Code Section Group

Corporations Code - CORP

TITLE 1. CORPORATIONS [100 - 14631]

  ( Title 1 enacted by Stats. 1947, Ch. 1038. )

DIVISION 2. NONPROFIT CORPORATION LAW [5000 - 10841]

  ( Heading of Division 2 amended by Stats. 1978, Ch. 567. )

PART 4. NONPROFIT RELIGIOUS CORPORATIONS [9110 - 9690]

  ( Part 4 added by Stats. 1978, Ch. 567. )

CHAPTER 4. Meetings and Voting [9410 - 9421]
  ( Chapter 4 added by Stats. 1978, Ch. 567. )

9410.
  

(a) In the absence of a contrary provision in the articles or bylaws, the provisions of this chapter shall apply to any regular or special meeting of members or obtaining approval of members (Section 5034) or approval of a majority of members (Section 5033). The articles or bylaws may provide any reasonable method of calling, noticing, and holding such meetings or obtaining such approvals.

(b) Anything in subdivision (a) to the contrary notwithstanding, the articles or bylaws may not vary the provisions of subdivision (e) of Section 9411, subdivision (e) of Section 9417 (if proxies are authorized), or Section 9418.

(Amended by Stats. 1981, Ch. 587, Sec. 51.)

9411.
  

(a) Subject to the provisions of this chapter, regular and special meetings of members shall be called, noticed and held as may be ordered by the board. Unless prohibited by the bylaws of the corporation, if authorized by the board of directors in its sole discretion, and subject to the requirement of consent in clause (b) of Section 20 and those guidelines and procedures as the board of directors may adopt, members not physically present in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy) at a meeting of members may, by electronic transmission by and to the corporation (Sections 20 and 21) or by electronic video screen communication, participate in a meeting of members, be deemed present in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy), and vote at a meeting of members whether that meeting is to be held at a designated place or in whole or in part by means of electronic transmission by and to the corporation or by electronic video screen communication, in accordance with subdivision (f).

(b) Special meetings of members for any lawful purpose may be called by the board or the chairman of the board or the president. In addition, special meetings of members for any lawful purpose may be called by 5 percent or more of the members.

(c) Upon request in writing to the chairman of the board, president, vice president or secretary by any person (other than the board) entitled to call a special meeting of members, the board shall expeditiously set a reasonable time and place for the meeting and the officer forthwith shall cause notice to be given to the members entitled to vote of the time and place of the meeting. If the notice is not given within 20 days after receipt of the request, the persons entitled to call the meeting may give the notice or the superior court of the proper county shall summarily order the giving of the notice, after notice to the corporation giving it an opportunity to be heard. The court may issue such orders as may be appropriate, including, without limitation, orders designating the time and place of the meeting, the record date for determination of members entitled to vote and the form of notice.

(d) The transactions of any meeting of members, however called and noticed, and wherever held, are as valid as though had at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice, if a quorum is present either in person (or, if proxies are allowed, by proxy), and if, either before or after the meeting, each of the persons entitled to vote, not present in person or by proxy, signs a written waiver of notice or a consent to the holding of the meeting or an approval of the minutes thereof. All such waivers, consents and approvals shall be filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of and presence at such meeting, except when the person objects, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened and except that attendance at a meeting is not a waiver of any right to object to the consideration of matters required by this part to be included in the notice but not so included, if such objection is expressly made at the meeting. Neither the business to be transacted at nor the purpose of any regular or special meeting of members need be specified in any written waiver of notice, consent to the holding of the meeting or approval of the minutes thereof except as provided in subdivision (e).

(e) Any member approval required under subdivision (b) of Section 9150, Section 9222, Section 5812 (made applicable pursuant to Section 9620), subdivision (a) of Section 9631, subdivision (c) of Section 9640, subdivision (a) of Section 6015 (made applicable pursuant to Section 9640), or subdivision (b) of Section 9680, other than unanimous approval by those entitled to vote, shall be valid only if the general nature of the proposal so approved was stated in the notice of meeting or in any written waiver of notice.

(f) A meeting of the members may be conducted, in whole or in part, by electronic transmission by and to the corporation or by electronic video screen communication (1) if the corporation implements reasonable measures to provide members a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the members, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting concurrently with those proceedings, and (2) if any member votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of electronic transmission to the corporation or electronic video screen communication, a record of that vote or action is maintained by the corporation. Any request by a corporation to a member pursuant to clause (b) of Section 20 for consent to conduct a meeting of members by electronic transmission by and to the corporation, shall include a notice that absent consent of the member pursuant to clause (b) of Section 20, the meeting shall be held at a physical location in accordance with subdivision (a).

(Amended by Stats. 2004, Ch. 254, Sec. 32. Effective January 1, 2005.)

