Code Section Group

Education Code - EDC

TITLE 2. ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION [33000 - 64100]

  ( Title 2 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

DIVISION 4. INSTRUCTION AND SERVICES [46000 - 64100]

  ( Division 4 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

PART 27. PUPILS [48000 - 49704]

  ( Part 27 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

CHAPTER 6. Pupil Rights and Responsibilities [48900 - 49051]

  ( Chapter 6 enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010. )

ARTICLE 1. Suspension or Expulsion [48900 - 48927]
  ( Article 1 repealed and added by Stats. 1983, Ch. 498, Sec. 91. )

48900.
  

A pupil shall not be suspended from school or recommended for expulsion, unless the superintendent of the school district or the principal of the school in which the pupil is enrolled determines that the pupil has committed an act as defined pursuant to any of subdivisions (a) to (r), inclusive:

(a) (1) Caused, attempted to cause, or threatened to cause physical injury to another person.

(2) Willfully used force or violence upon the person of another, except in self-defense.

(b) Possessed, sold, or otherwise furnished a firearm, knife, explosive, or other dangerous object, unless, in the case of possession of an object of this type, the pupil had obtained written permission to possess the item from a certificated school employee, which is concurred in by the principal or the designee of the principal.

(c) Unlawfully possessed, used, sold, or otherwise furnished, or been under the influence of, a controlled substance listed in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 11053) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code, an alcoholic beverage, or an intoxicant of any kind.

(d) Unlawfully offered, arranged, or negotiated to sell a controlled substance listed in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 11053) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code, an alcoholic beverage, or an intoxicant of any kind, and either sold, delivered, or otherwise furnished to a person another liquid, substance, or material and represented the liquid, substance, or material as a controlled substance, alcoholic beverage, or intoxicant.

(e) Committed or attempted to commit robbery or extortion.

(f) Caused or attempted to cause damage to school property or private property.

(g) Stole or attempted to steal school property or private property.

(h) Possessed or used tobacco, or products containing tobacco or nicotine products, including, but not limited to, cigarettes, cigars, miniature cigars, clove cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, snuff, chew packets, and betel. However, this section does not prohibit use or possession by a pupil of his or her own prescription products.

(i) Committed an obscene act or engaged in habitual profanity or vulgarity.

(j) Unlawfully possessed or unlawfully offered, arranged, or negotiated to sell drug paraphernalia, as defined in Section 11014.5 of the Health and Safety Code.

(k) Disrupted school activities or otherwise willfully defied the valid authority of supervisors, teachers, administrators, school officials, or other school personnel engaged in the performance of their duties.

(l) Knowingly received stolen school property or private property.

(m) Possessed an imitation firearm. As used in this section, “imitation firearm” means a replica of a firearm that is so substantially similar in physical properties to an existing firearm as to lead a reasonable person to conclude that the replica is a firearm.

(n) Committed or attempted to commit a sexual assault as defined in Section 261, 266c, 286, 288, 288a, or 289 of the Penal Code or committed a sexual battery as defined in Section 243.4 of the Penal Code.

(o) Harassed, threatened, or intimidated a pupil who is a complaining witness or a witness in a school disciplinary proceeding for purposes of either preventing that pupil from being a witness or retaliating against that pupil for being a witness, or both.

(p) Unlawfully offered, arranged to sell, negotiated to sell, or sold the prescription drug Soma.

(q) Engaged in, or attempted to engage in, hazing. For purposes of this subdivision, “hazing” means a method of initiation or preinitiation into a pupil organization or body, whether or not the organization or body is officially recognized by an educational institution, which is likely to cause serious bodily injury or personal degradation or disgrace resulting in physical or mental harm to a former, current, or prospective pupil. For purposes of this subdivision, “hazing” does not include athletic events or school-sanctioned events.

(r) Engaged in an act of bullying. For purposes of this subdivision, the following terms have the following meanings:

(1)  “Bullying” means any severe or pervasive physical or verbal act or conduct, including communications made in writing or by means of an electronic act, and including one or more acts committed by a pupil or group of pupils as defined in Section 48900.2, 48900.3, or 48900.4, directed toward one or more pupils that has or can be reasonably predicted to have the effect of one or more of the following:

(A) Placing a reasonable pupil or pupils in fear of harm to that pupil’s or those pupils’ person or property.

(B) Causing a reasonable pupil to experience a substantially detrimental effect on his or her physical or mental health.

(C) Causing a reasonable pupil to experience substantial interference with his or her academic performance.

(D) Causing a reasonable pupil to experience substantial interference with his or her ability to participate in or benefit from the services, activities, or privileges provided by a school.

(2) (A) “Electronic act” means the creation and transmission originated on or off the schoolsite, by means of an electronic device, including, but not limited to, a telephone, wireless telephone, or other wireless communication device, computer, or pager, of a communication, including, but not limited to, any of the following:

(i) A message, text, sound, or image.

(ii) A post on a social network Internet Web site, including, but not limited to:

(I) Posting to or creating a burn page. “Burn page” means an Internet Web site created for the purpose of having one or more of the effects listed in paragraph (1).

(II) Creating a credible impersonation of another actual pupil for the purpose of having one or more of the effects listed in paragraph (1). “Credible impersonation” means to knowingly and without consent impersonate a pupil for the purpose of bullying the pupil and such that another pupil would reasonably believe, or has reasonably believed, that the pupil was or is the pupil who was impersonated.

(III) Creating a false profile for the purpose of having one or more of the effects listed in paragraph (1). “False profile” means a profile of a fictitious pupil or a profile using the likeness or attributes of an actual pupil other than the pupil who created the false profile.

(B) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) and subparagraph (A), an electronic act shall not constitute pervasive conduct solely on the basis that it has been transmitted on the Internet or is currently posted on the Internet.

(3) “Reasonable pupil” means a pupil, including, but not limited to, an exceptional needs pupil, who exercises average care, skill, and judgment in conduct for a person of his or her age, or for a person of his or her age with his or her exceptional needs.

(s) A pupil shall not be suspended or expelled for any of the acts enumerated in this section unless the act is related to a school activity or school attendance occurring within a school under the jurisdiction of the superintendent of the school district or principal or occurring within any other school district. A pupil may be suspended or expelled for acts that are enumerated in this section and related to a school activity or school attendance that occur at any time, including, but not limited to, any of the following:

(1) While on school grounds.

(2) While going to or coming from school.

(3) During the lunch period whether on or off the campus.

(4) During, or while going to or coming from, a school-sponsored activity.

(t) A pupil who aids or abets, as defined in Section 31 of the Penal Code, the infliction or attempted infliction of physical injury to another person may be subject to suspension, but not expulsion, pursuant to this section, except that a pupil who has been adjudged by a juvenile court to have committed, as an aider and abettor, a crime of physical violence in which the victim suffered great bodily injury or serious bodily injury shall be subject to discipline pursuant to subdivision (a).

(u) As used in this section, “school property” includes, but is not limited to, electronic files and databases.

(v) For a pupil subject to discipline under this section, a superintendent of the school district or principal may use his or her discretion to provide alternatives to suspension or expulsion that are age appropriate and designed to address and correct the pupil’s specific misbehavior as specified in Section 48900.5.

(w) It is the intent of the Legislature that alternatives to suspension or expulsion be imposed against a pupil who is truant, tardy, or otherwise absent from school activities.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 700, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2014.)

48900.1.
  

(a) The governing board of each school district may adopt a policy authorizing teachers to require the parent or guardian of a pupil who has been suspended by a teacher pursuant to Section 48910 for reasons specified in subdivision (i) or (k) of Section 48900, to attend a portion of a schoolday in the classroom of his or her child or ward. The policy shall take into account reasonable factors that may prevent compliance with a notice to attend. The attendance of the parent or guardian shall be limited to the class from which the pupil was suspended.

(b) The policy shall be adopted pursuant to the procedures set forth in Sections 35291 and 35291.5. Parents and guardians shall be notified of this policy prior to its implementation. A teacher shall apply any policy adopted pursuant to this section uniformly to all pupils within the classroom.

The adopted policy shall include the procedures that the district will follow to accomplish the following:

(1) Ensure that parents or guardians who attend school for the purposes of this section meet with the school administrator or his or her designee after completing the classroom visitation and before leaving the schoolsite.

(2) Contact parents or guardians who do not respond to the request to attend school pursuant to this section.

(c) If a teacher imposes the procedure pursuant to subdivision (a), the principal shall send a written notice to the parent or guardian stating that attendance by the parent or guardian is pursuant to law. This section shall apply only to a parent or guardian who is actually living with the pupil.

(d) A parent or guardian who has received a written notice pursuant to subdivision (c) shall attend class as specified in the written notice. The notice may specify that the attendance of the parent or guardian be on the day the pupil is scheduled to return to class, or within a reasonable period of time thereafter, as established by the policy of the board adopted pursuant to subdivision (a).

(Amended by Stats. 2004, Ch. 895, Sec. 9. Effective January 1, 2005.)

48900.2.
  

In addition to the reasons specified in Section 48900, a pupil may be suspended from school or recommended for expulsion if the superintendent or the principal of the school in which the pupil is enrolled determines that the pupil has committed sexual harassment as defined in Section 212.5.

For the purposes of this chapter, the conduct described in Section 212.5 must be considered by a reasonable person of the same gender as the victim to be sufficiently severe or pervasive to have a negative impact upon the individual’s academic performance or to create an intimidating, hostile, or offensive educational environment. This section shall not apply to pupils enrolled in kindergarten and grades 1 to 3, inclusive.

(Added by Stats. 1992, Ch. 909, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1993.)

48900.3.
  

In addition to the reasons set forth in Sections 48900 and 48900.2, a pupil in any of grades 4 to 12, inclusive, may be suspended from school or recommended for expulsion if the superintendent or the principal of the school in which the pupil is enrolled determines that the pupil has caused, attempted to cause, threatened to cause, or participated in an act of, hate violence, as defined in subdivision (e) of Section 233.

(Amended by Stats. 1999, Ch. 646, Sec. 25. Effective January 1, 2000.)

