Code Section Group

Corporations Code - CORP

TITLE 1. CORPORATIONS [100 - 14631]

  ( Title 1 enacted by Stats. 1947, Ch. 1038. )

DIVISION 1. GENERAL CORPORATION LAW [100 - 2319]

  ( Division 1 repealed and added by Stats. 1975, Ch. 682. )

CHAPTER 4. Shares and Share Certificates [400 - 423]
  ( Chapter 4 added by Stats. 1975, Ch. 682. )

400.
  

(a) A corporation may issue one or more classes or series of shares or both, with full, limited or no voting rights and with such other rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions as are stated or authorized in its articles. No denial or limitation of voting rights shall be effective unless at the time one or more classes or series of outstanding shares or debt securities, singly or in the aggregate, are entitled to full voting rights; and no denial or limitation of dividend or liquidation rights shall be effective unless at the time one or more classes or series of outstanding shares, singly or in the aggregate, are entitled to unlimited dividend and liquidation rights.

(b) All shares of any one class shall have the same voting, conversion and redemption rights and other rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, unless the class is divided into series. If a class is divided into series, all the shares of any one series shall have the same voting, conversion and redemption rights and other rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions.

(Amended by Stats. 1976, Ch. 641.)

401.
  

(a) Before any corporation issues any shares of any class or series of which the rights, preferences, privileges, and restrictions, or any of them, or the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of the series, are not set forth in its articles but are fixed in a resolution adopted by the board pursuant to authority given by its articles, an officers’ certificate shall be executed and filed, setting forth: (1) a copy of the resolution; (2) the number of shares of the class or series; and (3) that none of the shares of the class or series has been issued.

(b) After any certificate of determination has been filed, but before the corporation issues any shares of the class or series covered thereby, the board may alter or revoke any right, preference, privilege, or restriction fixed or determined by the resolution set forth therein by the adoption of another resolution appropriate for that purpose and the execution and filing of an officers’ certificate setting forth a copy of the resolution, and stating that none of the shares of the class or the series affected has been issued.

(c) After any certificate of determination has been filed, the board may, if authorized in the articles pursuant to subdivision (e) of Section 202, increase or decrease the number of shares constituting any series, by the adoption of another resolution appropriate for that purpose and the execution and filing of an officers’ certificate setting forth a copy of the resolution, the number of shares of the series then outstanding and the increase or decrease in the number of shares constituting the series. If any certificate of determination has been incorporated in restated articles filed pursuant to Section 910, the action authorized by this subdivision may, notwithstanding Section 902, be accomplished by an amendment of the articles approved by the board alone.

(d) After shares of a class or series have been issued, the provisions of the resolution set forth in a certificate of determination may be amended only by the adoption and approval of an amendment in accordance with Section 902, 903, or 904 and the filing of a certificate of amendment in accordance with Sections 905 and 908. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a certificate to increase or decrease the number of shares of a series also may be filed as permitted by subdivision (c).

(e) A provision in a certificate of determination being amended pursuant to subdivision (b), (c), or (d) shall be identified in the amendment in accordance with subdivision (a) of Section 907.

(f) If a certificate is filed pursuant to subdivision (c) to decrease the number of shares of a series to zero, the certificate of determination whereby the series was established is thereupon no longer in force and the series is no longer an authorized series of the corporation.

(g) If the rights, preferences, privileges, and restrictions of the class or series contain a supermajority vote provision, as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 710, subject to Section 710, the officers’ certificate shall also state that the provision has been approved by the shareholders in accordance with subdivision (c) of Section 710.

(Amended by Stats. 1993, Ch. 128, Sec. 4. Effective January 1, 1994.)

402.
  

(a) A corporation may provide in its articles for one or more classes or series of shares which are redeemable, in whole or in part, (1) at the option of the corporation or (2) to the extent and upon the happening of one or more specified events, and not otherwise except as herein provided. A corporation may provide in its articles for one or more classes or series of preferred shares which are redeemable, in whole or in part, (1) as specified above, (2) at the option of the holder, or (3) upon the vote of at least a majority of the outstanding shares of the class or series to be redeemed. An open end investment company registered under the United States Investment Company Act of 1940 may, if its articles so provide, issue shares which are redeemable at the option of the holder at a price approximately equal to the shares’ proportionate interest in the net assets of the corporation and a shareholder may compel redemption of such shares in accordance with their terms.

