Code Section Group

Corporations Code - CORP

TITLE 1. CORPORATIONS [100 - 14631]

  ( Title 1 enacted by Stats. 1947, Ch. 1038. )


  ( Division 3 enacted by Stats. 1947, Ch. 1038. )


  ( Heading of Part 2 amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 192, Sec. 2. )

CHAPTER 17. General Provisions Relating to Dissolution [12650 - 12663]
  ( Chapter 17 added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1625, Sec. 3. )


The powers and duties of the directors (or other persons appointed by the court pursuant to Section 12625) and officers after commencement of a dissolution proceeding include, but are not limited to, the following acts in the name and on behalf of the corporation:

(a) To elect officers and to employ agents and attorneys to liquidate or wind up its affairs.

(b) To continue the conduct of the affairs of the corporation insofar as necessary for the disposal or winding up thereof.

(c) To carry out contracts and collect, pay, compromise, and settle debts and claims for or against the corporation.

(d) To defend suits brought against the corporation.

(e) To sue, in the name of the corporation, for all sums due or owing to the corporation or to recover any of its property.

(f) To collect any amounts remaining unpaid on memberships or to recover unlawful distributions.

(g) To sell at public or private sale, exchange, convey, or otherwise dispose of all or any part of the assets of the corporation for an amount deemed reasonable by the board without compliance with the provisions of Section 12521, and to execute bills of sale and deeds of conveyance in the name of the corporation.

(h) In general, to make contracts and to do any and all things in the name of the corporation which may be proper or convenient for the purposes of winding up, settling, and liquidating the affairs of the corporation.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1625, Sec. 3. Operative January 1, 1984.)


A vacancy on the board may be filled during a winding up proceeding in the manner provided in Section 12364.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1625, Sec. 3. Operative January 1, 1984.)


When the identity of the directors or their right to hold office is in doubt, or if they are dead or unable to act, or they fail or refuse to act or their whereabouts cannot be ascertained, any interested person may petition the superior court of the proper county to determine the identity of the directors or, if there are no directors, to appoint directors to wind up the affairs of the corporation, after hearing upon such notice to such persons as the court may direct.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1625, Sec. 3. Operative January 1, 1984.)


(a) After determining that all the known debts and liabilities of a corporation in the process of winding up have been paid or adequately provided for, the board shall distribute all the remaining corporate assets in the manner provided in Sections 12655, 12656, and 12656.5.

(b) If the winding up is by court proceeding or subject to court supervision, the distribution shall not be made until after the expiration of any period for the presentation of claims that has been prescribed by order of the court.

(c) Anything to the contrary notwithstanding, assets, if any, that are not subject to attachment, execution, or sale for the corporation’s debts and liabilities may be distributed pursuant to Sections 12655, 12656, and 12656.5 even though all debts and liabilities have not been paid or adequately provided for.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 192, Sec. 24. Effective January 1, 2016.)


The payment of a debt or liability, whether the whereabouts of the creditor is known or unknown, has been adequately provided for if the payment has been provided for by either of the following means:

(a) Payment thereof has been assumed or guaranteed in good faith by one or more financially responsible persons or by the United States government or any agency thereof, and the provision (including the financial responsibility of such persons) was determined in good faith and with reasonable care by the board to be adequate at the time of any distribution of the assets by the board pursuant to this chapter.

(b) The amount of the debt or liability has been deposited as provided in Section 12659.

This section does not prescribe the exclusive means of making adequate provision for debts and liabilities.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1625, Sec. 3. Operative January 1, 1984.)


After complying with the provisions of Section 12653 assets held by a corporation upon a valid condition requiring return, transfer, or conveyance, which condition has occurred or will occur, shall be returned, transferred, or conveyed in accordance with the condition.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1625, Sec. 3. Operative January 1, 1984.)


After complying with the provisions of Section 12653 and except as otherwise provided in Section 12655, assets held by a corporation shall be disposed of on dissolution as follows:

(a) If the articles or bylaws provide the manner of disposition, the assets shall be disposed of in that manner.