48900.4.
  

In addition to the grounds specified in Sections 48900 and 48900.2, a pupil enrolled in any of grades 4 to 12, inclusive, may be suspended from school or recommended for expulsion if the superintendent or the principal of the school in which the pupil is enrolled determines that the pupil has intentionally engaged in harassment, threats, or intimidation, directed against school district personnel or pupils, that is sufficiently severe or pervasive to have the actual and reasonably expected effect of materially disrupting classwork, creating substantial disorder, and invading the rights of either school personnel or pupils by creating an intimidating or hostile educational environment.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 643, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2003.)

48900.5.
  

(a) Suspension, including supervised suspension as described in Section 48911.1, shall be imposed only when other means of correction fail to bring about proper conduct. A school district may document the other means of correction used and place that documentation in the pupil’s record, which may be accessed pursuant to Section 49069. However, a pupil, including an individual with exceptional needs, as defined in Section 56026, may be suspended, subject to Section 1415 of Title 20 of the United States Code, for any of the reasons enumerated in Section 48900 upon a first offense, if the principal or superintendent of schools determines that the pupil violated subdivision (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e) of Section 48900 or that the pupil’s presence causes a danger to persons.

(b) Other means of correction include, but are not limited to, the following:

(1) A conference between school personnel, the pupil’s parent or guardian, and the pupil.

(2) Referrals to the school counselor, psychologist, social worker, child welfare attendance personnel, or other school support service personnel for case management and counseling.

(3) Study teams, guidance teams, resource panel teams, or other intervention-related teams that assess the behavior, and develop and implement individualized plans to address the behavior in partnership with the pupil and his or her parents.

(4) Referral for a comprehensive psychosocial or psychoeducational assessment, including for purposes of creating an individualized education program, or a plan adopted pursuant to Section 504 of the federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. Sec. 794(a)).

(5) Enrollment in a program for teaching prosocial behavior or anger management.

(6) Participation in a restorative justice program.

(7) A positive behavior support approach with tiered interventions that occur during the schoolday on campus.

(8) After-school programs that address specific behavioral issues or expose pupils to positive activities and behaviors, including, but not limited to, those operated in collaboration with local parent and community groups.

(9) Any of the alternatives described in Section 48900.6.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 425, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2013.)

48900.6.
  

As part of or instead of disciplinary action prescribed by this article, the principal of a school, the principal’s designee, the superintendent of schools, or the governing board may require a pupil to perform community service on school grounds or, with written permission of the parent or guardian of the pupil, off school grounds, during the pupil’s nonschool hours. For the purposes of this section, “community service” may include, but is not limited to, work performed in the community or on school grounds in the areas of outdoor beautification, community or campus betterment, and teacher, peer, or youth assistance programs. This section does not apply if a pupil has been suspended, pending expulsion, pursuant to Section 48915. However, this section applies if the recommended expulsion is not implemented or is, itself, suspended by stipulation or other administrative action.

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 972) by Stats. 2000, Ch. 225, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2001.)

48900.7.
  

(a) In addition to the reasons specified in Sections 48900, 48900.2, 48900.3, and 48900.4, a pupil may be suspended from school or recommended for expulsion if the superintendent or the principal of the school in which the pupil is enrolled determines that the pupil has made terroristic threats against school officials or school property, or both.

(b) For the purposes of this section, “terroristic threat” shall include any statement, whether written or oral, by a person who willfully threatens to commit a crime which will result in death, great bodily injury to another person, or property damage in excess of one thousand dollars ($1,000), with the specific intent that the statement is to be taken as a threat, even if there is no intent of actually carrying it out, which, on its face and under the circumstances in which it is made, is so unequivocal, unconditional, immediate, and specific as to convey to the person threatened, a gravity of purpose and an immediate prospect of execution of the threat, and thereby causes that person reasonably to be in sustained fear for his or her own safety or for his or her immediate family’s safety, or for the protection of school district property, or the personal property of the person threatened or his or her immediate family.

(Added by Stats. 1997, Ch. 405, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1998.)

48900.8.
  

For purposes of notification to parents, and for the reporting of expulsion or suspension offenses to the department, each school district shall specifically identify, by offense committed, in all appropriate official records of a pupil each suspension or expulsion of that pupil for the commission of any of the offenses set forth in Section 48900, 48900.2, 48900.3, 48900.4, 48900.7, or 48915.

(Amended by Stats. 2005, Ch. 677, Sec. 33. Effective October 7, 2005.)

48901.
  

(a)  No school shall permit the smoking or use of tobacco, or any product containing tobacco or nicotine products, by pupils of the school while the pupils are on campus, or while attending school-sponsored activities or while under the supervision and control of school district employees.

(b) The governing board of any school district maintaining a high school shall take all steps it deems practical to discourage high school students from smoking.

(Amended by Stats. 1986, Ch. 1136, Sec. 2.)

48901.5.
  

(a) The governing board of each school district, or its designee, may regulate the possession or use of any electronic signaling device that operates through the transmission or receipt of radio waves, including, but not limited to, paging and signaling equipment, by pupils of the school district while the pupils are on campus, while attending school-sponsored activities, or while under the supervision and control of school district employees.

(b) No pupil shall be prohibited from possessing or using an electronic signaling device that is determined by a licensed physician and surgeon to be essential for the health of the pupil and use of which is limited to purposes related to the health of the pupil.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 253, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2003.)

48902.
  

(a) The principal of a school or the principal’s designee shall, before the suspension or expulsion of any pupil, notify the appropriate law enforcement authorities of the county or city in which the school is situated, of any acts of the pupil that may violate Section 245 of the Penal Code.

(b) The principal of a school or the principal’s designee shall, within one schoolday after suspension or expulsion of any pupil, notify, by telephone or any other appropriate method chosen by the school, the appropriate law enforcement authorities of the county or the school district in which the school is situated of any acts of the pupil that may violate subdivision (c) or (d) of Section 48900.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (b), the principal of a school or the principal’s designee shall notify the appropriate law enforcement authorities of the county or city in which the school is located of any acts of a pupil that may involve the possession or sale of narcotics or of a controlled substance or a violation of Section 626.9 or 626.10 of the Penal Code. The principal of a school or the principal’s designee shall report any act specified in paragraph (1) or (5) of subdivision (c) of Section 48915 committed by a pupil or nonpupil on a schoolsite to the city police or county sheriff with jurisdiction over the school and the school security department or the school police department, as applicable.

(d) A principal, the principal’s designee, or any other person reporting a known or suspected act described in subdivision (a) or (b) is not civilly or criminally liable as a result of making any report authorized by this article unless it can be proven that a false report was made and that the person knew the report was false or the report was made with reckless disregard for the truth or falsity of the report.

(e) The principal of a school or the principal’s designee reporting a criminal act committed by a schoolage individual with exceptional needs, as defined in Section 56026, shall ensure that copies of the special education and disciplinary records of the pupil are transmitted, as described in Section 1415(k)(6) of Title 20 of the United States Code, for consideration by the appropriate authorities to whom he or she reports the criminal act. Any copies of the pupil’s special education and disciplinary records may be transmitted only to the extent permissible under the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g et seq.).

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 76, Sec. 41. Effective January 1, 2014.)

48903.
  

(a) Except as provided in subdivision (g) of Section 48911 and in Section 48912, the total number of days for which a pupil may be suspended from school shall not exceed 20 schooldays in any school year, unless for purposes of adjustment, a pupil enrolls in or is transferred to another regular school, an opportunity school or class, or a continuation education school or class, in which case the total number of schooldays for which the pupil may be suspended shall not exceed 30 days in any school year.

(b) For the purposes of this section, a school district may count suspensions that occur while a pupil is enrolled in another school district toward the maximum number of days for which a pupil may be suspended in any school year.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 527, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1999.)

48904.
  

(a) (1) Notwithstanding Section 1714.1 of the Civil Code, the parent or guardian of any minor whose willful misconduct results in injury or death to any pupil or any person employed by, or performing volunteer services for, a school district or private school or who willfully cuts, defaces, or otherwise injures in any way any property, real or personal, belonging to a school district or private school, or personal property of any school employee, shall be liable for all damages so caused by the minor. The liability of the parent or guardian shall not exceed ten thousand dollars ($10,000), adjusted annually for inflation. The parent or guardian shall be liable also for the amount of any reward not exceeding ten thousand dollars ($10,000), adjusted annually for inflation, paid pursuant to Section 53069.5 of the Government Code. The parent or guardian of a minor shall be liable to a school district or private school for all property belonging to the school district or private school loaned to the minor and not returned upon demand of an employee of the school district or private school authorized to make the demand.

(2) The Superintendent annually shall compute an adjustment of the liability limits prescribed by this subdivision to reflect the percentage change in the average annual value of the Implicit Price Deflator for State and Local Government Purchases of Goods and Services for the United States, as published by the United States Department of Commerce for the 12-month period ending in the prior fiscal year. The annual adjustment shall be rounded to the nearest one hundred dollars ($100).

(b) (1) Any school district or private school whose real or personal property has been willfully cut, defaced, or otherwise injured, or whose property is loaned to a pupil and willfully not returned upon demand of an employee of the school district or private school authorized to make the demand may, after affording the pupil his or her due process rights, withhold the grades, diploma, and transcripts of the pupil responsible for the damage until the pupil or the pupil’s parent or guardian has paid for the damages thereto, as provided in subdivision (a).

(2) The school district or private school shall notify the parent or guardian of the pupil in writing of the pupil’s alleged misconduct before withholding the pupil’s grades, diploma, or transcripts pursuant to this subdivision. When the minor and parent are unable to pay for the damages, or to return the property, the school district or private school shall provide a program of voluntary work for the minor in lieu of the payment of monetary damages. Upon completion of the voluntary work, the grades, diploma, and transcripts of the pupil shall be released.

(3) The governing board of each school district or governing body of each private school shall establish rules and regulations governing procedures for the implementation of this subdivision. The procedures shall conform to, but are not necessarily limited to, those procedures established in this code for the expulsion of pupils.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 589, Sec. 10. Effective January 1, 2013.)