(b) Any such redemption shall be effected at such price or prices, within such time and upon such terms and conditions as are stated in the articles. When the articles permit partial redemption of a class or series of shares, the articles shall prescribe the method of selecting the shares to be redeemed, which may be pro rata, by lot, at the discretion of, or in a manner approved by, the board or upon such other terms as are specified in the articles.

(c) No redeemable common shares, other than (1) shares issued by an open end investment company registered under the United States Investment Company Act of 1940, (2) shares of a corporation which has a license or franchise from a governmental agency to conduct its business or is a member corporation of a national securities exchange registered under the United States Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which license, franchise or membership is conditioned upon some or all of the holders of its stock possessing prescribed qualifications, to the extent necessary to prevent the loss of such license, franchise or membership or to reinstate it, or (3) shares of a professional corporation, as defined in Part 4 (commencing with Section 13400) of Division 3 of Title 1, shall be issued or redeemed unless the corporation at the time has outstanding a class of common shares that is not subject to redemption.

(d) Any redemption by a corporation of its shares shall be subject to the provisions of Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 500). Nothing in this section shall prevent a corporation from creating a sinking fund or similar provision for, or entering into an agreement for, the redemption or purchase of its shares to the extent permitted by Chapter 5, but unless such purchase or redemption is permitted under Chapter 5, the holder of shares to be so purchased or redeemed shall not become a creditor of the corporation.

(Amended by Stats. 1983, Ch. 1223, Sec. 5.)

402.5.
  

The rights, preferences, privileges, and restrictions granted to or imposed upon a class or series of preferred shares (Section 176), the designation of which includes either the word “preferred” or the word “preference,” may:

(a) Notwithstanding paragraph (9) of subdivision (a) of Section 204, include a provision requiring a vote of a specified percentage or proportion of the outstanding shares of the class or series that is less than a majority of the class or series to approve any corporate action, except where the vote of a majority or greater proportion of the class or series is required by this division, regardless of restrictions or limitations on the voting rights thereof.

(b) Notwithstanding paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 204, provide that in addition to the requirement of subdivision (a) of Section 1900 the corporation may voluntarily wind up and dissolve only upon the vote of a specified percentage (which shall not exceed 662/3 percent) of such class or series.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (a) of Section 500, provide that a distribution may be made without regard to the preferential dividends arrears amount, or any preferential rights amount, or both, as described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 500.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 71, Sec. 22. Effective January 1, 2015.)

403.
  

(a) When so provided in the articles, a corporation may issue shares convertible within the time or upon the happening of one or more specified events and upon the terms and conditions that are stated in the articles if any of the following conditions apply:

(1) At the option of the holder or automatically upon either the vote of at least a majority of the outstanding shares of the class or series to be converted or upon the happening of one or more specified events, into shares of any class or series.

(2) If it is a corporation which has a license or franchise from a governmental agency to conduct its business or a member corporation of a national securities exchange registered under the United States Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the license, franchise or membership of which is conditioned upon some or all of the holders of its stock possessing prescribed qualifications, to the extent necessary to prevent the loss of such license, franchise or membership or to reinstate it, at the option of the corporation, into shares of any class or series or into any other security of the corporation.

(3) If the corporation is a “listed corporation” as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 301.5, both at the time of the original issuance of the convertible shares and at the time of the conversion, at the option of the corporation into shares of any class or series or into any other security of the corporation, provided that any such securities received upon conversion are listed or qualified for trading on a stock exchange or market system defined in subdivision (d) of Section 301.5.

(b) Unless otherwise provided in the articles, a corporation may issue its debt securities convertible into other debt securities or into shares of the corporation within such time or upon the happening of one or more specified events and upon such terms and conditions as are fixed by the board.

(Amended by Stats. 1996, Ch. 477, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1997.)

404.
  

Either in connection with the issue, subscription or sale of any of its shares, bonds, debentures, notes or other securities or independently thereof, a corporation may grant options to purchase or subscribe for shares of any class or series upon such terms and conditions as may be deemed expedient. Option rights may be transferable or nontransferable and separable or inseparable from other securities of the corporation.