(b) If the articles or bylaws do not provide the manner of disposition, the assets shall be distributed among the members in accordance with their respective rights therein.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1625, Sec. 3. Operative January 1, 1984.)


(a) After complying with the provisions of Section 12653, and except as otherwise provided in Section 12655, upon dissolution of a worker cooperative the majority of the unallocated capital account shall be distributed to members on the basis of any of the following, as specified in the articles of incorporation or bylaws of the cooperative:

(1) Patronage.

(2) Capital contributions.

(3) A combination of patronage and capital contributions.

(b) A worker cooperative is authorized to include patronage provided by past and current members in its distribution of the unallocated capital account.

(c) Subdivision (a) shall not apply to any amounts in the indivisible reserve account. Any amount in the indivisible reserve account shall, upon dissolution, be allocated to a cooperative development organization designated in the articles of incorporation or the bylaws.

(Added by Stats. 2015, Ch. 192, Sec. 25. Effective January 1, 2016.)


Distribution may be made either in money or in property or securities and either in installments from time to time or as a whole, if this can be done fairly and ratably and in conformity with the provisions of the articles and bylaws and shall be made as soon as reasonably consistent with the beneficial liquidation of the corporation assets.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1625, Sec. 3. Operative January 1, 1984.)


(a) If a corporation in process of winding up has more than one class of memberships outstanding, a plan of distribution of the memberships, obligations, or securities of any other corporation, domestic or foreign, or assets other than money which is not in accordance with the liquidation rights of any class or classes as specified in the articles or bylaws may nevertheless be adopted if approved by (1) the board and (2) by approval by the members (Section 12224) of each class. The plan may provide that such distribution is in complete or partial satisfaction of the rights of any of such members upon distribution and liquidation of the assets.

(b) A plan of distribution so approved shall be binding upon all the members. The board shall cause notice of the adoption of the plan to be given by mail within 20 days after its adoption to all holders of memberships having a liquidation preference.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1625, Sec. 3. Operative January 1, 1984.)


(a) If any members, creditors, or other persons are unknown or fail or refuse to accept their payment or distribution in cash or property or their whereabouts cannot be ascertained after diligent inquiry, or the existence or amount of a claim of a creditor, member, or other person is contingent, contested, or not determined, or if the ownership of any memberships is in dispute, the corporation may deposit any such payment, distribution, or the maximum amount of the claim with the Controller in trust for the benefit of those lawfully entitled to the payment, distribution, or the amount of the claim. The payment or distribution shall be paid over by the depositary to the lawful owners, their representatives or assigns, upon satisfactory proof of title.

(b)For the purpose of providing for the transmittal, receipt, accounting for, claiming, management, and investment of all money or other property deposited with the Controller under subdivision (a), the money or other property shall be deemed to be paid or delivered for deposit with the Controller under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 1500) of Title 10 of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure, and may be recovered in the manner prescribed in that chapter.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 860, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 1997.)


(a) Whenever in the process of winding up a corporation any distribution of assets has been made, otherwise than under an order of court, without prior payment or adequate provision for payment of any of the debts and liabilities of the corporation, any amount so improperly distributed to any person may be recovered by the corporation. Any of such persons may be joined as defendants in the same action or be brought in on the motion of any other defendant.

(b) Suit may be brought in the name of the corporation to enforce the liability under subdivision (a) against any or all persons receiving the distribution by any one or more creditors of the corporation, whether or not they have reduced their claims to judgment.

(c) Members who satisfy any liability under this section shall have the right of ratable contribution from other distributees similarly liable. Any member who has been compelled to return to the corporation more than the member’s ratable share of the amount needed to pay the debts and liabilities of the corporation may require that the corporation recover from any or all of the other distributees such proportion of the amounts received by them upon the improper distribution as to give contribution to those held liable under this section and make the distribution of the assets fair and ratable, according to the respective rights and preferences of the memberships, after payment or adequate provision for payment of all the debts and liabilities of the corporation.

(d) As used in this section, “process of winding up” includes proceedings under Chapters 15 (commencing with Section 12630) and 16 (commencing with Section 12630) and also any other distribution of assets to persons made in contemplation of termination or abandonment of the corporate business.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1625, Sec. 3. Operative January 1, 1984.)