48904.3.
  

(a) Upon receiving notice that a school district has withheld the grades, diploma, or transcripts of any pupil pursuant to Section 48904, any school district to which the pupil has transferred shall likewise withhold the grades, diploma, or transcripts of the pupil as authorized by that section, until the time that it receives notice, from the district that initiated the decision to withhold, that the decision has been rescinded under the terms of that section.

(b) Any school district that has decided to withhold a pupil’s grades, diploma, or transcripts pursuant to Section 48904 shall, upon receiving notice that the pupil has transferred to any school district in this state, notify the parent or guardian of the pupil in writing that the decision to withhold will be enforced as specified in subdivision (a).

(c) For purposes of this section and Section 48904, “school district” is defined to include any county superintendent of schools.

(d) This section and Section 48904 shall also apply to the state special schools, as described in subdivision (a) of Section 48927.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 492, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2003.)

48905.
  

An employee of a school district whose person or property is injured or damaged by the willful misconduct of a pupil who attends school in such district, when the employee or the employee’s property is (1) located on property owned by the district, (2) being transported to or from an activity sponsored by the district or a school within the district, (3) present at an activity sponsored by such district or school, or (4) otherwise injured or damaged in retaliation for acts lawfully undertaken by the employee in execution of the employee’s duties, may request the school district to pursue legal action against the pupil who caused the injury or damage, or the pupil’s parent or guardian pursuant to Section 48904.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1983, Ch. 498, Sec. 91. Effective July 28, 1983.)

48906.
  

When a principal or other school official releases a minor pupil to a peace officer for the purpose of removing the minor from the school premises, the school official shall take immediate steps to notify the parent, guardian, or responsible relative of the minor regarding the release of the minor to the officer, and regarding the place to which the minor is reportedly being taken, except when a minor has been taken into custody as a victim of suspected child abuse, as defined in Section 11165.6 of the Penal Code, or pursuant to Section 305 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. In those cases, the school official shall provide the peace officer with the address and telephone number of the minor’s parent or guardian. The peace officer shall take immediate steps to notify the parent, guardian, or responsible relative of the minor that the minor is in custody and the place where he or she is being held. If the officer has a reasonable belief that the minor would be endangered by a disclosure of the place where the minor is being held, or that the disclosure would cause the custody of the minor to be disturbed, the officer may refuse to disclose the place where the minor is being held for a period not to exceed 24 hours. The officer shall, however, inform the parent, guardian, or responsible relative whether the child requires and is receiving medical or other treatment. The juvenile court shall review any decision not to disclose the place where the minor is being held at a subsequent detention hearing.

(Amended by Stats. 2005, Ch. 279, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2006.)

48907.
  

(a) Pupils of the public schools, including charter schools, shall have the right to exercise freedom of speech and of the press including, but not limited to, the use of bulletin boards, the distribution of printed materials or petitions, the wearing of buttons, badges, and other insignia, and the right of expression in official publications, whether or not the publications or other means of expression are supported financially by the school or by use of school facilities, except that expression shall be prohibited which is obscene, libelous, or slanderous. Also prohibited shall be material that so incites pupils as to create a clear and present danger of the commission of unlawful acts on school premises or the violation of lawful school regulations, or the substantial disruption of the orderly operation of the school.

(b) The governing board or body of each school district or charter school and each county board of education shall adopt rules and regulations in the form of a written publications code, which shall include reasonable provisions for the time, place, and manner of conducting such activities within its respective jurisdiction.

(c) Pupil editors of official school publications shall be responsible for assigning and editing the news, editorial, and feature content of their publications subject to the limitations of this section. However, it shall be the responsibility of a journalism adviser or advisers of pupil publications within each school to supervise the production of the pupil staff, to maintain professional standards of English and journalism, and to maintain the provisions of this section.

(d) There shall be no prior restraint of material prepared for official school publications except insofar as it violates this section. School officials shall have the burden of showing justification without undue delay prior to a limitation of pupil expression under this section.

(e) “Official school publications” refers to material produced by pupils in the journalism, newspaper, yearbook, or writing classes and distributed to the student body either free or for a fee.

(f) This section does not prohibit or prevent the governing board or body of a school district or charter school from adopting otherwise valid rules and regulations relating to oral communication by pupils upon the premises of each school.

(g) An employee shall not be dismissed, suspended, disciplined, reassigned, transferred, or otherwise retaliated against solely for acting to protect a pupil engaged in the conduct authorized under this section, or refusing to infringe upon conduct that is protected by this section, the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, or Section 2 of Article I of the California Constitution.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 142, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2011.)

48908.
  

All pupils shall comply with the regulations, pursue the required course of study, and submit to the authority of the teachers of the schools.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1983, Ch. 498, Sec. 91. Effective July 28, 1983.)

48909.
  

When a petition is requested in juvenile court or a complaint is filed in any court alleging that a minor of compulsory school attendance age or any pupil currently enrolled in a public school in a grade to and including grade 12 is a person who (a) has used, sold, or possessed narcotics or other hallucinogenic drugs or substances; (b) has inhaled or breathed the fumes of, or ingested any poison classified as such in Section 4160 of the Business and Professions Code; or (c) has committed felonious assault, homicide, or rape the district attorney may, within 48 hours, provide written notice to the superintendent of the school district of attendance, notwithstanding the provisions of Section 827 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, and to the pupil’s parent or guardian.

(Amended by Stats. 1991, Ch. 1202, Sec. 1.)

48910.
  

(a) A teacher may suspend any pupil from class, for any of the acts enumerated in Section 48900, for the day of the suspension and the day following. The teacher shall immediately report the suspension to the principal of the school and send the pupil to the principal or the designee of the principal for appropriate action. If that action requires the continued presence of the pupil at the schoolsite, the pupil shall be under appropriate supervision, as defined in policies and related regulations adopted by the governing board of the school district. As soon as possible, the teacher shall ask the parent or guardian of the pupil to attend a parent-teacher conference regarding the suspension. If practicable, a school counselor or a school psychologist may attend the conference. A school administrator shall attend the conference if the teacher or the parent or guardian so requests. The pupil shall not be returned to the class from which he or she was suspended, during the period of the suspension, without the concurrence of the teacher of the class and the principal.

(b) A pupil suspended from a class shall not be placed in another regular class during the period of suspension. However, if the pupil is assigned to more than one class per day this subdivision shall apply only to other regular classes scheduled at the same time as the class from which the pupil was suspended.

(c) A teacher may also refer a pupil, for any of the acts enumerated in Section 48900, to the principal or the designee of the principal for consideration of a suspension from the school.

(Amended by Stats. 2004, Ch. 895, Sec. 10. Effective January 1, 2005.)

48911.
  

(a) The principal of the school, the principal’s designee, or the district superintendent of schools may suspend a pupil from the school for any of the reasons enumerated in Section 48900, and pursuant to Section 48900.5, for no more than five consecutive schooldays.

(b) Suspension by the principal, the principal’s designee, or the district superintendent of schools shall be preceded by an informal conference conducted by the principal, the principal’s designee, or the district superintendent of schools between the pupil and, whenever practicable, the teacher, supervisor, or school employee who referred the pupil to the principal, the principal’s designee, or the district superintendent of schools. At the conference, the pupil shall be informed of the reason for the disciplinary action and the evidence against him or her, and shall be given the opportunity to present his or her version and evidence in his or her defense.

(c) A principal, the principal’s designee, or the district superintendent of schools may suspend a pupil without affording the pupil an opportunity for a conference only if the principal, the principal’s designee, or the district superintendent of schools determines that an emergency situation exists. “Emergency situation,” as used in this article, means a situation determined by the principal, the principal’s designee, or the district superintendent of schools to constitute a clear and present danger to the life, safety, or health of pupils or school personnel. If a pupil is suspended without a conference before suspension, both the parent and the pupil shall be notified of the pupil’s right to a conference and the pupil’s right to return to school for the purpose of a conference. The conference shall be held within two schooldays, unless the pupil waives this right or is physically unable to attend for any reason, including, but not limited to, incarceration or hospitalization. The conference shall then be held as soon as the pupil is physically able to return to school for the conference.

(d) At the time of suspension, a school employee shall make a reasonable effort to contact the pupil’s parent or guardian in person or by telephone. If a pupil is suspended from school, the parent or guardian shall be notified in writing of the suspension.

(e) A school employee shall report the suspension of the pupil, including the cause for the suspension, to the governing board of the school district or to the district superintendent of schools in accordance with the regulations of the governing board of the school district.

(f) The parent or guardian of a pupil shall respond without delay to a request from school officials to attend a conference regarding his or her child’s behavior.

No penalties shall be imposed on a pupil for failure of the pupil’s parent or guardian to attend a conference with school officials. Reinstatement of the suspended pupil shall not be contingent upon attendance by the pupil’s parent or guardian at the conference.

(g) In a case where expulsion from a school or suspension for the balance of the semester from continuation school is being processed by the governing board of the school district, the district superintendent of schools or other person designated by the district superintendent of schools in writing may extend the suspension until the governing board of the school district has rendered a decision in the action. However, an extension may be granted only if the district superintendent of schools or the district superintendent’s designee has determined, following a meeting in which the pupil and the pupil’s parent or guardian are invited to participate, that the presence of the pupil at the school or in an alternative school placement would cause a danger to persons or property or a threat of disrupting the instructional process. If the pupil is a foster child, as defined in Section 48853.5, the district superintendent of schools or the district superintendent’s designee, including, but not limited to, the educational liaison for the school district, shall also invite the pupil’s attorney and an appropriate representative of the county child welfare agency to participate in the meeting. If the pupil or the pupil’s parent or guardian has requested a meeting to challenge the original suspension pursuant to Section 48914, the purpose of the meeting shall be to decide upon the extension of the suspension order under this section and may be held in conjunction with the initial meeting on the merits of the suspension.

(h) For purposes of this section, a “principal’s designee” is one or more administrators at the schoolsite specifically designated by the principal, in writing, to assist with disciplinary procedures.