(Added by Stats. 1975, Ch. 682.)

405.
  

(a) If at the time of granting option or conversion rights or at any later time the corporation is not authorized by its articles to issue all the shares required for the satisfaction of the rights, if and when exercised, the additional number of shares required to be issued upon the exercise of such option or conversion rights shall be authorized by an amendment to the articles.

(b) If a corporation has obtained approval of the outstanding shares (Section 152) for the issue of options to purchase shares or of securities convertible into shares of the corporation, the board may, without further approval of the outstanding shares (Section 152), amend the articles to increase the authorized shares of any class or series to such number as will be sufficient from time to time, when added to the previously authorized but unissued shares of such class or series, to satisfy any such option or conversion rights.

(Added by Stats. 1975, Ch. 682.)

406.
  

Unless the articles provide otherwise, the board may issue shares, options or securities having conversion or option rights without first offering them to shareholders of any class.

(Added by Stats. 1975, Ch. 682.)

407.
  

A corporation may, but is not required to, issue fractions of a share originally or upon transfer. If it does not issue fractions of a share, it shall in connection with any original issuance of shares (a) arrange for the disposition of fractional interests by those entitled thereto, (b) pay in cash the fair value of fractions of a share as of the time when those entitled to receive those fractions are determined or (c) issue scrip or warrants in registered form, as certificated securities or uncertificated securities, or bearer form as certificated securities, which shall entitle the holder to receive a certificate for a full share upon the surrender of the scrip or warrants aggregating a full share; provided, however, that if the fraction of a share that any person would otherwise be entitled to receive in a merger, conversion, or reorganization is less than one-half of 1 percent of the total shares that person is entitled to receive, a merger, conversion, or reorganization agreement may provide that fractions of a share will be disregarded or that shares issuable in the merger or conversion will be rounded off to the nearest whole share; and provided, further, that a corporation may not pay cash for fractional shares if that action would result in the cancellation of more than 10 percent of the outstanding shares of any class. A determination by the board of the fair value of fractions of a share shall be conclusive in the absence of fraud. A certificate for a fractional share shall, but scrip or warrants shall not unless otherwise provided therein, entitle the holder to exercise voting rights, to receive dividends thereon and to participate in any of the assets of the corporation in the event of liquidation. The board may cause scrip or warrants to be issued subject to the condition that they shall become void if not exchanged for full shares before a specified date or that the shares for which scrip or warrants are exchangeable may be sold by the corporation and the proceeds thereof distributed to the holder of the scrip or warrants or any other condition that the board may impose.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 480, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2003.)

408.
  

(a) A corporation may adopt and carry out a stock purchase plan or agreement or stock option plan or agreement providing for the issue and sale for such consideration as may be fixed of its unissued shares, or of issued shares acquired or to be acquired, to one or more of the employees or directors of the corporation or of a subsidiary or parent thereof or to a trustee on their behalf and for the payment for such shares in installments or at one time, and may provide for aiding any such persons in paying for such shares by compensation for services rendered, promissory notes or otherwise.

(b) A stock purchase plan or agreement or stock option plan or agreement may include, among other features, the fixing of eligibility for participation therein, the class and price of shares to be issued or sold under the plan or agreement, the number of shares which may be subscribed for, the method of payment therefor, the reservation of title until full payment therefor, the effect of the termination of employment, an option or obligation on the part of the corporation to repurchase the shares upon termination of employment, subject to the provisions of Chapter 5, restrictions upon transfer of the shares and the time limits of and termination of the plan.

(c) Sections 406 and 407 of the Labor Code shall not apply to shares issued by any foreign or domestic corporation to the following persons:

(1) Any employee of the corporation or of any parent or subsidiary thereof, pursuant to a stock purchase plan or agreement or stock option plan or agreement provided for in subdivision (a).

(2) In any transaction in connection with securing employment, to a person who is or is about to become an officer of the corporation or of any parent or subsidiary thereof.

(Amended by Stats. 1982, Ch. 266, Sec. 1.)

409.
  

