Code Section Group

Corporations Code - CORP

TITLE 4. SECURITIES [25000 - 31516]

  ( Title 4 added by Stats. 1949, Ch. 384. )

DIVISION 1. CORPORATE SECURITIES LAW OF 1968 [25000 - 25707]

  ( Division 1 repealed and added by Stats. 1968, Ch. 88. )

PART 6. ENFORCEMENT [25500 - 25550]

  ( Part 6 added by Stats. 1968, Ch. 88. )

CHAPTER 2. Powers of the Commissioner [25530 - 25536]
  ( Chapter 2 added by Stats. 1968, Ch. 88. )

25530.
  

(a) Whenever it appears to the commissioner that any person has engaged, is engaging, or is about to engage in any act or practice constituting a violation of any provision of this division or any rule or order hereunder, the commissioner may in the commissioner’s discretion bring an action in the name of the people of the State of California in the superior court to enjoin the acts or practices or to enforce compliance with this law or any rule or order hereunder. Upon a proper showing, a permanent or preliminary injunction, restraining order, or writ of mandate shall be granted and a receiver, monitor, conservator, or other designated fiduciary or officer of the court may be appointed for the defendant or the defendant’s assets, or any other ancillary relief may be granted as appropriate.

A receiver, monitor, conservator, or other designated fiduciary or officer of the court appointed by the superior court pursuant to this section may, with the approval of the court, exercise any or all of the powers of the defendant’s officers, directors, partners, trustees or persons who exercise similar powers and perform similar duties, including the filing of a petition for bankruptcy. No action at law or in equity may be maintained by any party against the commissioner, or a receiver, monitor, conservator, or other designated fiduciary or officer of the court, by reason of their exercising these powers or performing these duties pursuant to the order of, or with the approval of, the superior court.

(b) If the commissioner determines it is in the public interest, the commissioner may include in any action authorized by subdivision (a) a claim for ancillary relief, including but not limited to, a claim for restitution or disgorgement or damages on behalf of the persons injured by the act or practice constituting the subject matter of the action, and the court shall have jurisdiction to award additional relief.

(c) In any case in which a defendant is ordered by the court to pay restitution to a victim, the court may in its order require the payment as a money judgment, which shall be enforceable by a victim as if the restitution order were a separate civil judgment, and enforceable in the same manner as is provided for the enforcement of any other money judgment. Any order issued under this subdivision shall contain provisions that are designed to achieve a fair and orderly satisfaction of the judgment.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 335, Sec. 7. Effective January 1, 2014.)

25530.1.
  

In any proceeding under Section 25530, the court may prohibit, conditionally or unconditionally, and permanently or for such period of time as it shall determine, any person who violated Section 25401 from acting as an officer or director of any issuer that has securities qualified pursuant to Section 25110, or that has securities or a transaction exempt from qualification pursuant to Section 25100, 25102, or 25103, if the person’s conduct demonstrates unfitness to serve as an officer or director of the issuer.

(Added by Stats. 2007, Ch. 101, Sec. 6. Effective January 1, 2008.)

25531.
  

(a) The commissioner in his discretion (1) may make such public or private investigations within or outside of this state as he deems necessary to determine whether any person has violated or is about to violate any provision of this law or any rule or order hereunder or to aid in the enforcement of this law or in the prescribing of rules and forms hereunder, and (2) may publish information concerning any violation of this law or any rule or order hereunder.

(b) In making any investigation authorized by subdivision (a) of this section, the commissioner may, for a reasonable time not exceeding 30 days, take possession of the books, records, accounts and other papers pertaining to the business of any broker-dealer or investment adviser and place a keeper in exclusive charge of them in the place where they are usually kept. During such possession no person shall remove or attempt to remove any of the books, records, accounts, or other papers except pursuant to a court order or with the consent of the commissioner; but the directors, officers, partners, and employees of the broker-dealer or investment adviser may examine them, and employees shall be permitted to make entries therein reflecting current transactions.

(c) For the purpose of any investigation or proceeding under this law, the commissioner or any officer designated by him may administer oaths and affirmations, subpoena witnesses, compel their attendance, take evidence, and require the production of any books, papers, correspondence, memoranda, agreements, or other documents or records which the commissioner deems relevant or material to the inquiry.

(d) In case of contumacy by, or refusal to obey a subpoena issued to, any person, the superior court, upon application by the commissioner, may issue to the person an order requiring him to appear before the commissioner, or the officer designated by him, there to produce documentary evidence, if so ordered, or to give evidence touching the matter under investigation or in question. Failure to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt.

(e) No person is excused from attending and testifying or from producing any document or record before the commissioner, or in obedience to the subpoena of the commissioner or any officer designated by him, or in any proceeding instituted by the commissioner, on the ground that the testimony or evidence (documentary or otherwise) required of him may tend to incriminate him or subject him to a penalty or forfeiture; but no individual may be prosecuted or subjected to any penalty or forfeiture for or on account of any transaction, matter, or thing concerning which he is compelled, after validly claiming his privilege against self-incrimination, to testify or produce evidence (documentary or otherwise), except that the individual testifying is not exempt from prosecution and punishment for perjury or contempt committed in testifying.

(Added by Stats. 1968, Ch. 88.)

25532.
  

(a) If, in the opinion of the commissioner, (1) the sale of a security is subject to qualification under this law and it is being or has been offered or sold without first being qualified, the commissioner may order the issuer or offeror of the security to desist and refrain from the further offer or sale of the security until qualification has been made under this law or (2) the sale of a security is subject to the requirements of Section 25100.1, 25101.1, or 25102.1 and the security is being or has been offered or sold without first meeting the requirements of those sections, the commissioner may order the issuer or offeror of that security to desist and refrain from the further offer or sale of the security until those requirements have been met.