In the event that there is not an administrator in addition to the principal at the schoolsite, a certificated person at the schoolsite may be specifically designated by the principal, in writing, as a “principal’s designee,” to assist with disciplinary procedures. The principal may designate only one person at a time as the principal’s primary designee for the school year.

An additional person meeting the requirements of this subdivision may be designated by the principal, in writing, to act for purposes of this article when both the principal and the principal’s primary designee are absent from the schoolsite. The name of the person, and the names of any person or persons designated as “principal’s designee,” shall be on file in the principal’s office.

This section is not an exception to, nor does it place any limitation on, Section 48903.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 76, Sec. 42. Effective January 1, 2014.)

48911.1.
  

(a) A pupil suspended from a school for any of the reasons enumerated in Sections 48900 and 48900.2 may be assigned, by the principal or the principal’s designee, to a supervised suspension classroom for the entire period of suspension if the pupil poses no imminent danger or threat to the campus, pupils, or staff, or if an action to expel the pupil has not been initiated.

(b) Pupils assigned to a supervised suspension classroom shall be separated from other pupils at the schoolsite for the period of suspension in a separate classroom, building, or site for pupils under suspension.

(c) School districts may continue to claim apportionments for each pupil assigned to and attending a supervised suspension classroom provided as follows:

(1) The supervised suspension classroom is staffed as otherwise provided by law.

(2) Each pupil has access to appropriate counseling services.

(3) The supervised suspension classroom promotes completion of schoolwork and tests missed by the pupil during the suspension.

(4) Each pupil is responsible for contacting his or her teacher or teachers to receive assignments to be completed while the pupil is assigned to the supervised suspension classroom. The teacher shall provide all assignments and tests that the pupil will miss while suspended. If no classroom work is assigned, the person supervising the suspension classroom shall assign schoolwork.

(d) At the time a pupil is assigned to a supervised suspension classroom, a school employee shall notify, in person or by telephone, the pupil’s parent or guardian. Whenever a pupil is assigned to a supervised suspension classroom for longer than one class period, a school employee shall notify, in writing, the pupil’s parent or guardian.

(e) This section does not place any limitation on a school district’s ability to transfer a pupil to an opportunity school or class or a continuation education school or class.

(f) Apportionments claimed by a school district for pupils assigned to supervised suspension shall be used specifically to mitigate the cost of implementing this section.

(Added by Stats. 1994, Ch. 1016, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 1995.)

48911.2.
  

(a) If the number of pupils suspended from school during the prior school year exceeded 30 percent of the school’s enrollment, the school should consider doing at least one of the following:

(1) Implement the supervised suspension program described in Section 48911.1.

(2) Implement an alternative to the school’s off-campus suspension program, which involves a progressive discipline approach that occurs during the schoolday on campus, using any of the following activities:

(A) Conferences between the school staff, parents, and pupils.

(B) Referral to the school counselor, psychologist, child welfare attendance personnel, or other school support service staff.

(C) Detention.

(D) Study teams, guidance teams, resource panel teams, or other assessment-related teams.

(b) At the end of the academic year, the school may report to the district superintendent in charge of school support services, or other comparable administrator if that position does not exist, on the rate of reduction in the school’s off-campus suspensions and the plan or activities used to comply with subdivision (a).

(c) It is the intent of the Legislature to encourage schools that choose to implement this section to examine alternatives to off-campus suspensions that lead to resolution of pupil misconduct without sending pupils off campus. Schools that use this section should not be precluded from suspending pupils to an off-campus site.

(Added by Stats. 1994, Ch. 1016, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 1995.)

48911.5.
  

The site principal of a contracting nonpublic, nonsectarian school providing services to individuals with exceptional needs under Sections 56365 and 56366, shall have the same duties and responsibilities with respect to the suspension of pupils with previously identified exceptional needs prescribed for the suspension of pupils under Section 48911.

(Added by Stats. 1985, Ch. 907, Sec. 3. Effective September 23, 1985.)

48912.
  

(a) The governing board may suspend a pupil from school for any of the acts enumerated in Section 48900 for any number of schooldays within the limits prescribed by Section 48903.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 35145 of this code and Section 54950 of the Government Code, the governing board of a school district shall, unless a request has been made to the contrary, hold closed sessions if the board is considering the suspension of, disciplinary action against, or any other action against, except expulsion, any pupil, if a public hearing upon that question would lead to the giving out of information concerning a school pupil which would be in violation of Article 5 (commencing with Section 49073) of Chapter 6.5.

(c) Before calling a closed session to consider these matters, the governing board shall, in writing, by registered or certified mail or by personal service, notify the pupil and the pupil’s parent or guardian, or the pupil if the pupil is an adult, of the intent of the governing board to call and hold a closed session. Unless the pupil or the pupil’s parent or guardian shall, in writing, within 48 hours after receipt of the written notice of the board’s intention, request that the hearing be held as a public meeting, the hearing to consider these matters shall be conducted by the governing board in closed session. In the event that a written request is served upon the clerk or secretary of the governing board, the meeting shall be public, except that any discussion at that meeting which may be in conflict with the right to privacy of any pupil other than the pupil requesting the public meeting, shall be in closed session.

(Amended by Stats. 1992, Ch. 1360, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 1993.)

48912.5.
  

The governing board of a school district may suspend a pupil enrolled in a continuation school or class for a period not longer than the remainder of the semester if any of the acts enumerated in Section 48900 occurred. The suspension shall meet the requirements of Section 48915.

(Added by Stats. 1983, Ch. 498, Sec. 91. Effective July 28, 1983.)

48913.
  

The teacher of any class from which a pupil is suspended may require the suspended pupil to complete any assignments and tests missed during the suspension.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1983, Ch. 498, Sec. 91. Effective July 28, 1983.)

48914.
  

Each school district is authorized to establish a policy that permits school officials to conduct a meeting with the parent or guardian of a suspended pupil to discuss the causes, the duration, the school policy involved, and other matters pertinent to the suspension.

(Amended by Stats. 1987, Ch. 134, Sec. 6. Effective July 7, 1987.)

48915.
  

(a) (1) Except as provided in subdivisions (c) and (e), the principal or the superintendent of schools shall recommend the expulsion of a pupil for any of the following acts committed at school or at a school activity off school grounds, unless the principal or superintendent determines that expulsion should not be recommended under the circumstances or that an alternative means of correction would address the conduct:

(A) Causing serious physical injury to another person, except in self-defense.

(B) Possession of any knife or other dangerous object of no reasonable use to the pupil.

(C) Unlawful possession of any controlled substance listed in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 11053) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code, except for either of the following:

(i) The first offense for the possession of not more than one avoirdupois ounce of marijuana, other than concentrated cannabis.

(ii) The possession of over-the-counter medication for use by the pupil for medical purposes or medication prescribed for the pupil by a physician.

(D) Robbery or extortion.

(E) Assault or battery, as defined in Sections 240 and 242 of the Penal Code, upon any school employee.

(2) If the principal or the superintendent of schools makes a determination as described in paragraph (1), he or she is encouraged to do so as quickly as possible to ensure that the pupil does not lose instructional time.

(b) Upon recommendation by the principal or the superintendent of schools, or by a hearing officer or administrative panel appointed pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 48918, the governing board of a school district may order a pupil expelled upon finding that the pupil committed an act listed in paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) or in subdivision (a), (b), (c), (d), or (e) of Section 48900. A decision to expel a pupil for any of those acts shall be based on a finding of one or both of the following:

(1) Other means of correction are not feasible or have repeatedly failed to bring about proper conduct.

(2) Due to the nature of the act, the presence of the pupil causes a continuing danger to the physical safety of the pupil or others.

(c) The principal or superintendent of schools shall immediately suspend, pursuant to Section 48911, and shall recommend expulsion of a pupil that he or she determines has committed any of the following acts at school or at a school activity off school grounds:

(1) Possessing, selling, or otherwise furnishing a firearm. This subdivision does not apply to an act of possessing a firearm if the pupil had obtained prior written permission to possess the firearm from a certificated school employee, which is concurred in by the principal or the designee of the principal. This subdivision applies to an act of possessing a firearm only if the possession is verified by an employee of a school district. The act of possessing an imitation firearm, as defined in subdivision (m) of Section 48900, is not an offense for which suspension or expulsion is mandatory pursuant to this subdivision and subdivision (d), but it is an offense for which suspension, or expulsion pursuant to subdivision (e), may be imposed.

(2) Brandishing a knife at another person.

(3) Unlawfully selling a controlled substance listed in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 11053) of Division 10 of the Health and Safety Code.

(4) Committing or attempting to commit a sexual assault as defined in subdivision (n) of Section 48900 or committing a sexual battery as defined in subdivision (n) of Section 48900.

(5) Possession of an explosive.

(d) The governing board of a school district shall order a pupil expelled upon finding that the pupil committed an act listed in subdivision (c), and shall refer that pupil to a program of study that meets all of the following conditions:

(1) Is appropriately prepared to accommodate pupils who exhibit discipline problems.

(2) Is not provided at a comprehensive middle, junior, or senior high school, or at any elementary school.

(3) Is not housed at the schoolsite attended by the pupil at the time of suspension.

(e) Upon recommendation by the principal or the superintendent of schools, or by a hearing officer or administrative panel appointed pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 48918, the governing board of a school district may order a pupil expelled upon finding that the pupil, at school or at a school activity off of school grounds violated subdivision (f), (g), (h), (i), (j), (k), (l), or (m) of Section 48900, or Section 48900.2, 48900.3, or 48900.4, and either of the following:

(1) That other means of correction are not feasible or have repeatedly failed to bring about proper conduct.

(2) That due to the nature of the violation, the presence of the pupil causes a continuing danger to the physical safety of the pupil or others.

(f) The governing board of a school district shall refer a pupil who has been expelled pursuant to subdivision (b) or (e) to a program of study that meets all of the conditions specified in subdivision (d). Notwithstanding this subdivision, with respect to a pupil expelled pursuant to subdivision (e), if the county superintendent of schools certifies that an alternative program of study is not available at a site away from a comprehensive middle, junior, or senior high school, or an elementary school, and that the only option for placement is at another comprehensive middle, junior, or senior high school, or another elementary school, the pupil may be referred to a program of study that is provided at a comprehensive middle, junior, or senior high school, or at an elementary school.