(a) Shares may be issued:

(1) For such consideration as is determined from time to time by the board, or by the shareholders if the articles so provide, consisting of any or all of the following: money paid; labor done; services actually rendered to the corporation or for its benefit or in its formation or reorganization; debts or securities canceled; and tangible or intangible property actually received either by the issuing corporation or by a wholly owned subsidiary; but neither promissory notes of the purchaser (unless adequately secured by collateral other than the shares acquired or unless permitted by Section 408) nor future services shall constitute payment or part payment for shares of the corporation; or

(2) As a share dividend or upon a stock split, reverse stock split, reclassification of outstanding shares into shares of another class, conversion of outstanding shares into shares of another class, exchange of outstanding shares for shares of another class or other change affecting outstanding shares.

(b) Except as provided in subdivision (d), shares issued as provided in this section or Section 408 shall be declared and taken to be fully paid stock and not liable to any further call nor shall the holder thereof be liable for any further payments under the provisions of this division. In the absence of fraud in the transaction, the judgment of the directors as to the value of the consideration for shares shall be conclusive.

(c) If the articles reserve to the shareholders the right to determine the consideration for the issue of any shares, such determination shall be made by approval of the outstanding shares (Section 152).

(d) A corporation may issue the whole or any part of its shares as partly paid and subject to call for the remainder of the consideration to be paid therefor. On the certificate issued to represent any such partly paid shares or, for uncertificated securities, on the initial transaction statement for such partly paid shares, the total amount of the consideration to be paid therefor and the amount paid thereon shall be stated. Upon the declaration of any dividend on fully paid shares, the corporation shall declare a dividend upon partly paid shares of the same class, but only upon the basis of the percentage of the consideration actually paid thereon.

(e) The board shall state by resolution its determination of the fair value to the corporation in monetary terms of any consideration other than money for which shares are issued. This subdivision does not affect the accounting treatment of any transaction, which shall be in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles.

(Amended by Stats. 1986, Ch. 766, Sec. 13.)

410.
  

(a) Every subscriber to shares and every person to whom shares are originally issued is liable to the corporation for the full consideration agreed to be paid for the shares.

(b) The full agreed consideration for shares shall be paid prior to or concurrently with the issuance thereof, unless the shares are issued as partly paid pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 409, in which case the consideration shall be paid in accordance with the agreement of subscription or purchase.

(Added by Stats. 1975, Ch. 682.)

411.
  

A transferee of shares for which the full agreed consideration has not been paid to the issuing corporation, who acquired them in good faith, without knowledge that they were not paid in full or to the extent stated on the certificate representing them or, in the case of uncertificated securities, on the applicable initial transaction statement, is liable only for the amount shown by the certificate or statement to be unpaid on the shares represented thereby, until the transferee transfers the shares to one who becomes liable therefor; provided that the transferor shall remain personally liable if so provided on the certificate or statement or agreed upon in writing. The liability of any holder of such shares who derives title through such a transferee and who is not a party to any fraud affecting the issue of the shares is the same as that of the transferee through whom title is derived.

(Amended by Stats. 1986, Ch. 766, Sec. 14.)

412.
  

Every transferee of partly paid shares who acquired them under a certificate or initial transaction statement showing the fact of part payment, and every transferee of such shares (other than a transferee who derives title through a holder in good faith without knowledge and who is not a party to any fraud affecting the issue of such shares) who acquired them with actual knowledge that the full agreed consideration had not been paid to the extent stated on the certificate or initial transaction statement, is personally liable to the corporation for installments of the amount unpaid becoming due until the shares are transferred to one who becomes liable therefor; provided that the transferor shall remain personally liable if so provided on the certificate, initial transaction statement, or written statement, or agreed upon in writing.

(Amended by Stats. 1986, Ch. 766, Sec. 15.)

413.
  

A person holding shares as pledgee, executor, administrator, guardian, conservator, trustee, receiver or in any representative or fiduciary capacity is not personally liable for any unpaid balance of the subscription price of the shares because the shares are so held but the estate and funds in the hands of such fiduciary or representative are liable and the shares are subject to sale therefor.

(Amended by Stats. 1979, Ch. 730.)

414.
  

(a) No action shall be brought by or on behalf of any creditor to reach and apply the liability, if any, of a shareholder to the corporation to pay the amount due on such shareholder’s shares unless final judgment has been rendered in favor of the creditor against the corporation and execution has been returned unsatisfied in whole or in part or unless such proceedings would be useless.