9412.
  

(a) One-third of the voting power, represented in person, by written ballot, or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of members. If a quorum is present, the affirmative vote of the majority of the voting power represented at the meeting, entitled to vote, and voting on any matter shall be the act of the members.

(b) The members present at a duly called or held meeting at which a quorum is present may continue to transact business until adjournment notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough members to leave less than a quorum, if any action taken (other than adjournment) is approved by at least a majority of the members required to constitute a quorum or, if required by this division, or by the articles or the bylaws, the vote of the greater number or voting by classes.

(c) In the absence of a quorum, any meeting of members may be adjourned from time to time by the vote of a majority of the votes represented either in person or by proxy, but no other business may be transacted, except as provided in subdivision (b).

(Amended by Stats. 2000, Ch. 485, Sec. 15. Effective January 1, 2001.)

9413.
  

(a) Any action which may be taken at any regular or special meeting of members may be taken without a meeting if the written ballot of every member is solicited, if the required number of signed approvals in writing, setting forth the action so taken, is received, and if the requirements of subdivision (c) are satisfied. Unless otherwise provided by the articles or bylaws and if approved by the board of directors, that ballot and any related material may be sent by electronic transmission by the corporation (Section 20) and responses may be returned to the corporation by electronic transmission to the corporation (Section 21).

(b) All solicitations of ballots shall indicate the time by which the ballot must be returned to be counted.

(c) Approval by written ballot pursuant to this section shall be valid only when the number of ballots cast on or before the time the ballot must be returned to be counted equals or exceeds the quorum required to be present at a meeting authorizing the action, and the number of approvals equals or exceeds the number of votes that would be required to approve at a meeting at which the total number of votes cast was the same as the number of ballots cast.

(d) A written ballot may not be revoked.

(e) Directors may be elected by written ballot under this section, where authorized by the articles or bylaws, except that election by written ballot may not be authorized where the directors are elected by cumulative voting pursuant to Section 9415.

(Amended by Stats. 2004, Ch. 254, Sec. 33. Effective January 1, 2005.)

9414.
  

(a) If for any reason it is impractical or unduly difficult for any corporation to call or conduct a meeting of its members, delegates or directors, or otherwise obtain their consent, in the manner prescribed by its articles or bylaws, or this part, then the superior court of the proper county, upon petition of a director, officer, delegate, or member, may order that such a meeting be called or that a written ballot or other form of obtaining the vote of members, delegates or directors be authorized, in such a manner as the court finds fair and equitable under the circumstances.

(b) The court shall, in an order issued pursuant to this section, provide for a method of notice reasonably designed to give actual notice to all parties who would be entitled to notice of a meeting held pursuant to the articles, bylaws and this part, whether or not the method results in actual notice to every such person, or conforms to the notice requirements that would otherwise apply. In a proceeding under this section the court may determine who the members or directors are.

(c) The order issued pursuant to this section may dispense with any requirement relating to the holding of and voting at meetings or obtaining of votes, including any requirement as to quorums or as to the number or percentage of votes needed for approval, that would otherwise be imposed by the articles, bylaws, or this part.

(d) Wherever practical any order issued pursuant to this section shall limit the subject matter of the meetings or other forms of consent authorized to items, including amendments to the articles or bylaws, the resolution of which will or may enable the corporation to continue managing its affairs without further resort to this section; provided, however, that an order under this section may also authorize the obtaining of whatever votes and approvals are necessary for the dissolution, merger, sale of assets or reorganization of the corporation.

(e) Any meeting or other method of obtaining the vote of members, delegates or directors conducted pursuant to an order issued under this section, and which complies with all the provisions of such order, is for all purposes a valid meeting or vote, as the case may be, and shall have the same force and effect as if it complied with every requirement imposed by the articles, bylaws and this part.

(Amended by Stats. 1986, Ch. 766, Sec. 32.)

9415.
  

(a) If the articles or bylaws authorize cumulative voting, but not otherwise, every member entitled to vote at any election of directors may cumulate such member’s votes and give one candidate a number of votes equal to the number of directors to be elected multiplied by the number of votes to which the member is entitled, or distribute the member’s votes on the same principle among as many candidates as the member thinks fit.

(b) No member shall be entitled to cumulate votes for a candidate or candidates unless such candidate’s name or candidates’ names have been placed in nomination prior to the voting and the member has given notice at the meeting prior to the voting of the member’s intention to cumulate votes. If any one member has given such notice, all members may cumulate their votes for candidates in nomination.

(c) In any election of directors, the candidates receiving the highest number of votes are elected, subject to any lawful provision specifying election by classes.

(d) Elections for directors need not be by ballot unless a member demands election by ballot at the meeting and before the voting begins or unless the bylaws so require.