(b) If, in the opinion of the commissioner, a person has been or is acting as a broker-dealer or investment adviser, or has been or is engaging in broker-dealer or investment adviser activities, in violation of Section 25210, 25230, or 25230.1, the commissioner may order that person to desist and refrain from the activity until the person has been appropriately licensed or the required filing has been made under this law.

(c) If, in the opinion of the commissioner, a person has violated or is violating Section 25401, the commissioner may order that person to desist and refrain from the violation.

(d) If the commissioner determines that a person has engaged, is engaging, or is about to engage in an act, practice, or course of business constituting a violation of this division or a rule adopted or order issued under this division, the commissioner may issue an order directing the person to desist and refrain from engaging in the act, practice, or course of business, or take other action necessary or appropriate to comply with this division.

(e) If the commissioner determines it is in the public interest, the commissioner may include in any administrative action brought under this division a claim for ancillary relief, including, but not limited to, a claim for restitution or disgorgement or damages on behalf of the persons injured by the act or practice constituting the subject matter of the action, and the administrative law judge shall have jurisdiction to award additional relief.

(f) If, after an order has been served under subdivision (a), (b), (c), or (d), a request for hearing is filed in writing within 30 days of the date of service of the order by the person to whom the order was directed, a hearing shall be held in accordance with provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act, Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 11500) of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code, and the commissioner shall have all of the powers granted under that chapter. Unless the hearing is commenced within 15 business days after the request is filed (or the person affected consents to a later date), the order is rescinded.

If that person fails to file a written request for a hearing within 30 days from the date of service of the order, the order shall be deemed a final order of the commissioner and is not subject to review by any court or agency, notwithstanding Section 25609.

The commissioner may file a certified copy of the final order with the clerk of the superior court or any court of competent jurisdiction. The order so filed has the same effect as a judgment of the court and may be recorded, enforced, or satisfied in the same manner as a judgment of the court.

If a person does not comply with an order under this section, the commissioner may petition the superior court or any court of competent jurisdiction to enforce the order. The court may not require the commissioner to post a bond in an action or proceeding under this section. If the court finds, after service and opportunity for hearing, that the person was not in compliance with the order, the court may adjudge the person in civil contempt of the order. The court may impose a further civil penalty against the person for contempt and may grant any other relief the court determines is just and proper in the circumstances.

(Amended by Stats. 2016, Ch. 277, Sec. 8. Effective January 1, 2017.)

25533.
  

The commissioner may refer any evidence available concerning any violation of this law or of any rule or order hereunder to the Attorney General or the district attorney of the county in which the violation occurred, who may, with or without this type of a reference, institute appropriate criminal proceedings under this law. The commissioner and his or her counsel, deputies, or assistants may, upon request of the Attorney General or the district attorney, assist the prosecuting attorney in presenting the law or facts at the trial.

(Amended by Stats. 2003, Ch. 876, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2004.)

25533.5.
  

The commissioner shall send a copy of a desist and refrain order issued under this law to the Attorney General and the district attorney of the county in which the person who is the subject of the order resides or maintains a principal place of business. There shall be no liability on the part of, and no cause of action of any nature shall arise against, the State of California, the department and its employees, the commissioner, the members of the commissioner’s staff, or the commissioner’s authorized representatives for the failure to provide to the Attorney General or the district attorney a copy of the order as required by this section.

(Amended by Stats. 2003, Ch. 876, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2004.)

25534.
  

Whenever any securities are issued which the commissioner determines were offered or sold in violation of Section 25110, 25120, or 25130, the commissioner may, by written order to the issuer and notice to the holders of such securities, require certificates evidencing such securities to have stamped or printed prominently on their face a legend, in the form prescribed by rule of the commissioner, restricting the transfer of such securities. Upon receipt of the order, the issuer shall stamp or print such legend prominently on the face of all outstanding certificates subject to the order. If, after such order or notice has been given, a request for a hearing is filed in writing by the person or persons to whom such order or notice was addressed, a hearing shall be held in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act, Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 11500) of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code, and the commissioner shall have all the powers granted thereunder; unless such hearing is commenced within 15 business days after the request for hearing is received by the commissioner (or the person or persons affected and the issuer consent to a later date), such order and notice are rescinded.

(Amended by Stats. 1973, Ch. 390.)

25535.
  

(a) Any person who violates any provision of this law, or who violates any rule or order under this law, shall be liable for a civil penalty not to exceed twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000) for each violation, which shall be assessed and recovered in a civil action brought in the name of the people of the State of California by the commissioner in any court of competent jurisdiction.

(b) As applied to the penalties for acts in violation of this division, the remedies provided by this section and by other sections of this division are not exclusive, and may be sought and employed in any combination to enforce the provisions of this division.

(c) No action shall be maintained to enforce any liability created under subdivision (a) unless brought before the expiration of four years after the act or transaction constituting the violation.

(Amended by Stats. 1998, Ch. 391, Sec. 13. Effective January 1, 1999.)

25536.
  

(a) The commissioner may take such actions as are authorized by Section 6d of the federal Commodity Exchange Act (7 U.S.C. Sec. 1 et seq.) as amended before or after the effective date of this section.

(b) Nothing in this section shall be construed as a limitation on the powers of the commissioner under this division or any other law administered by the commissioner.

(Amended by Stats. 1984, Ch. 193, Sec. 11.)

CORPCorporations Code - CORP