(b) All creditors of the corporation, with or without reducing their claims to judgment, may intervene in any such creditor’s action to reach and apply unpaid subscriptions and any or all shareholders who hold partly paid shares may be joined in such action. Several judgments may be rendered for and against the parties to the action or in favor of a receiver for the benefit of the respective parties thereto.

(c) All amounts paid by any shareholder in any such action shall be credited on the unpaid balance due the corporation upon such shareholder’s shares.

(Added by Stats. 1975, Ch. 682.)

415.
  

Nothing in this division shall be construed as a derogation of any rights or remedies which any creditor or shareholder may have against any promoter, shareholder, director, officer or the corporation because of participation in any fraud or illegality practiced upon such creditor or shareholder by any such person or by the corporation in connection with the issue or sale of shares or other securities or in derogation of any rights which the corporation may have by rescission, cancellation or otherwise because of any fraud or illegality practiced on it by any such person in connection with the issue or sale of shares or other securities.

(Added by Stats. 1975, Ch. 682.)

416.
  

(a) Every holder of shares in a corporation shall be entitled to have a certificate signed in the name of the corporation by the chairperson or vice chairperson of the board or the president or a vice president and by the chief financial officer or an assistant treasurer or the secretary or any assistant secretary, certifying the number of shares and the class or series of shares owned by the shareholder. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the corporation with the same effect as if such person were an officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), a corporation may adopt a system of issuance, recordation and transfer of its shares by electronic or other means not involving any issuance of certificates, including provisions for notice to purchasers in substitution for the required statements on certificates under Sections 417, 418, and 1302, and as may be required by the commissioner in administering the Corporate Securities Law of 1968, which system (1) has been approved by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, (2) is authorized in any statute of the United States, or (3) is in accordance with Division 8 (commencing with Section 8101) of the Commercial Code. Any system so adopted shall not become effective as to issued and outstanding certificated securities until the certificates therefor have been surrendered to the corporation.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 98, Sec. 7. Effective January 1, 2016.)

417.
  

If the shares of the corporation are classified or if any class of shares has two or more series, there shall appear on the certificate or, in the case of uncertificated securities, the initial transaction statement and written statements, one of the following:

(a) A statement of the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions granted to or imposed upon each class or series of shares authorized to be issued and upon the holders thereof.

(b) A summary of such rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions with reference to the provisions of the articles and any certificates of determination establishing the same.

(c) A statement setting forth the office or agency of the corporation from which shareholders may obtain, upon request and without charge, a copy of the statement referred to in subdivision (a).

(Amended by Stats. 1986, Ch. 766, Sec. 17.)

418.
  

(a) There shall also appear on the certificate, the initial transaction statement, and written statements (unless stated or summarized under subdivision (a) or (b) of Section 417) the statements required by all of the following clauses to the extent applicable:

(1) The fact that the shares are subject to restrictions upon transfer.

(2) If the shares are assessable or are not fully paid, a statement that they are assessable or the statements required by subdivision (d) of Section 409 if they are not fully paid.

(3) The fact that the shares are subject to a voting agreement under subdivision (a) of Section 706 or an irrevocable proxy under subdivision (e) of Section 705 or restrictions upon voting rights contractually imposed by the corporation.

(4) The fact that the shares are redeemable.

(5) The fact that the shares are convertible and the period for conversion.

Any such statement or reference thereto (Section 174) on the face of the certificate, the initial transaction statement, and written statements required by paragraph (1) or (2) shall be conspicuous.

(b) Unless stated on the certificate, the initial transaction statement, and written statements as required by subdivision (a), no restriction upon transfer, no right of redemption and no voting agreement under subdivision (a) of Section 706, no irrevocable proxy under subdivision (e) of Section 705, and no voting restriction imposed by the corporation shall be enforceable against a transferee of the shares without actual knowledge of such restriction, right, agreement or proxy. With regard only to liability to assessment or for the unpaid portion of the subscription price, unless stated on the certificate as required by subdivision (a), that liability shall not be enforceable against a transferee of the shares. For the purpose of this subdivision, “transferee” includes a purchaser from the corporation.

