Code Section Group

Corporations Code - CORP

TITLE 1. CORPORATIONS [100 - 14631]

  ( Title 1 enacted by Stats. 1947, Ch. 1038. )

DIVISION 2. NONPROFIT CORPORATION LAW [5000 - 10841]

  ( Heading of Division 2 amended by Stats. 1978, Ch. 567. )

PART 3. NONPROFIT MUTUAL BENEFIT CORPORATIONS [7110 - 8910]

  ( Part 3 added by Stats. 1978, Ch. 567. )

CHAPTER 2. Directors and Management [7210 - 7240]

  ( Chapter 2 added by Stats. 1978, Ch. 567. )

ARTICLE 2. Selection, Removal and Resignation of Directors [7220 - 7225]
  ( Article 2 added by Stats. 1978, Ch. 567. )

7220.
  

(a) Except as provided in subdivision (d), directors shall be elected for such terms, not longer than four years, as are fixed in the articles or bylaws. However, the terms of directors of a corporation without members may be up to six years. In the absence of any provision in the articles or bylaws, the term shall be one year. The articles or bylaws may provide for staggering the terms of directors by dividing the total number of directors into groups of one or more directors. The terms of office of the several groups and the number of directors in each group need not be uniform. No amendment of the articles or bylaws may extend the term of a director beyond that for which the director was elected, nor may any bylaw provision increasing the terms of directors be adopted without approval of the members (Section 5034).

(b) Unless the articles or bylaws otherwise provide, each director, including a director elected to fill a vacancy, shall hold office until the expiration of the term for which elected and until a successor has been elected and qualified, unless the director has been removed from office.

(c) The articles or bylaws may provide for the election of one or more directors by the members of any class voting as a class.

(d) For the purposes of this subdivision, “designator” means one or more designators. Subdivisions (a) through (c) notwithstanding, all or any portion of the directors authorized in the articles or bylaws of a corporation may hold office by virtue of designation or selection by a specified designator as provided by the articles or bylaws rather than by election. Such directors shall continue in office for the term prescribed by the governing article or bylaw provision, or, if there is no term prescribed, until the governing article or bylaw provision is duly amended or repealed, except as provided in subdivision (e) of Section 7222. A bylaw provision authorized by this subdivision may be adopted, amended, or repealed only by approval of the members (Section 5034), except as provided in subdivision (d) of Section 7150. Unless otherwise provided in the articles or bylaws, the entitlement to designate or select a director or directors shall cease if any of the following circumstances exist:

(1) The specified designator of that director or directors has died or ceased to exist.

(2) If the entitlement of the specified designator of that director or directors to designate is in the capacity of an officer, trustee, or other status and the office, trust, or status has ceased to exist.

(e) If a corporation has not issued memberships and (1) all the directors resign, die, or become incompetent, or (2) a corporation’s initial directors have not been named in the articles and all incorporators resign, die, or become incompetent before the election of the initial directors, the superior court of any county may appoint directors of the corporation upon application by any party in interest.

(Amended by Stats. 2009, Ch. 631, Sec. 22. Effective January 1, 2010.)

7221.
  

(a) The board may declare vacant the office of a director who has been declared of unsound mind by a final order of court, or convicted of a felony, or, in the case of a corporation holding assets in charitable trust, has been found by a final order or judgment of any court to have breached any duty arising as a result of Section 7238, or, if at the time a director is elected, the bylaws provide that a director may be removed for missing a specified number of board meetings, fails to attend the specified number of meetings.

(b) As provided in paragraph (3) of subdivision (c) of Section 7151, the articles or bylaws may prescribe the qualifications of the directors. The board, by a majority vote of the directors who meet all of the required qualifications to be a director, may declare vacant the office of any director who fails or ceases to meet any required qualification that was in effect at the beginning of that director’s current term of office.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 589, Sec. 26. Effective January 1, 1997.)

7222.
  

(a) Subject to subdivisions (b) and (f), any or all directors may be removed without cause if:

(1) In a corporation with fewer than 50 members, the removal is approved by a majority of all members (Section 5033).

(2) In a corporation with 50 or more members, the removal is approved by the members (Section 5034).

(3) In a corporation with no members, the removal is approved by a majority of the directors then in office.

(b) Except for a corporation having no members, pursuant to Section 7310:

(1) In a corporation in which the articles or bylaws authorize members to cumulate their votes pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 7615, no director may be removed (unless the entire board is removed) when the votes cast against removal, or not consenting in writing to the removal, would be sufficient to elect the director if voted cumulatively at an election at which the same total number of votes were cast (or, if the action is taken by written ballot, all memberships entitled to vote were voted) and the entire number of directors authorized at the time of the director’s most recent election were then being elected.

(2) When by the provisions of the articles or bylaws the members of any class, voting as a class, are entitled to elect one or more directors, any director so elected may be removed only by the applicable vote of the members of that class.

(3) When by the provisions of the articles or bylaws the members within a chapter or other organizational unit, or region or other geographic grouping, voting as such, are entitled to elect one or more directors, any director so elected may be removed only by the applicable vote of the members within the organizational unit or geographic grouping.