(g) As used in this section, “knife” means any dirk, dagger, or other weapon with a fixed, sharpened blade fitted primarily for stabbing, a weapon with a blade fitted primarily for stabbing, a weapon with a blade longer than 31/2 inches, a folding knife with a blade that locks into place, or a razor with an unguarded blade.

(h) As used in this section, the term “explosive” means “destructive device” as described in Section 921 of Title 18 of the United States Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 431, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2013.)

48915.01.
  

If the governing board of a school district has established a community day school pursuant to Section 48661 on the same site as a comprehensive middle, junior, or senior high school, or at any elementary school, the governing board does not have to meet the condition in paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of Section 48915 when the board, pursuant to subdivision (f) of Section 48915, refers a pupil to a program of study and that program of study is at the community day school. All the other conditions of subdivision (d) of Section 48915 are applicable to the referral as required by subdivision (f) of Section 48915.

(Added by Stats. 1996, Ch. 937, Sec. 3. Effective September 26, 1996.)

48915.1.
  

(a) If the governing board of a school district receives a request from an individual who has been expelled from another school district for an act other than those described in subdivision (a) or (c) of Section 48915, for enrollment in a school maintained by the school district, the board shall hold a hearing to determine whether that individual poses a continuing danger either to the pupils or employees of the school district. The hearing and notice shall be conducted in accordance with the rules and regulations governing procedures for the expulsion of pupils as described in Section 48918. A school district may request information from another school district regarding a recommendation for expulsion or the expulsion of an applicant for enrollment. The school district receiving the request shall respond to the request with all deliberate speed but shall respond no later than five working days from the date of the receipt of the request.

(b) If a pupil has been expelled from his or her previous school for an act other than those listed in subdivision (a) or (c) of Section 48915, the parent, guardian, or pupil, if the pupil is emancipated or otherwise legally of age, shall, upon enrollment, inform the receiving school district of his or her status with the previous school district. If this information is not provided to the school district and the school district later determines the pupil was expelled from the previous school, the lack of compliance shall be recorded and discussed in the hearing required pursuant to subdivision (a).

(c) The governing board of a school district may make a determination to deny enrollment to an individual who has been expelled from another school district for an act other than those described in subdivision (a) or (c) of Section 48915, for the remainder of the expulsion period after a determination has been made, pursuant to a hearing, that the individual poses a potential danger to either the pupils or employees of the school district.

(d) The governing board of a school district, when making its determination whether to enroll an individual who has been expelled from another school district for these acts, may consider the following options:

(1) Deny enrollment.

(2) Permit enrollment.

(3) Permit conditional enrollment in a regular school program or another educational program.

(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the governing board of a school district, after a determination has been made, pursuant to a hearing, that an individual expelled from another school district for an act other than those described in subdivision (a) or (c) of Section 48915 does not pose a danger to either the pupils or employees of the school district, shall permit the individual to enroll in a school in the school district during the term of the expulsion, provided that he or she, subsequent to the expulsion, either has established legal residence in the school district, pursuant to Section 48200, or has enrolled in the school pursuant to an interdistrict agreement executed between the affected school districts pursuant to Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 46600).

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 937, Sec. 4. Effective September 26, 1996.)

48915.2.
  

(a) A pupil expelled from school for any of the offenses listed in subdivision (a) or (c) of Section 48915, shall not be permitted to enroll in any other school or school district during the period of expulsion unless it is a county community school pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 1981, or a juvenile court school, as described in Section 48645.1, or a community day school pursuant to Article 3 (commencing with Section 48660) of Chapter 4 of Part 27.

(b) After a determination has been made, pursuant to a hearing under Section 48918, that an individual expelled from another school district for any act described in subdivision (a) or (c) of Section 48915 does not pose a danger to either the pupils or employees of the school district, the governing board of a school district may permit the individual to enroll in the school district after the term of expulsion, subject to one of the following conditions:

(1) He or she has established legal residence in the school district, pursuant to Section 48200.

(2) He or she is enrolled in the school pursuant to an interdistrict agreement executed between the affected school districts pursuant to Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 46600) of Part 26.

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 974, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 1996. Operative July 1, 1996, by Sec. 9 of Ch. 974, which was amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 937.)

48915.5.
  

(a) An individual with exceptional needs, as defined in Section 56026, may be suspended or expelled from school in accordance with Section 1415(k) of Title 20 of the United States Code, the discipline provisions contained in Sections 300.530 to 300.537, inclusive, of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations, and other provisions of this part that do not conflict with federal law and regulations.

(b) A free appropriate public education for individuals with exceptional needs suspended or expelled from school shall be in accordance with Section 1412(a)(1) of Title 20 of the United States Code and Section 300.530(d) of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(c) If an individual with exceptional needs is excluded from schoolbus transportation, the pupil is entitled to be provided with an alternative form of transportation at no cost to the pupil or parent or guardian provided that transportation is specified in the pupil’s individualized education program.

(d) If the individual with exceptional needs is a foster child, as defined in Section 48853.5, and the local educational agency has proposed a change of placement due to an act for which a decision to recommend expulsion is at the discretion of the principal or the district superintendent of schools, the attorney for the individual with exceptional needs and an appropriate representative of the county child welfare agency shall be invited to participate in the individualized education program team meeting that makes a manifestation determination pursuant to Section 1415(k) of Title 20 of the United States Code. The invitation may be made using the most cost-effective method possible, which may include, but is not limited to, electronic mail or a telephone call.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 849, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 2013.)

48915.7.
  

It is the intent of the Legislature that where community school opportunities exist, the principal shall recommend for expulsion, and the governing board shall expel, any pupil who is found to be in possession of a firearm at school or at a school activity off school grounds and that the governing board shall request the county board of education to enroll the pupil in a community school.

(Added by Stats. 1993, Ch. 1256, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 1994.)

48916.
  

(a) An expulsion order shall remain in effect until the governing board, in the manner prescribed in this article, orders the readmission of a pupil. At the time an expulsion of a pupil is ordered for an act other than those described in subdivision (c) of Section 48915, the governing board shall set a date, not later than the last day of the semester following the semester in which the expulsion occurred, when the pupil shall be reviewed for readmission to a school maintained by the district or to the school the pupil last attended. If an expulsion is ordered during summer session or the intersession period of a year-round program the governing board shall set a date, not later than the last day of the semester following the summer session or intersession period in which the expulsion occurred, when the pupil shall be reviewed for readmission to a school maintained by the district or to the school the pupil last attended. For a pupil who has been expelled pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 48915, the governing board shall set a date of one year from the date the expulsion occurred, when the pupil shall be reviewed for readmission to a school maintained by the district, except that the governing board may set an earlier date for readmission on a case-by-case basis.

(b) The governing board shall recommend a plan of rehabilitation for the pupil at the time of the expulsion order, which may include, but not be limited to, periodic review as well as assessment at the time of review for readmission. The plan may also include recommendations for improved academic performance, tutoring, special education assessments, job training, counseling, employment, community service, or other rehabilitative programs.

(c) The governing board of each school district shall adopt rules and regulations establishing a procedure for the filing and processing of requests for readmission and the process for the required review of all expelled pupils for readmission. Upon completion of the readmission process, the governing board shall readmit the pupil, unless the governing board makes a finding that the pupil has not met the conditions of the rehabilitation plan or continues to pose a danger to campus safety or to other pupils or employees of the school district. A description of the procedure shall be made available to the pupil and the pupil’s parent or guardian at the time the expulsion order is entered.

(d) If the governing board denies the readmission of an expelled pupil pursuant to subdivision (c), the governing board shall make a determination either to continue the placement of the pupil in the alternative educational program initially selected for the pupil during the period of the expulsion order or to place the pupil in another program that may include, but need not be limited to, serving expelled pupils, including placement in a county community school.

(e) The governing board shall provide written notice to the expelled pupil and the pupil’s parent or guardian describing the reasons for denying the pupil readmittance into the regular school district program. The written notice shall also include the determination of the educational program for the expelled pupil pursuant to subdivision (d). The expelled pupil shall enroll in that educational program unless the parent or guardian of the pupil elects to enroll the pupil in another school district.

(Amended by Stats. 2003, Ch. 552, Sec. 22. Effective January 1, 2004.)

48916.1.
  

(a) At the time an expulsion of a pupil is ordered, the governing board of the school district shall ensure that an educational program is provided to the pupil who is subject to the expulsion order for the period of the expulsion. Except for pupils expelled pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 48915, the governing board of a school district is required to implement the provisions of this section only to the extent funds are appropriated for this purpose in the annual Budget Act or other legislation, or both.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any educational program provided pursuant to subdivision (a) may be operated by the school district, the county superintendent of schools, or a consortium of districts or in joint agreement with the county superintendent of schools.

(c) Any educational program provided pursuant to subdivision (b) may not be situated within or on the grounds of the school from which the pupil was expelled.

(d) If the pupil who is subject to the expulsion order was expelled from any of kindergarten or grades 1 to 6, inclusive, the educational program provided pursuant to subdivision (b) may not be combined or merged with educational programs offered to pupils in any of grades 7 to 12, inclusive. The district or county program is the only program required to be provided to expelled pupils as determined by the governing board of the school district. This subdivision, as it relates to the separation of pupils by grade levels, does not apply to community day schools offering instruction in any of kindergarten and grades 1 to 8, inclusive, and established in accordance with Section 48660.

(e) (1) Each school district shall maintain the following data:

(A) The number of pupils recommended for expulsion.

(B) The grounds for each recommended expulsion.

(C) Whether the pupil was subsequently expelled.

(D) Whether the expulsion order was suspended.

(E) The type of referral made after the expulsion.

(F) The disposition of the pupil after the end of the period of expulsion.