(c) All certificates representing shares of a close corporation shall contain in addition to any other statements required by this section, the following conspicuous legend on the face thereof: “This corporation is a close corporation. The number of holders of record of its shares of all classes cannot exceed ____ [a number not in excess of 35]. Any attempted voluntary inter vivos transfer which would violate this requirement is void. Refer to the articles, bylaws and any agreements on file with the secretary of the corporation for further restrictions.”

(d) Any attempted voluntary inter vivos transfer of the shares of a close corporation which would result in the number of holders of record of its shares exceeding the maximum number specified in its articles is void if the certificate contains the legend required by subdivision (c).

(Amended by Stats. 1986, Ch. 766, Sec. 18.)

419.
  

(a) A domestic or foreign corporation may issue a new share certificate or a new certificate for any other security in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the corporation may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate or the owner’s legal representative to give the corporation a bond (or other adequate security) sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made against it (including any expense or liability) on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate.

(b) If a corporation refuses to issue a new share certificate or other certificate in place of one theretofore issued by it, or by any corporation of which it is the lawful successor, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate or the owner’s legal representative may bring an action in the superior court of the proper county for an order requiring the corporation to issue a new certificate in place of the one lost, stolen or destroyed.

(c) If the court is satisfied that the plaintiff is the lawful owner of the number of shares or other securities, or any part thereof, described in the complaint and that the certificate therefor has been lost, stolen or destroyed, and no sufficient cause has been shown why a new certificate should not be issued in place thereof, it shall make an order requiring the corporation to issue and deliver to the plaintiff a new certificate for such shares or other securities. In its order the court shall direct that, prior to the issuance and delivery to the plaintiff of such new certificate, the plaintiff give the corporation a bond (or other adequate security) as to the court appears sufficient to indemnify the corporation against any claim that may be made against it (including any expense or liability) on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate.

(Added by Stats. 1975, Ch. 682.)

420.
  

Neither a domestic nor foreign corporation nor its transfer agent or registrar is liable:

(a) For transferring or causing to be transferred on the books of the corporation to the surviving joint tenant or tenants any share or shares or other securities issued to two or more persons in joint tenancy, whether or not the transfer is made with actual or constructive knowledge of the existence of any understanding, agreement, condition or evidence that the shares or securities were held other than in joint tenancy or of a breach of trust by any joint tenant.

(b) To a minor or incompetent person in whose name shares or other securities are of record on its books or to any transferee of or transferor to either for transferring the shares or other securities on its books at the instance of or to the minor or incompetent or for the recognition of or dealing with the minor or incompetent as a shareholder or security holder, whether or not the corporation, transfer agent or registrar had notice, actual or constructive, of the nonage or incompetency, unless a guardian or conservator of the property of the minor or incompetent has been appointed and the corporation, transfer agent or registrar has received written notice thereof.

(c) To any married person or to any transferee of such person for transferring shares or other securities on its books at the instance of the person in whose name they are registered, without the signature of such person’s spouse and regardless of whether the registration indicates that the shares or other securities are community property, in the same manner as if such person were unmarried.

(d) For transferring or causing to be transferred on the books of the corporation shares or other securities pursuant to a judgment or order of a court which has been set aside, modified or reversed unless, prior to the registration of the transfer on the books of the corporation, written notice is served upon the corporation or its transfer agent in the manner provided by law for the service of a summons in a civil action, stating that an appeal or other further court proceeding has been or is to be taken from or with regard to such judgment or order. After the service of such notice neither the corporation nor its transfer agent has any duty to register the requested transfer until the corporation or its transfer agent has received a certificate of the clerk of the court in which the judgment or order was entered or made, showing that the judgment or order has become final.

(e) The Commercial Code shall not affect the limitations of liability set forth in this section. Section 1100 of the Family Code shall be subject to the provisions of this section and shall not be construed to prevent transfers, or result in liability to the corporation, transfer agent or registrar permitting or effecting transfers, which comply with this section.

(Amended by Stats. 2002, Ch. 784, Sec. 89. Effective January 1, 2003.)

421.
  