(Repealed and added by Stats. 1981, Ch. 570, Sec. 10.)

9417.
  

(a) Any member may authorize another person or persons to act by proxy with respect to such membership, except that this right may be limited or withdrawn by the articles or bylaws. Any proxy purported to be executed in accordance with the provisions of this part shall be presumptively valid.

(b) No proxy shall be valid after the expiration of 11 months from the date thereof unless otherwise provided in the proxy, except that the maximum term of any proxy shall be three years from the date of execution. Every proxy continues in full force and effect until revoked by the person executing it prior to the vote pursuant thereto. Such revocation may be effected by a writing delivered to the corporation stating that the proxy is revoked or by a subsequent proxy executed by the person executing the prior proxy and presented to the meeting, or as to any meeting by attendance at such meeting and voting in person by the person executing the proxy.

(c) A proxy is not revoked by the death or incapacity of the maker or the termination of a membership as a result thereof unless, before the vote is counted, written notice of such death or incapacity is received by the corporation.

(d) The proxy of a member may not be irrevocable.

(e) Any proxy covering matters requiring a vote of the members pursuant to Section 5812 (made applicable pursuant to Section 9620), subdivision (a) of Section 9631, subdivision (c) of Section 9640, subdivision (a) of Section 6015 (made applicable pursuant to Section 9640), or subdivision (b) of Section 9680 is not valid unless it sets forth the general nature of the matter to be voted on.

(Amended by Stats. 1981, Ch. 587, Sec. 53.)

9418.
  

(a) Upon the filing of an action therefor by any director or member, or by any person who had the right to vote in the election at issue after such director, member, or person has exhausted any remedies provided in the articles or bylaws, the superior court of the proper county shall determine the validity of any election or appointment of any director of any corporation.

(b) Upon the filing of the complaint, and before any further proceedings are had, the court shall enter an order fixing a date for the hearing, which shall be within five days unless for good cause shown a later date is fixed, and requiring notice of the date for the hearing and a copy of the complaint to be served upon the corporation and upon the person whose purported election or appointment is questioned and upon any person (other than the plaintiff) whom the plaintiff alleges to have been elected or appointed, in the manner in which a summons is required to be served, or, if the court so directs, by registered mail; and the court may make such further requirements as to notice as appear to be proper under the circumstances.

(c) The court, consistent with the provisions of this part and in conformity with the articles and bylaws to the extent feasible, may determine the person entitled to the office of director or may order a new election to be held or appointment to be made, may determine the validity of the issuance of memberships and the right of persons to vote and may direct such other relief as may be just and proper.

(Added by Stats. 1978, Ch. 567.)

9419.
  

In the absence of fraud, any election, appointment or removal of a director is conclusively presumed valid nine months thereafter if the only defect in the election, appointment or removal is the failure to give notice as provided in this part or in the corporation’s articles or bylaws.

(Added by Stats. 1979, Ch. 724.)

9420.
  

Any action required or permitted to be taken by the members may be taken without a meeting, if all members shall individually or collectively consent in writing to the action. The written consent or consents shall be filed with the minutes of the proceedings of the members. The action by written consent shall have the same force and effect as the unanimous vote of the members.

(Added by Stats. 1981, Ch. 587, Sec. 54.)

9421.
  

(a) If the name signed on a ballot, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment corresponds to the name of a member, the corporation if acting in good faith is entitled to accept the ballot, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment and give it effect as the act of the member.

(b) If the name signed on a ballot, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment does not correspond to the record name of a member, the corporation if acting in good faith is nevertheless entitled to accept the ballot, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment and give it effect as the act of the member if any of the following occur:

(1) The member is an entity and the name signed purports to be that of an officer or agent of the entity.

(2) The name signed purports to be that of an attorney-in-fact of the member and if the corporation requests, evidence acceptable to the corporation of the signatory’s authority to sign for the member has been presented with respect to the ballot, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment.

(3) Two or more persons hold the membership as cotenants or fiduciaries and the name signed purports to be the name of at least one of the coholders and the person signing appears to be acting on behalf of all the coholders.

(c) The corporation is entitled to reject a ballot, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment if the secretary or other officer or agent authorized to tabulate votes, acting in good faith, has a reasonable basis for doubt concerning the validity of the signature or the signatory’s authority to sign for the member.

(d) The corporation and any officer or agent thereof who accepts or rejects a ballot, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment in good faith and in accordance with the standards of this section shall not be liable in damages to the member for the consequences of the acceptance or rejection.

(e) Corporate action based on the acceptance or rejection of a ballot, consent, waiver, or proxy appointment under this section is valid unless a court of competent jurisdiction determines otherwise.

(Added by Stats. 1996, Ch. 589, Sec. 44. Effective January 1, 1997.)

CORPCorporations Code - CORP