(a) A corporation which is dissolved nevertheless continues to exist for the purpose of winding up its affairs, prosecuting and defending actions by or against it, and enabling it to collect and discharge obligations, dispose of and convey its property and collect, and divide its assets, but not for the purpose of continuing its activities except so far as necessary for the winding up thereof.

(b) No action or proceeding to which a corporation is a party abates by the dissolution of the corporation or by reason of proceedings for winding up and dissolution thereof.

(c) Any assets inadvertently or otherwise omitted from the winding up continue in the dissolved corporation for the benefit of the persons entitled thereto upon dissolution of the corporation and on realization shall be distributed accordingly.

(Added by Stats. 1982, Ch. 1625, Sec. 3. Operative January 1, 1984.)


(a) (1) Causes of action against a dissolved corporation, whether arising before or after the dissolution of the corporation, may be enforced against any of the following:

(A) Against the dissolved corporation, to the extent of its undistributed assets; including, without limitation, any insurance assets held by the corporation that may be available to satisfy claims.

(B) If any of the assets of the dissolved corporation have been distributed to other persons, against those persons to the extent of their pro rata share of the claim or to the extent of the corporate assets distributed to them upon dissolution of the corporation, whichever is less.

The total liability of a person under this section may not exceed the total amount of assets of the dissolved corporation distributed to that person upon dissolution of the corporation.

(2) Except as set forth in subdivision (c), all causes of action against a person to whom assets were distributed arising under this section are extinguished unless the claimant commences a proceeding to enforce the cause of action against that person prior to the earlier of the following:

(A) The expiration of the statute of limitations applicable to the cause of action.

(B) Four years after the effective date of the dissolution of the corporation.

(3) As a matter of procedure only, and not for purposes of determining liability, persons to whom assets of a dissolved corporation are distributed may be sued in the name of the corporation upon any cause of action against the corporation. This section does not affect the rights of the corporation or its creditors under Section 2009, or the rights, if any, of creditors under the Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act, which may arise against persons to whom such assets are distributed.

This subdivision applies to corporations dissolved on or after January 1, 2000. Corporations dissolved prior to that date are subject to the law in effect prior to that date.

(b) Summons or other process against a dissolved corporation may be served by delivering a copy thereof to an officer, director or person having charge of its assets or, if that person cannot be found, to any agent upon whom process might be served at the time of dissolution. If none of these persons can be found with due diligence and it is so shown by affidavit to the satisfaction of the court, then the court may make an order that summons or other process be served upon the dissolved corporation by personally delivering a copy thereof, together with a copy of the order, to the Secretary of State or an assistant or deputy secretary of state.

(c) Every dissolved corporation shall survive and continue to exist indefinitely for the purpose of being sued in any quiet title action. Any judgment rendered in any quiet title action shall bind each and all of its members or other persons having any equity or other interest in that corporation, to the extent of their interest therein, and that action shall have the same force and effect as an action brought under the provisions of Sections 410.50 and 410.60 of the Code of Civil Procedure. Service of summons or other process in any quiet title action may be made as provided in Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 413.10) of Title 5 of Part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure or as provided in subdivision (b).

(d) Upon receipt of that process and the fee therefor, the Secretary of State forthwith shall give notice to the corporation as provided in Section 1702.

(Amended by Stats. 1999, Ch. 453, Sec. 32. Effective January 1, 2000.)


Without the approval of 100 percent of the members, any contrary provision in this part or the articles or bylaws notwithstanding, so long as there is any lot, parcel, area, apartment or unit for which an owners’ association, created in connection with any of the forms of development referred to in Section 11004.5 of the Business and Professions Code, is obligated to provide management, maintenance, preservation, or control, the following shall apply:

(a) The owners’ association or any person acting on its behalf shall not do either of the following:

(1) Transfer all or substantially all of its assets.

(2) File a certificate of dissolution.

(b) No court shall enter an order declaring the owners’ association duly wound up and dissolved.

(Amended by Stats. 2006, Ch. 538, Sec. 81. Effective January 1, 2007.)

CORPCorporations Code - CORP