Each holder of shares of a close corporation, whether original or subsequent, by accepting the certificates for the shares which contain the legend required by subdivision (c) of Section 418 agrees and consents that such holder cannot make any transfer of shares which would violate the provisions of subdivision (d) of Section 418 and waives any right which such holder might otherwise have under any other law to sell such shares to a greater number of purchasers or to demand any registration thereof under the Securities Act of 1933, as now or hereafter amended, or as provided in any statute adopted in substitution therefor, or otherwise, so long as the corporation is a close corporation.

(Added by Stats. 1975, Ch. 682.)

422.
  

(a) When the articles are amended in any way affecting the statements contained in the certificates for outstanding shares, or it becomes desirable for any reason, in the discretion of the board, to cancel any outstanding certificate for shares and issue a new certificate therefor conforming to the rights of the holder, the board may order any holders of outstanding certificates for shares to surrender and exchange them for new certificates within a reasonable time to be fixed by the board.

(b) The order may provide that a holder of any certificates so ordered to be surrendered is not entitled to vote or to receive dividends or exercise any of the other rights of shareholders until the holder has complied with the order, but such order operates to suspend such rights only after notice and until compliance. The duty of surrender of any outstanding certificates may also be enforced by civil action.

(c) When the articles are amended in any way affecting the statements contained in the initial transaction statement or other written statements for outstanding uncertificated securities, or it becomes desirable for any reason, in the discretion of the board, to amend, revise, or supersede outstanding initial transaction statements or written statements, the board may order the issuance and delivery to holders of record of amended, revised, or superseding initial transaction statements or written statements.

(Amended by Stats. 1986, Ch. 766, Sec. 19.)

423.
  

(a) Shares are not assessable except as provided in this section or as otherwise provided by a statute other than this division. If the articles expresssly confer such authority upon the corporation or the board, and subject to any limitations therein contained, the board may in its discretion levy and collect assessments upon all shares of any or all classes made subject to assessment by the articles. This authority is in addition to the right of the corporation to recover the unpaid subscription price of shares or the remainder of the consideration to be paid therefor.

(b) Every levy of an assessment shall: specify the amount thereof and to whom and where it is payable; fix, or if proceedings or filings with any governmental or other agency for any qualification, permit, registration or exemption therefrom are required as a condition precedent to the levy or payment of an assessment provide for the establishment of, a date on which the assessment is payable; fix a date, not less than 30 nor more than 60 days from the date on which the assessment is payable, on which such assessment becomes delinquent if not paid; and fix a date, not less than 15 nor more than 60 days from the date on which the unpaid assessment becomes delinquent, for the sale of delinquent shares. The levy also shall fix the hour and place of sale, which place shall be in the county where the corporation is required to keep a copy of its bylaws pursuant to Section 213, or if there is no such county, in Sacramento.

(c) On or before the date an assessment is payable, the secretary of the corporation shall give notice thereof in substantially the following form:

(Name of corporation in full. Location of principal executive office.)

Notice is hereby given that the board of directors on (date) has levied an assessment of (amount) per share upon the (name or designation of class or series of shares) of the corporation payable (to whom and where). Any shares upon which this assessment remains unpaid on (date fixed) will be delinquent. Unless payment is made prior to delinquency, the said shares, or as many of them as may be necessary, will be sold at (particular place) on (date) at (hour) of such date, to pay the delinquent assessment, together with a penalty of 5 percent of the amount of the assessment on such shares, or be forfeited to the corporation. (Name of secretary with location of office.)

(d) The notice shall be served personally upon each holder of record of shares assessed; provided, however, that in lieu of personal service the notice may be mailed to each such shareholder addressed to the last address of the shareholder appearing on the books of the corporation or given by the shareholder to the corporation for the purpose of notice, or if no such address appears or is given, at the place where the principal executive office of the corporation is located, and published once in some newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the principal executive office of the corporation is located. If there is no such newspaper in such county, the publication shall be made in some newspaper of general circulation in an adjoining county.

(e) The assessment is a lien upon the shares assessed from the time of personal service or the publication of the notice of assessment, unless the articles provide for such lien from the time of the levy. Unless otherwise provided by law, a transfer of the shares on the books of the corporation after the lien of an assessment has attached is a waiver of the lien unless a conspicuous legend is placed on the face of any certificate issued upon such transfer or, in the case of uncertificated securities, on the initial transaction statement, setting forth the information contained in the notice required by subdivision (c). Such legend shall be removed if the assessment on the shares evidenced by the certificate is paid or if the shares are sold to pay the assessment or forfeited for nonpayment.