(c) Any reduction of the authorized number of directors or any amendment reducing the number of classes of directors does not remove any director prior to the expiration of the director’s term of office unless the reduction or amendment also provides for the removal of one or more specified directors.

(d) Except as provided in this section and Sections 7221 and 7223, a director may not be removed prior to the expiration of the director’s term of office.

(e) Where a director removed under this section or Section 7221 or 7223 was chosen by designation pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 7220, then:

(1) Where a different person may be designated pursuant to the governing article or bylaw provision, the new designation shall be made.

(2) Where the governing article or bylaw provision contains no provision under which a different person may be designated, the governing article or bylaw provision shall be deemed repealed.

(f) For the purposes of this subdivision, “designator” means one or more designators. If by the provisions of the articles or bylaws a designator is entitled to designate one or more directors, then:

(1) Unless otherwise provided in the articles or bylaws at the time of designation, any director so designated may be removed without cause by the designator of that director.

(2) Any director so designated may only be removed under subdivision (a) with the written consent of the designator of that director.

(3) Unless otherwise provided in the articles or bylaws, the right to remove shall not apply if any of the following circumstances exist:

(A) The designator entitled to that right has died or ceased to exist.

(B) If that right is in the capacity of an officer, trustee, or other status, and the office, trust, or status has ceased to exist.

(Amended by Stats. 2009, Ch. 631, Sec. 23. Effective January 1, 2010.)

7223.
  

(a) The superior court of the proper county may, at the suit of one of the parties specified in subdivision (b), remove from office any director in case of fraudulent or dishonest acts or gross abuse of authority or discretion with reference to the corporation or breach of any duty arising as a result of Section 7238 and may bar from reelection any director so removed for a period prescribed by the court. The corporation shall be made a party to such action.

(b) An action under subdivision (a) may be instituted by any of the following:

(1) A director.

(2) In the case of a corporation where the total number of votes entitled to be cast for a director is less than 5,000, twice the authorized number (Section 5036) of members, or 20 members, whichever is less.

(3) In the case of a corporation where the total number of votes entitled to be cast for a director is 5,000 or more, twice the authorized number (Section 5036) of members, or 100 members, whichever is less.

(c) In the case of a corporation holding assets in charitable trust, the Attorney General may bring an action under subdivision (a), may intervene in such an action brought by any other party and shall be given notice of any such action brought by any other party.

(Amended by Stats. 1981, Ch. 587, Sec. 29.)

7224.
  

(a) Unless otherwise provided in the articles or bylaws and except for a vacancy created by the removal of a director, vacancies on the board may be filled by approval of the board (Section 5032) or, if the number of directors then in office is less than a quorum, by (1) the unanimous written consent of the directors then in office, (2) the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office at a meeting held pursuant to notice or waivers of notice complying with Section 7211, or (3) a sole remaining director. Unless the articles or a bylaw approved by the members (Section 5034) provide that the board may fill vacancies occurring in the board by reason of the removal of directors, or unless the corporation has no members pursuant to Section 7310, such vacancies may be filled only by approval of the members (Section 5034).

(b) The members may elect a director at any time to fill any vacancy not filled by the directors.

(c) Any director may resign effective upon giving written notice to the chairman of the board, the president, the secretary or the board of directors of the corporation, unless the notice specifies a later time for the effectiveness of such resignation. If the resignation is effective at a future time, a successor may be elected to take office when the resignation becomes effective.

(Amended by Stats. 1985, Ch. 329, Sec. 3.)

7225.
  

(a) If a corporation has an even number of directors who are equally divided and cannot agree as to the management of its affairs, so that its activities can no longer be conducted to advantage or so that there is danger that its property, activities, or business will be impaired or lost, the superior court of the proper county may, notwithstanding any provisions of the articles or bylaws and whether or not an action is pending for an involuntary winding up or dissolution of the corporation, appoint a provisional director pursuant to this section. Action for such appointment may be brought by any director or by members holding not less than 331/3 percent of the voting power.

(b) If the members of a corporation are deadlocked so that they cannot elect the directors to be elected at the time prescribed therefor, the superior court of the proper county may, notwithstanding any provisions of the articles or bylaws, upon petition of members holding 50 percent of the voting power, appoint a provisional director or directors pursuant to this section or order such other equitable relief as the court deems appropriate.

(c) In the case of a corporation holding assets in charitable trust:

(1) Any person bringing an action under subdivision (a) or (b) shall give notice to the Attorney General, who may intervene; and

(2) The Attorney General may bring an action under subdivision (a) or (b).

(d) A provisional director shall be an impartial person, who is neither a member nor a creditor of the corporation, nor related by consanguinity or affinity within the third degree according to the common law to any of the other directors of the corporation or to any judge of the court by which such provisional director is appointed. A provisional director shall have all the rights and powers of a director until the deadlock in the board or among members is broken or until such provisional director is removed by order of the court or by approval of a majority of all members (Section 5033). Such person shall be entitled to such compensation as shall be fixed by the court unless otherwise agreed with the corporation.

(Amended by Stats. 1995, Ch. 154, Sec. 16. Effective January 1, 1996.)

CORPCorporations Code - CORP2.