in coordination with the board, shall conduct necessary studies and investigations and, no later than October 1, 2021, recommend for adoption by the board in accordance with this chapter appropriate variances for unique uses that can have a material effect on an urban retail water supplier’s urban water use objective.

(b) Appropriate variances may include, but are not limited to, allowances for the following:

(1) Significant use of evaporative coolers.

(2) Significant populations of horses and other livestock.

(3) Significant fluctuations in seasonal populations.

(4) Significant landscaped areas irrigated with recycled water having high levels of total dissolved solids.

(5) Significant use of water for soil compaction and dust control.

(6) Significant use of water to supplement ponds and lakes to sustain wildlife.

(7) Significant use of water to irrigate vegetation for fire protection.

(8) Significant use of water for commercial or noncommercial agricultural use.

(c) The department, in recommending variances for adoption by the board, shall also recommend a threshold of significance for each recommended variance.

(d) Before including any specific variance in calculating an urban retail water supplier’s water use objective, the urban retail water supplier shall request and receive approval by the board for the inclusion of that variance.

(e) The board shall post on its Internet Web site all of the following:

(1) A list of all urban retail water suppliers with approved variances.

(2) The specific variance or variances approved for each urban retail water supplier.

(3) The data supporting approval of each variance.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. (AB 1668) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.15.
  

To help streamline water data reporting, the department and the board shall do all of the following:

(a) Identify urban water reporting requirements shared by both agencies, and post on each agency’s Internet Web site how the data is used for planning, regulatory, or other purposes.

(b) Analyze opportunities for more efficient publication of urban water reporting requirements within each agency, and analyze how each agency can integrate various data sets in a publicly accessible location, identify priority actions, and implement priority actions identified in the analysis.

(c) Make appropriate data pertaining to the urban water reporting requirements that are collected by either agency available to the public according to the principles and requirements of the Open and Transparent Water Data Act (Part 4.9 (commencing with Section 12400)).

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. (AB 1668) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.16.
  

The department, in coordination with the board, shall conduct necessary studies and investigations and recommend, no later than October 1, 2021, guidelines and methodologies for the board to adopt that identify how an urban retail water supplier calculates its urban water use objective. The guidelines and methodologies shall address, as necessary, all of the following:

(a) Determining the irrigable lands within the urban retail water supplier’s service area.

(b) Updating and revising methodologies described pursuant to subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (h) of Section 10608.20, as appropriate, including methodologies for calculating the population in an urban retail water supplier’s service area.

(c) Using landscape area data provided by the department or alternative data.

(d) Incorporating precipitation data and climate data into estimates of a urban retail water supplier’s outdoor irrigation budget for its urban water use objective.

(e) Estimating changes in outdoor landscape area and population, and calculating the urban water use objective, for years when updated landscape imagery is not available from the department.

(f) Determining acceptable levels of accuracy for the supporting data, the urban water use objective, and compliance with the urban water use objective.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. (AB 1668) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.18.
  

The department and the board shall solicit broad public participation from stakeholders and other interested persons in the development of the standards and the adoption of regulations pursuant to this chapter. The board shall hold at least one public meeting before taking any action on any standard or variance recommended by the department.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 15, Sec. 7. (AB 1668) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.20.
  

(a) Each urban retail water supplier shall calculate its urban water use objective no later than November 1, 2023, and by November 1 every year thereafter.

(b) The calculation shall be based on the urban retail water supplier’s water use conditions for the previous calendar or fiscal year.

(c) Each urban water supplier’s urban water use objective shall be composed of the sum of the following:

(1) Aggregate estimated efficient indoor residential water use.

(2) Aggregate estimated efficient outdoor residential water use.

(3) Aggregate estimated efficient outdoor irrigation of landscape areas with dedicated irrigation meters or equivalent technology in connection with CII water use.

(4) Aggregate estimated efficient water losses.

(5) Aggregate estimated water use in accordance with variances, as appropriate.

(d) (1) An urban retail water supplier that delivers water from a groundwater basin, reservoir, or other source that is augmented by potable reuse water may adjust its urban water use objective by a bonus incentive calculated pursuant to this subdivision.

(2) The water use objective bonus incentive shall be the volume of its potable reuse delivered to residential water users and to landscape areas with dedicated irrigation meters in connection with CII water use, on an acre-foot basis.

(3) The bonus incentive pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be limited in accordance with one of the following:

(A) The bonus incentive shall not exceed 15 percent of the urban water supplier’s water use objective for any potable reuse water produced at an existing facility.