(f) The date of sale of delinquent shares fixed in any levy of an assessment may be extended from time to time for not more than 30 days at a time by order of the board entered on the records of the corporation, or when the sale is restrained by order of a court. Notice of such extension shall be given by announcement by the secretary, or other person authorized to conduct the sale, made at the time and place of sale last theretofore fixed.

If a date of sale of delinquent shares is extended for more than five days the corporation shall cause a notice to be mailed to the shareholder or shareholders whose shares are to be the subject of such sale setting forth the date and time to which the date of sale has been extended.

(g) If payment is made after delinquency and before the sale, the shareholder shall pay a penalty of 5 percent of the amount of the assessment on the shares in addition to the assessment.

(h) At the place and time appointed in the notice of levy any officer or an agent of the corporation, shall, unless otherwise ordered by the board, sell or cause to be sold to the highest bidder for cash as many shares of each delinquent holder of the assessed shares as may be necessary to pay the assessment and charges thereon according to the notice.

The person offering at the sale to pay the assessment and penalty for the smallest number of shares is the highest bidder. The shares purchased shall be transferred to the highest bidder on the share register of the corporation on the payment of the assessment and penalty and a new certificate or initial transaction statement therefor issued to such highest bidder.

A corporation is not required to accept an offer for a fraction of a share.

(i) If no bidder offers to pay the amount due on the shares, together with the penalty of 5 percent thereof, the shares shall be forfeited to the corporation in satisfaction of the assessment and penalty thereon.

(j) After a sale or forfeiture of shares for nonpayment of an assessment, the holder or owner of delinquent shares shall, if they are certificated securities, surrender the certificate for such shares to the corporation for cancellation or, if they are uncertificated securities, have no further rights with respect to such shares. This duty may be enforced by order or decree of court and such holder or owner shall be liable for damages to the corporation for failure to surrender the certificate for cancellation upon demand without good cause or excuse.

Any certificate not so surrendered forthwith becomes null and void and ceases to be evidence of the right or title of the holder or any transferee to the shares purporting to be represented thereby, and neither the corporation nor the purchaser of such shares incurs any liability thereon to any such transferee.

The purchaser of any shares, at a sale for delinquent assessments thereon, whenever made, is entitled to the issue of a new certificate representing the shares so purchased.

(k) The certificate of the secretary or assistant secretary of the corporation is prima facie evidence of the time and place of sale and any postponement thereof, of the quantity and particular description of the shares sold, to whom, for what price, and of the fact of payment of the purchase money. The certificate shall be filed in the office of the corporation, and copies of the certificate, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation, are prima facie evidence of the facts therein stated.

(l) An assessment is not invalidated by a failure to publish the notice of assessment, nor by the nonperformance of any act required in order to enforce the payment of the assessment; but in case of any substantial error or omission in the course of proceedings for collection of an assessment on any shares, all previous proceedings, except the levy of the assessment, are void as to such shares, and shall be taken anew.

(m) No action shall be maintained to recover shares sold for delinquent assessments, upon the ground of irregularity in the assessment, irregularity or defect of the notice of sale, or defect or irregularity in the sale, unless the party seeking to maintain the action first pays or tenders to the corporation, or the party holding the shares sold, the sum for which the shares were sold, together with all subsequent assessments which may have been paid thereon and interest on such sums from the time they were paid. No such action shall be maintained unless it is commenced by the filing of a complaint and the issuing of a summons thereon within six months after the sale was made.

(n) The only remedy for the collection of an assessment on fully paid shares is sale or forfeiture of the shares unless (1) remedy by action is expressly authorized in the original articles or by an amendment of the articles adopted before August 21, 1933, or by an amendment adopted on or after August 21, 1933, by unanimous consent of the shareholders, and (2) unless a statement of such remedy appears on the face of any share certificate issued on or after August 21, 1933.

(Amended by Stats. 1986, Ch. 766, Sec. 20.)

CORPCorporations Code - CORP