(2) The Superintendent may require a school district to report this data as part of the coordinated compliance review. If a school district does not report outcome data as required by this subdivision, the Superintendent may not apportion any further money to the school district pursuant to Section 48664 until the school district is in compliance with this subdivision. Before withholding the apportionment of funds to a school district pursuant to this subdivision, the Superintendent shall give written notice to the governing board of the school district that the school district has failed to report the data required by paragraph (1) and that the school district has 30 calendar days from the date of the written notice of noncompliance to report the requested data and thereby avoid the withholding of the apportionment of funds.

(f) If the county superintendent of schools is unable for any reason to serve the expelled pupils of a school district within the county, the governing board of that school district may enter into an agreement with a county superintendent of schools in another county to provide education services for the district’s expelled pupils.

(Amended by Stats. 2005, Ch. 69, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2006.)

48916.5.
  

The governing board may require a pupil who is expelled from school for reasons relating to controlled substances, as defined in Sections 11054 to 11058, inclusive, of the Health and Safety Code, or alcohol, prior to returning to school to enroll in a county-supported drug rehabilitation program. No pupil shall be required to enroll in a rehabilitation program pursuant to this section without the consent of his or her parent or guardian.

(Added by Stats. 1988, Ch. 50, Sec. 1.)

48917.
  

(a) The governing board, upon voting to expel a pupil, may suspend the enforcement of the expulsion order for a period of not more than one calendar year and may, as a condition of the suspension of enforcement, assign the pupil to a school, class, or program that is deemed appropriate for the rehabilitation of the pupil. The rehabilitation program to which the pupil is assigned may provide for the involvement of the pupil’s parent or guardian in his or her child’s education in ways that are specified in the rehabilitation program. A parent or guardian’s refusal to participate in the rehabilitation program shall not be considered in the governing board’s determination as to whether the pupil has satisfactorily completed the rehabilitation program.

(b) The governing board shall apply the criteria for suspending the enforcement of the expulsion order equally to all pupils, including individuals with exceptional needs as defined in Section 56026.

(c) During the period of the suspension of the expulsion order, the pupil is deemed to be on probationary status.

(d) The governing board may revoke the suspension of an expulsion order under this section if the pupil commits any of the acts enumerated in Section 48900 or violates any of the district’s rules and regulations governing pupil conduct. When the governing board revokes the suspension of an expulsion order, a pupil may be expelled under the terms of the original expulsion order.

(e) Upon satisfactory completion of the rehabilitation assignment of a pupil, the governing board shall reinstate the pupil in a school of the district and may also order the expungement of any or all records of the expulsion proceedings.

(f) A decision of the governing board to suspend an expulsion order does not affect the time period and requirements for the filing of an appeal of the expulsion order with the county board of education required under Section 48919. Any appeal shall be filed within 30 days of the original vote of the governing board.

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 95, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1996.)

48918.
  

The governing board of each school district shall establish rules and regulations governing procedures for the expulsion of pupils. These procedures shall include, but are not necessarily limited to, all of the following:

(a) The pupil shall be entitled to a hearing to determine whether the pupil should be expelled. An expulsion hearing shall be held within 30 schooldays after the date the principal or the superintendent of schools determines that the pupil has committed any of the acts enumerated in Section 48900, unless the pupil requests, in writing, that the hearing be postponed. The adopted rules and regulations shall specify that the pupil is entitled to at least one postponement of an expulsion hearing, for a period of not more than 30 calendar days. Any additional postponement may be granted at the discretion of the governing board.

Within 10 schooldays after the conclusion of the hearing, the governing board shall decide whether to expel the pupil, unless the pupil requests in writing that the decision be postponed. If the hearing is held by a hearing officer or an administrative panel, or if the district governing board does not meet on a weekly basis, the governing board shall decide whether to expel the pupil within 40 schooldays after the date of the pupil’s removal from his or her school of attendance for the incident for which the recommendation for expulsion is made by the principal or the superintendent, unless the pupil requests in writing that the decision be postponed.

If compliance by the governing board with the time requirements for the conducting of an expulsion hearing under this subdivision is impracticable during the regular school year, the superintendent of schools or the superintendent’s designee may, for good cause, extend the time period for the holding of the expulsion hearing for an additional five schooldays. If compliance by the governing board with the time requirements for the conducting of an expulsion hearing under this subdivision is impractical due to a summer recess of governing board meetings of more than two weeks, the days during the recess period shall not be counted as schooldays in meeting the time requirements. The days not counted as schooldays in meeting the time requirements for an expulsion hearing because of a summer recess of governing board meetings shall not exceed 20 schooldays, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 48925, and unless the pupil requests in writing that the expulsion hearing be postponed, the hearing shall be held not later than 20 calendar days prior to the first day of school for the school year. Reasons for the extension of the time for the hearing shall be included as a part of the record at the time the expulsion hearing is conducted. Upon the commencement of the hearing, all matters shall be pursued and conducted with reasonable diligence and shall be concluded without any unnecessary delay.

(b) Written notice of the hearing shall be forwarded to the pupil at least 10 calendar days prior to the date of the hearing. The notice shall include all of the following:

(1) The date and place of the hearing.

(2) A statement of the specific facts and charges upon which the proposed expulsion is based.

(3) A copy of the disciplinary rules of the district that relate to the alleged violation.

(4) A notice of the parent, guardian, or pupil’s obligation pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 48915.1.

(5) Notice of the opportunity for the pupil or the pupil’s parent or guardian to appear in person or to be represented by legal counsel or by a nonattorney adviser, to inspect and obtain copies of all documents to be used at the hearing, to confront and question all witnesses who testify at the hearing, to question all other evidence presented, and to present oral and documentary evidence on the pupil’s behalf, including witnesses. In a hearing in which a pupil is alleged to have committed or attempted to commit a sexual assault as specified in subdivision (n) of Section 48900 or committing a sexual battery as defined in subdivision (n) of Section 48900, a complaining witness shall be given five days’ notice before being called to testify, and shall be entitled to have up to two adult support persons, including, but not limited to, a parent, guardian, or legal counsel, present during their testimony. Before a complaining witness testifies, support persons shall be admonished that the hearing is confidential. Nothing in this subdivision shall preclude the person presiding over an expulsion hearing from removing a support person whom the presiding person finds is disrupting the hearing. If one or both of the support persons is also a witness, the provisions of Section 868.5 of the Penal Code shall be followed for the hearing. This section does not require a pupil or the pupil’s parent or guardian to be represented by legal counsel or by a nonattorney adviser at the hearing.

(A) For purposes of this section, “legal counsel” means an attorney or lawyer who is admitted to the practice of law in California and is an active member of the State Bar of California.

(B) For purposes of this section, “nonattorney advisor” means an individual who is not an attorney or lawyer, but who is familiar with the facts of the case, and has been selected by the pupil or pupil’s parent or guardian to provide assistance at the hearing.

(c) Notwithstanding Section 54593 of the Government Code and Section 35145, the governing board shall conduct a hearing to consider the expulsion of a pupil in a session closed to the public, unless the pupil requests, in writing, at least five days before the date of the hearing, that the hearing be conducted at a public meeting. Regardless of whether the expulsion hearing is conducted in a closed or public session, the governing board may meet in closed session for the purpose of deliberating and determining whether the pupil should be expelled.

If the governing board or the hearing officer or administrative panel appointed under subdivision (d) to conduct the hearing admits any other person to a closed deliberation session, the parent or guardian of the pupil, the pupil, and the counsel of the pupil also shall be allowed to attend the closed deliberations.

If the hearing is to be conducted at a public meeting, and there is a charge of committing or attempting to commit a sexual assault as defined in subdivision (n) of Section 48900 or committing a sexual battery as defined in subdivision (n) of Section 48900, a complaining witness shall have the right to have his or her testimony heard in a session closed to the public when testifying at a public meeting would threaten serious psychological harm to the complaining witness and there are no alternative procedures to avoid the threatened harm, including, but not limited to, videotaped deposition or contemporaneous examination in another place communicated to the hearing room by means of closed-circuit television.

(d) Instead of conducting an expulsion hearing itself, the governing board may contract with the county hearing officer, or with the Office of Administrative Hearings of the State of California pursuant to Chapter 14 (commencing with Section 27720) of Part 3 of Division 2 of Title 3 of the Government Code and Section 35207, for a hearing officer to conduct the hearing. The governing board may also appoint an impartial administrative panel of three or more certificated persons, none of whom is a member of the board or employed on the staff of the school in which the pupil is enrolled. The hearing shall be conducted in accordance with all of the procedures established under this section.

(e) Within three schooldays after the hearing, the hearing officer or administrative panel shall determine whether to recommend the expulsion of the pupil to the governing board. If the hearing officer or administrative panel decides not to recommend expulsion, the expulsion proceedings shall be terminated and the pupil immediately shall be reinstated and permitted to return to a classroom instructional program, any other instructional program, a rehabilitation program, or any combination of these programs. Placement in one or more of these programs shall be made by the superintendent of schools or the superintendent’s designee after consultation with school district personnel, including the pupil’s teachers, and the pupil’s parent or guardian. The decision not to recommend expulsion shall be final.

(f) If the hearing officer or administrative panel recommends expulsion, findings of fact in support of the recommendation shall be prepared and submitted to the governing board. All findings of fact and recommendations shall be based solely on the evidence adduced at the hearing. If the governing board accepts the recommendation calling for expulsion, acceptance shall be based either upon a review of the findings of fact and recommendations submitted by the hearing officer or panel or upon the results of any supplementary hearing conducted pursuant to this section that the governing board may order.

The decision of the governing board to expel a pupil shall be based upon substantial evidence relevant to the charges adduced at the expulsion hearing or hearings. Except as provided in this section, no evidence to expel shall be based solely upon hearsay evidence. The governing board or the hearing officer or administrative panel may, upon a finding that good cause exists, determine that the disclosure of either the identity of a witness or the testimony of that witness at the hearing, or both, would subject the witness to an unreasonable risk of psychological or physical harm. Upon this determination, the testimony of the witness may be presented at the hearing in the form of sworn declarations which shall be examined only by the governing board or the hearing officer or administrative panel. Copies of these sworn declarations, edited to delete the name and identity of the witness, shall be made available to the pupil.