(B) The bonus incentive shall not exceed 10 percent of the urban water supplier’s water use objective for any potable reuse water produced at any facility that is not an existing facility.

(4) For purposes of this subdivision, “existing facility” means a facility that meets all of the following:

(A) The facility has a certified environmental impact report, mitigated negative declaration, or negative declaration on or before January 1, 2019.

(B) The facility begins producing and delivering potable reuse water on or before January 1, 2022.

(C) The facility uses microfiltration and reverse osmosis technologies to produce the potable reuse water.

(e) (1) The calculation of the urban water use objective shall be made using landscape area and other data provided by the department and pursuant to the standards, guidelines, and methodologies adopted by the board. The department shall provide data to the urban water supplier at a level of detail sufficient to allow the urban water supplier to verify its accuracy at the parcel level.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), an urban retail water supplier may use alternative data in calculating the urban water use objective if the supplier demonstrates to the department that the alternative data are equivalent, or superior, in quality and accuracy to the data provided by the department. The department may provide technical assistance to an urban retail water supplier in evaluating whether the alternative data are appropriate for use in calculating the supplier’s urban water use objective.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 14, Sec. 8. (SB 606) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.21.
  

(a) For purposes of Section 10609.20, and notwithstanding paragraph (4) of subdivision (d) of Section 10609.20, “existing facility” also includes the North City Project, phase one of the Pure Water San Diego Program, for which an environmental impact report was certified on April 10, 2018.

(b) This section shall become operative on January 1, 2019.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 453, Sec. 4. (SB 875) Effective September 17, 2018. Section operative January 1, 2019, by its own provisions.)

10609.22.
  

(a) An urban retail water supplier shall calculate its actual urban water use no later than November 1, 2023, and by November 1 every year thereafter.

(b) The calculation shall be based on the urban retail water supplier’s water use for the previous calendar or fiscal year.

(c) Each urban water supplier’s urban water use shall be composed of the sum of the following:

(1) Aggregate residential water use.

(2) Aggregate outdoor irrigation of landscape areas with dedicated irrigation meters in connection with CII water use.

(3) Aggregate water losses.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 14, Sec. 9. (SB 606) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.24.
  

(a) An urban retail water supplier shall submit a report to the department no later than November 1, 2023, and by November 1 every year thereafter. The report shall include all of the following:

(1) The urban water use objective calculated pursuant to Section 10609.20 along with relevant supporting data.

(2) The actual urban water use calculated pursuant to Section 10609.22 along with relevant supporting data.

(3) Documentation of the implementation of the performance measures for CII water use.

(4) A description of the progress made towards meeting the urban water use objective.

(b) The department shall post the reports and information on its Internet Web site.

(c) The board may issue an information order or conservation order to, or impose civil liability on, an entity or individual for failure to submit a report required by this section.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 14, Sec. 10. (SB 606) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.26.
  

(a) (1) On and after November 1, 2023, the board may issue informational orders pertaining to water production, water use, and water conservation to an urban retail water supplier that does not meet its urban water use objective required by this chapter. Informational orders are intended to obtain information on supplier activities, water production, and conservation efforts in order to identify technical assistance needs and assist urban water suppliers in meeting their urban water use objectives.

(2) In determining whether to issue an informational order, the board shall consider the degree to which the urban retail water supplier is not meeting its urban water use objective, information provided in the report required by Section 10609.24, and actions the urban retail water supplier has implemented or will implement in order to help meet the urban water use objective.

(3) The board shall share information received pursuant to this subdivision with the department.

(4) An urban water supplier may request technical assistance from the department. The technical assistance may, to the extent available, include guidance documents, tools, and data.

(b) On and after November 1, 2024, the board may issue a written notice to an urban retail water supplier that does not meet its urban water use objective required by this chapter. The written notice may warn the urban retail water supplier that it is not meeting its urban water use objective described in Section 10609.20 and is not making adequate progress in meeting the urban water use objective, and may request that the urban retail water supplier address areas of concern in its next annual report required by Section 10609.24. In deciding whether to issue a written notice, the board may consider whether the urban retail water supplier has received an informational order, the degree to which the urban retail water supplier is not meeting its urban water use objective, information provided in the report required by Section 10609.24, and actions the urban retail water supplier has implemented or will implement in order to help meet its urban water use objective.

(c) (1) On and after November 1, 2025, the board may issue a conservation order to an urban retail water supplier that does not meet its urban water use objective. A conservation order may consist of, but is not limited to, referral to the department for technical assistance, requirements for education and outreach, requirements for local enforcement, and other efforts to assist urban retail water suppliers in meeting their urban water use objective.

(2) In issuing a conservation order, the board shall identify specific deficiencies in an urban retail water supplier’s progress towards meeting its urban water use objective, and identify specific actions to address the deficiencies.

(3) The board may request that the department provide an urban retail water supplier with technical assistance to support the urban retail water supplier’s actions to remedy the deficiencies.

(d) A conservation order issued in accordance with this chapter may include requiring actions intended to increase water-use efficiency, but shall not curtail or otherwise limit the exercise of a water right, nor shall it require the imposition of civil liability pursuant to Section 377.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 14, Sec. 11. (SB 606) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.28.
  

The board may issue a regulation or informational order requiring a wholesale water supplier, an urban retail water supplier, or a distributor of a public water supply, as that term is used in Section 350, to provide a monthly report relating to water production, water use, or water conservation.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 14, Sec. 12. (SB 606) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.30.
  

On or before January 10, 2024, the Legislative Analyst shall provide to the appropriate policy committees of both houses of the Legislature and the public a report evaluating the implementation of the water use efficiency standards and water use reporting pursuant to this chapter. The board and the department shall provide the Legislative Analyst with the available data to complete this report.

(a) The report shall describe all of the following:

(1) The rate at which urban retail water users are complying with the standards, and factors that might facilitate or impede their compliance.

(2) The accuracy of the data and estimates being used to calculate urban water use objectives.

(3) Indications of the economic impacts, if any, of the implementation of this chapter on urban water suppliers and urban water users, including CII water users.

(4) The frequency of use of the bonus incentive, the volume of water associated with the bonus incentive, value to urban water suppliers of the bonus incentive, and any implications of the use of the bonus incentive on water use efficiency.

(5) The early indications of how implementing this chapter might impact the efficiency of statewide urban water use.

(6) Recommendations, if any, for improving statewide urban water use efficiency and the standards and practices described in this chapter.

(7) Any other issues the Legislative Analyst deems appropriate.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 14, Sec. 13. (SB 606) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.32.
  

It is the intent of the Legislature that the chairperson of the board and the director of the department appear before the appropriate policy committees of both houses of the Legislature on or around January 1, 2026, and report on the implementation of the water use efficiency standards and water use reporting pursuant to this chapter. It is the intent of the Legislature that the topics to be covered include all of the following:

(a) The rate at which urban retail water suppliers are complying with the standards, and factors that might facilitate or impede their compliance.

(b) What enforcement actions have been taken, if any.

(c) The accuracy of the data and estimates being used to calculate urban water use objectives.

(d) Indications of the economic impacts, if any, of the implementation of this chapter on urban water suppliers and urban water users, including CII water users.

(e) The frequency of use of the bonus incentive, the volume of water associated with the bonus incentive, value to urban water suppliers of the bonus incentive, and any implications of the use of the bonus incentive on water use efficiency.

(f) An assessment of how implementing this chapter is affecting the efficiency of statewide urban water use.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 14, Sec. 14. (SB 606) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.34.
  

Notwithstanding Section 15300.2 of Title 14 of the California Code of Regulations, an action of the board taken under this chapter shall be deemed to be a Class 8 action, within the meaning of Section 15308 of Title 14 of the California Code of Regulations, provided that the action does not involve relaxation of existing water conservation or water use standards.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 14, Sec. 15. (SB 606) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.36.
  

(a) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to determine or alter water rights. Sections 1010 and 1011 apply to water conserved through implementation of this chapter.

(b) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to authorize the board to update or revise water use efficiency standards authorized by this chapter except as explicitly provided in this chapter. Authorization to update the standards beyond that explicitly provided in this chapter shall require separate legislation.

(c) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to limit or otherwise affect the use of recycled water as seawater barriers for groundwater salinity management.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 14, Sec. 16. (SB 606) Effective January 1, 2019.)

10609.38.
  

The board may waive the requirements of this chapter for a period of up to five years for any urban retail water supplier whose water deliveries are significantly affected by changes in water use as a result of damage from a disaster such as an earthquake or fire. In establishing the period of a waiver, the board shall take into consideration the breadth of the damage and the time necessary for the damaged areas to recover from the disaster.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 14, Sec. 17. (SB 606) Effective January 1, 2019.)

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