(g) A record of the hearing shall be made. The record may be maintained by any means, including electronic recording, so long as a reasonably accurate and complete written transcription of the proceedings can be made.

(h) Technical rules of evidence shall not apply to the hearing, but relevant evidence may be admitted and given probative effect only if it is the kind of evidence upon which reasonable persons are accustomed to rely in the conduct of serious affairs. A decision of the governing board to expel shall be supported by substantial evidence showing that the pupil committed any of the acts enumerated in Section 48900.

In hearings which include an allegation of committing or attempting to commit a sexual assault as defined in subdivision (n) of Section 48900 or committing a sexual battery as defined in subdivision (n) of Section 48900, evidence of specific instances, of a complaining witness’ prior sexual conduct is to be presumed inadmissible and shall not be heard absent a determination by the person conducting the hearing that extraordinary circumstances exist requiring the evidence be heard. Before the person conducting the hearing makes the determination on whether extraordinary circumstances exist requiring that specific instances of a complaining witness’ prior sexual conduct be heard, the complaining witness shall be provided notice and an opportunity to present opposition to the introduction of the evidence. In the hearing on the admissibility of the evidence, the complaining witness shall be entitled to be represented by a parent, guardian, legal counsel, or other support person. Reputation or opinion evidence regarding the sexual behavior of the complaining witness is not admissible for any purpose.

(i) (1) Before the hearing has commenced, the governing board may issue subpoenas at the request of either the superintendent of schools or the superintendent’s designee or the pupil, for the personal appearance of percipient witnesses at the hearing. After the hearing has commenced, the governing board or the hearing officer or administrative panel may, upon request of either the county superintendent of schools or the superintendent’s designee or the pupil, issue subpoenas. All subpoenas shall be issued in accordance with Sections 1985, 1985.1, and 1985.2 of the Code of Civil Procedure. Enforcement of subpoenas shall be done in accordance with Section 11455.20 of the Government Code.

(2) Any objection raised by the superintendent of schools or the superintendent’s designee or the pupil to the issuance of subpoenas may be considered by the governing board in closed session, or in open session, if so requested by the pupil before the meeting. Any decision by the governing board in response to an objection to the issuance of subpoenas shall be final and binding.

(3) If the governing board, hearing officer, or administrative panel determines, in accordance with subdivision (f), that a percipient witness would be subject to an unreasonable risk of harm by testifying at the hearing, a subpoena shall not be issued to compel the personal attendance of that witness at the hearing. However, that witness may be compelled to testify by means of a sworn declaration as provided for in subdivision (f).

(4) Service of process shall be extended to all parts of the state and shall be served in accordance with Section 1987 of the Code of Civil Procedure. All witnesses appearing pursuant to subpoena, other than the parties or officers or employees of the state or any political subdivision thereof, shall receive fees, and all witnesses appearing pursuant to subpoena, except the parties, shall receive mileage in the same amount and under the same circumstances as prescribed for witnesses in civil actions in a superior court. Fees and mileage shall be paid by the party at whose request the witness is subpoenaed.

(j) Whether an expulsion hearing is conducted by the governing board or before a hearing officer or administrative panel, final action to expel a pupil shall be taken only by the governing board in a public session. Written notice of any decision to expel or to suspend the enforcement of an expulsion order during a period of probation shall be sent by the superintendent of schools or his or her designee to the pupil or the pupil’s parent or guardian and shall be accompanied by all of the following:

(1) Notice of the right to appeal the expulsion to the county board of education.

(2) Notice of the education alternative placement to be provided to the pupil during the time of expulsion.

(3) Notice of the obligation of the parent, guardian, or pupil under subdivision (b) of Section 48915.1, upon the pupil’s enrollment in a new school district, to inform that district of the pupil’s expulsion.

(k) The governing board shall maintain a record of each expulsion, including the cause therefor. Records of expulsions shall be a nonprivileged, disclosable public record.

The expulsion order and the causes therefor shall be recorded in the pupil’s mandatory interim record and shall be forwarded to any school in which the pupil subsequently enrolls upon receipt of a request from the admitting school for the pupil’s school records.

(Amended by Stats. 2003, Ch. 552, Sec. 23. Effective January 1, 2004.)

48918.1.
  

(a) If the decision to recommend expulsion is a discretionary act and the pupil is a foster child, as defined in Section 48853.5, the governing board of the school district shall provide notice of the expulsion hearing to the pupil’s attorney and an appropriate representative of the county child welfare agency at least 10 calendar days before the date of the hearing. The notice may be made using the most cost-effective method possible, which may include, but is not limited to, electronic mail or a telephone call.

(b) If a recommendation of expulsion is required and the pupil is a foster child, as defined in Section 48853.5, the governing board of the school district may provide notice of the expulsion hearing to the pupil’s attorney and an appropriate representative of the county child welfare agency at least 10 calendar days before the date of the hearing. The notice may be made using the most cost-effective method possible, which may include, but is not limited to, electronic mail or a telephone call.

(Added by Stats. 2012, Ch. 849, Sec. 5. Effective January 1, 2013.)

48918.5.
  

In expulsion hearings involving allegations brought pursuant to subdivision (n) of Section 48900, the governing board of each school district shall establish rules and regulations governing procedures. The procedures shall include, but are not limited to, all of the following:

(a) At the time that the expulsion hearing is recommended, the complaining witness shall be provided with a copy of the applicable disciplinary rules and advised of his or her right to: (1) receive five days’ notice of the complaining witness’s scheduled testimony at the hearing, (2) have up to two adult support persons of his or her choosing, present in the hearing at the time he or she testifies; and (3) to have the hearing closed during the time they testify pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 48918.

(b) An expulsion hearing may be postponed for one schoolday in order to accommodate the special physical, mental, or emotional needs of a pupil who is the complaining witness where the allegations arise under subdivision (n) of Section 48900.

(c) The district shall provide a nonthreatening environment for a complaining witness in order to better enable them to speak freely and accurately of the experiences that are the subject of the expulsion hearing, and to prevent discouragement of complaints. Each school district shall provide a room separate from the hearing room for the use of the complaining witness prior to and during breaks in testimony. In the discretion of the person conducting the hearing, the complaining witness shall be allowed reasonable periods of relief from examination and cross-examination during which he or she may leave the hearing room. The person conducting the hearing may arrange the seating within the hearing room of those present in order to facilitate a less intimidating environment for the complaining witness. The person conducting the hearing may limit the time for taking the testimony of a complaining witness to the hours he or she is normally in school, if there is no good cause to take the testimony during other hours. The person conducting the hearing may permit one of the complaining witness’s support persons to accompany him or her to the witness stand.

(d) Whenever any allegation is made of conduct violative of subdivision (n) of Section 48900, complaining witnesses and accused pupils are to be advised immediately to refrain from personal or telephonic contact with each other during the pendency of any expulsion process.

(Added by Stats. 1996, Ch. 915, Sec. 6. Effective January 1, 1997.)

48918.6.
  

In addition to any other immunity that may exist, any testimony provided by a pupil witness in an expulsion hearing conducted pursuant to this article is expressly deemed to be a communication protected by subdivision (b) of Section 47 of the Civil Code.

(Added by Stats. 2002, Ch. 136, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2003.)

48919.
  

If a pupil is expelled from school, the pupil or the pupil’s parent or guardian may, within 30 days following the decision of the governing board to expel, file an appeal to the county board of education which shall hold a hearing thereon and render its decision.

The county board of education, or in a class 1 or class 2 county a hearing officer or impartial administrative panel, shall hold the hearing within 20 schooldays following the filing of a formal request under this section. If the county board of education hears the appeal without a hearing conducted pursuant to Section 48919.5, then the board shall render a decision within three schooldays of the hearing conducted pursuant to Section 48920, unless the pupil requests a postponement.

The period within which an appeal is to be filed shall be determined from the date a governing board votes to expel even if enforcement of the expulsion action is suspended and the pupil is placed on probation pursuant to Section 48917. A pupil who fails to appeal the original action of the board within the prescribed time may not subsequently appeal a decision of the board to revoke probation and impose the original order of expulsion.

The county board of education shall adopt rules and regulations establishing procedures for expulsion appeals conducted under this section. If the county board of education in a class 1 or class 2 county elects to use the procedures in Section 48919.5, then the board shall adopt rules and regulations establishing procedures for expulsion appeals conducted under Section 48919.5. The adopted rules and regulations shall include, but need not be limited to, the requirements for filing a notice of appeal, the setting of a hearing date, the furnishing of notice to the pupil and the governing board regarding the appeal, the furnishing of a copy of the expulsion hearing record to the county board of education, procedures for the conduct of the hearing, and the preservation of the record of the appeal.

The pupil shall submit a written request for a copy of the written transcripts and supporting documents from the school district simultaneously with the filing of the notice of appeal with the county board of education. The school district shall provide the pupil with the transcriptions, supporting documents, and records within 10 schooldays following the pupil’s written request. Upon receipt of the records, the pupil shall immediately file suitable copies of these records with the county board of education.

(Amended by Stats. 2000, Ch. 147, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2001.)

48919.5.
  

(a) A county board of education in a class 1 or class 2 county may have a hearing officer pursuant to Chapter 14 (commencing with Section 27720) of Part 3 of Title 3 of the Government Code, or an impartial administrative panel of three or more certificated persons appointed by the county board of education, hear appeals filed pursuant to Section 48919. The members of the impartial administrative panel shall not be members of the governing board of the school district nor employees of the school district, from which the pupil filing the appeal was expelled. Neither the hearing officer, nor any member of the administrative panel, hearing a pupil’s appeal shall have been the hearing officer or a member of the administrative panel that conducted the pupil’s expulsion hearing.

(b) A hearing conducted pursuant to this section shall not issue a final order of the county board. The hearing officer or impartial administrative panel shall prepare a recommended decision, including any findings or conclusions required for that decision, and shall submit that recommendation and the record to the county board of education within three schooldays of hearing the appeal.

(c) Sections 48919, 48920, 48921, 48922, 48923, and 48925 are applicable to a hearing conducted pursuant to this section.

(d) Within 10 schooldays of receiving the recommended decision and record from the hearing officer or the impartial administrative panel, the county board of education shall review the recommended decision and record and render a final order of the board.

(e) For purposes of this article, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) “Countywide ADA” means the aggregate number of annual units of regular average daily attendance for the fiscal year in all school districts within the county.

(2) “Class 1 county” means a county with 1994/95 countywide ADA of more than 500,000.

(3) “Class 2 county” means a county with 1994/95 countywide ADA of at least 180,000 but less than 500,000.

(Added by Stats. 1997, Ch. 417, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 1998.)

48920.
  

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 54950 of the Government Code and Section 35145 of this code, the county board of education shall hear an appeal of an expulsion order in closed session, unless the pupil requests, in writing, at least five days prior to the date of the hearing, that the hearing be conducted in a public meeting. Upon the timely submission of a request for a public meeting, the county board of education shall be required to honor the request. Whether the hearing is conducted in closed or public session, the county board may meet in closed session for the purpose of deliberations. If the county board admits any representative of the pupil or the school district, the board shall, at the same time, admit representatives from the opposing party.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1983, Ch. 498, Sec. 91. Effective July 28, 1983.)

48921.
  

The county board of education shall determine the appeal from a pupil expulsion upon the record of the hearing before the district governing board, together with such applicable documentation or regulations as may be ordered. No evidence other than that contained in the record of the proceedings of the school board may be heard unless a de novo proceeding is granted as provided in Section 48923.

It shall be the responsibility of the pupil to submit a written transcription for review by the county board. The cost of the transcript shall be borne by the pupil except in either of the following situations:

(1) Where the pupil’s parent or guardian certifies to the school district that he or she cannot reasonably afford the cost of the transcript because of limited income or exceptional necessary expenses, or both.

(2) In a case in which the county board reverses the decision of the local governing board, the county board shall require that the local board reimburse the pupil for the cost of such transcription.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1983, Ch. 498, Sec. 91. Effective July 28, 1983.)

48922.
  

(a) The review by the county board of education of the decision of the governing board shall be limited to the following questions:

(1) Whether the governing board acted without or in excess of its jurisdiction.

(2) Whether there was a fair hearing before the governing board.

(3) Whether there was a prejudicial abuse of discretion in the hearing.

(4) Whether there is relevant and material evidence which, in the exercise of reasonable diligence, could not have been produced or which was improperly excluded at the hearing before the governing board.

(b) As used in this section, a proceeding without or in excess of jurisdiction includes, but is not limited to, a situation where an expulsion hearing is not commenced within the time periods prescribed by this article, a situation where an expulsion order is not based upon the acts enumerated in Section 48900, or a situation involving acts not related to school activity or attendance.

(c) For purposes of this section, an abuse of discretion is established in any of the following situations:

(1) If school officials have not met the procedural requirements of this article.

(2) If the decision to expel a pupil is not supported by the findings prescribed by Section 48915.

(3) If the findings are not supported by the evidence.

A county board of education may not reverse the decision of a governing board to expel a pupil based upon a finding of an abuse of discretion unless the county board of education also determines that the abuse of discretion was prejudicial.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1983, Ch. 498, Sec. 91. Effective July 28, 1983.)

48923.
  

The decision of the county board shall be limited as follows:

(a) If the county board finds that relevant and material evidence exists which, in the exercise of reasonable diligence, could not have been produced or which was improperly excluded at the hearing before the governing board, it may do either of the following:

(1) Remand the matter to the governing board for reconsideration and may in addition order the pupil reinstated pending the reconsideration.

(2) Grant a hearing de novo upon reasonable notice thereof to the pupil and to the governing board. The hearing shall be conducted in conformance with the rules and regulations adopted by the county board under Section 48919.

(b) If the county board determines that the decision of the governing board is not supported by the findings required to be made by Section 48915, but evidence supporting the required findings exists in the record of the proceedings, the county board shall remand the matter to the governing board for adoption of the required findings. This remand for the adoption and inclusion of the required findings shall not result in an additional hearing pursuant to Section 48918, except that final action to expel the pupil based on the revised findings of fact shall meet all requirements of subdivisions (j) and (k) of Section 48918.

(c) In all other cases, the county board shall enter an order either affirming or reversing the decision of the governing board. In any case in which the county board enters a decision reversing the local board, the county board may direct the local board to expunge the record of the pupil and the records of the district of any references to the expulsion action and the expulsion shall be deemed not to have occurred.

(Amended by Stats. 2000, Ch. 147, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2001.)

48924.
  

The decision of the county board of education shall be final and binding upon the pupil and upon the governing board of the school district. The pupil and the governing board shall be notified of the final order of the county board, in writing, either by personal service or by certified mail. The order shall become final when rendered.

(Added by Stats. 1983, Ch. 498, Sec. 91. Effective July 28, 1983.)

48925.
  

As used in this article:

(a) “Day” means a calendar day unless otherwise specifically provided.

(b) “Expulsion” means removal of a pupil from (1) the immediate supervision and control, or (2) the general supervision, of school personnel, as those terms are used in Section 46300.

(c) “Schoolday” means a day upon which the schools of the district are in session or weekdays during the summer recess.

(d) “Suspension” means removal of a pupil from ongoing instruction for adjustment purposes. However, “suspension” does not mean any of the following:

(1) Reassignment to another education program or class at the same school where the pupil will receive continuing instruction for the length of day prescribed by the governing board for pupils of the same grade level.

(2) Referral to a certificated employee designated by the principal to advise pupils.

(3) Removal from the class, but without reassignment to another class or program, for the remainder of the class period without sending the pupil to the principal or the principal’s designee as provided in Section 48910. Removal from a particular class shall not occur more than once every five schooldays.

(e) “Pupil” includes a pupil’s parent or guardian or legal counsel.

(Added by Stats. 1983, Ch. 498, Sec. 91. Effective July 28, 1983.)

48926.
  

Each county superintendent of schools in counties that operate community schools pursuant to Section 1980, in conjunction with superintendents of the school districts within the county, shall develop a plan for providing education services to all expelled pupils in that county. The plan shall be adopted by the governing board of each school district within the county and by the county board of education.

The plan shall enumerate existing educational alternatives for expelled pupils, identify gaps in educational services to expelled pupils, and strategies for filling those service gaps. The plan shall also identify alternative placements for pupils who are expelled and placed in district community day school programs, but who fail to meet the terms and conditions of their rehabilitation plan or who pose a danger to other district pupils, as determined by the governing board.

Each county superintendent of schools, in conjunction with the superintendents of the school districts, shall submit to the Superintendent of Public Instruction the county plan for providing educational services to all expelled pupils in the county no later than June 30, 1997, and shall submit a triennial update to the plan to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, including the outcome data pursuant to Section 48916.1, on June 30th thereafter.

(Added by Stats. 1995, Ch. 974, Sec. 8. Effective January 1, 1996. Operative July 1, 1996, by Sec. 9 of Ch. 974, which was amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 937.)

48927.
  

(a) This chapter shall also apply to pupils attending the California School for the Blind and the two California Schools for the Deaf, which shall be referred to as the “state special schools.”

(b) Because the state special schools have a governance structure different from that of school districts, for the purposes of this section the following definitions shall apply:

(1) “Superintendent” means the appropriate principal of the state special school in which the pupil is enrolled, or the principal’s designee, for purposes of Sections 48900, 48900.2, 48900.3, 48900.4, 48900.5, 48900.7, and 48911, and subdivisions (a) and (j) of Section 48918.

(2) “Governing board of each school district,” “governing board of any school district,” or “each governing board of a school district” means the Superintendent of Public Instruction or his or her designee for purposes of subdivision (a) of Section 48900.1, subdivision (b) of Section 48901, subdivision (b) of Section 48901.5, Section 48907, Section 48910, the first paragraph of Section 48918, and the first paragraph of Section 48918.5.

(3) “Governing board” means the Superintendent of the State Special School in which the pupil is enrolled for purposes of Section 48912, subdivision (d) of Section 48915, Section 48915.5, Section 48916, Section 48917, subdivisions (a), (c), (d), (f), (h), (i), (j), and (k) of Section 48918, and Sections 48921, 48922, 48923, and 48924.

(4) “Governing board” means the governing board of the district of residence of the expelled pupil for purposes of subdivision (f) of Section 48915 and Section 48916.1. In the case of an adult pupil expelled from a state special school, “governing board” means the governing board of the school district that referred the pupil to the state special school for purposes of the code section cited in this paragraph.

(5) “Superintendent of schools or the governing board” means the appropriate principal of the state special school in which the pupil is enrolled, or the principal’s designee, for the purposes of Section 48900.6.

(6) “School district” or “district” means the state special school in which the pupil is enrolled for purposes of Section 48900.8, subdivision (b) of Section 48903, Section 48905, Section 48909, Section 48914, paragraph (1) of subdivision (e) of Section 48916.1, subdivision (c) of Section 48918.5, Section 48919, Section 48920, and Section 48921.

(7) “County board of education” or “county board” means the Superintendent of Public Instruction or his or her designee for purposes of Sections 48920, 48921, 48922, 48923, and 48924.

(8) “Local educational agency” includes a state special school for purposes of Section 48902 and Section 48915.5.

(9) “A change in placement” for purposes of paragraph (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 48915.5 means a referral by the state special school to the pupil’s school district of residence for placement in an appropriate interim alternative educational setting.

(10) “Individualized education program team” means the individualized education program team of the pupil’s school district of residence with appropriate representation from the state special school in which the pupil is enrolled for purposes of subdivision (a) of Section 48915.5.2.

(11) “Individualized education program team” means the individualized education program team of the state special school in which the pupil is enrolled with appropriate representation from the pupil’s school district of residence for purposes of subdivisions (b), (c), and (d) of Section 48915.5.3.

(c) Subdivision (b) of this section shall be deemed to provide the same due process procedural protections to pupils in the state special schools as afforded to pupils in the public school districts of the state.

(Amended by Stats. 2003, Ch. 62, Sec. 56.5. Effective January 1, 2004.)

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