Code Section Group

Corporations Code - CORP

TITLE 2. PARTNERSHIPS [15800 - 16962]

  ( Title 2 added by Stats. 1949, Ch. 383. )

CHAPTER 4.5. Uniform Limited Partnership Act of 2008 [15900 - 15912.07]

  ( Heading of Chapter 4.5 renumbered from Chapter 5.5 by Stats. 2013, Ch. 76, Sec. 26. )

ARTICLE 11.5. Dissenting Limited Partners’ Rights [15911.20 - 15911.33]
  ( Article 11.5 added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. )

15911.20.
  

(a) For purposes of this article, “reorganization” refers to any of the following:

(1) A conversion pursuant to Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.01).

(2) A merger pursuant to Article 11 (commencing with Section 15911.10).

(3) The acquisition by one limited partnership in exchange, in whole or in part, for its partnership interests (or the partnership interests or equity securities of a partnership or other business entity that is in control of the acquiring limited partnership) of partnership interests or equity securities of another limited partnership or other business entity if, immediately after the acquisition, the acquiring limited partnership has control of the other limited partnership or other business entity.

(4) The acquisition by one limited partnership in exchange in whole or in part for its partnership interests (or the partnership interests or equity securities of a partnership or other business entity which is in control of the acquiring limited partnership) or for its debts securities (or debt securities of a limited partnership or other business entity which is in control of the acquiring limited partnership) which are not adequately secured and which have a maturity date in excess of five years after the consummation of the acquisition, or both, of all or substantially all of the assets of another limited partnership or other business entity.

(b) For purposes of this article, “control” means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a limited partnership or other business entity.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2007. Section operative January 1, 2008, pursuant to Section 15912.04.)

15911.21.
  

(a) If the approval of outstanding limited partnership interests is required for a limited partnership to participate in a reorganization, pursuant to the limited partnership agreement of the partnership, or otherwise, then each limited partner of the limited partnership holding those interests may, by complying with this article, require the limited partnership to purchase for cash, at its fair market value, the interest owned by the limited partner in the limited partnership, if the interest is a dissenting interest as defined in subdivision (b). The fair market value shall be determined as of the day before the first announcement of the terms of the proposed reorganization, excluding any appreciation or depreciation in consequence of the proposed reorganization.

(b) As used in this article, “dissenting interest” means the interest of a limited partner that satisfies all of the following conditions:

(1) Either:

(A) Was not, immediately prior to the reorganization, either (i) listed on any national securities exchange certified by the Commissioner of Corporations under subdivision (o) of Section 25100, or (ii) listed on the list of OTC margin stocks issued by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, provided that in either such instance the limited partnership whose outstanding interests are so listed provides, in its notice to limited partners requesting their approval of the proposed reorganization, a summary of the provisions of this section and Sections 15911.22, 15911.23, 15911.24, and 15911.25.

(B) If the interest is of a class of interests listed as described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A), demands for payment are filed with respect to 5 percent or more of the outstanding interests of that class.

(2) Was outstanding on the date for the determination of limited partners entitled to vote on the reorganization.

(3) (A) Was not voted in favor of the reorganization, or (B) if the interest is described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1), was voted against the reorganization; provided, however, that clause (A) rather than clause (B) of this paragraph applies in any event where the approval for the proposed reorganization is sought by written consent rather than at a meeting.

(4) The limited partner has demanded that it be purchased by the limited partnership at its fair market value in accordance with Section 15911.22.

(5) The limited partner has submitted it for endorsement, if applicable, in accordance with Section 15911.23.

(c) As used in this article, “dissenting limited partner” means the recordholder of a dissenting interest, and includes an assignee of record of such an interest.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2007. Section operative January 1, 2008, pursuant to Section 15912.04.)

15911.22.
  

(a) If limited partners have a right under Section 15911.21, subject to compliance with paragraphs (4) and (5) of subdivision (b) thereof, to require the limited partnership to purchase their limited partnership interests for cash, such limited partnership shall mail to each such limited partner a notice of the approval of the reorganization by the requisite vote or consent of the limited partners, within 10 days after the date of such approval, accompanied by a copy of this section and Sections 15911.21, 15911.23, 15911.24, and 15911.25, a statement of the price determined by the limited partnership to represent the fair market value of its outstanding interests, and a brief description of the procedure to be followed if the limited partner desires to exercise the limited partner’s rights under such sections. The statement of price constitutes an offer by the limited partnership to purchase at the price stated any dissenting interests as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 15911.21, unless they lose their status as dissenting interests under Section 15911.30.

(b) Any limited partner who has a right to require the limited partnership to purchase the limited partner’s interest for cash under Section 15911.21, subject to compliance with paragraphs (4) and (5) of subdivision (b) thereof, and who desires the limited partnership to purchase such interest, shall make written demand upon the limited partnership for the purchase of such interest and the payment to the limited partner in cash of its fair market value. The demand is not effective for any purpose unless it is received by the limited partnership or any transfer agent thereof (1) in the case of interests described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 15911.21, not later than the date of the limited partners’ meeting to vote upon the reorganization, or (2) in any other case, within 30 days after the date on which notice of the approval of the reorganization by the requisite vote or consent of the limited partners is mailed by the limited partnership to the limited partners.

(c) The demand shall state the number or amount of the limited partner’s interest in the limited partnership and shall contain a statement of what such limited partner claims to be the fair market value of that interest on the day before the announcement of the proposed reorganization. The statement of fair market value constitutes an offer by the limited partner to sell the interest at such price.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2007. Section operative January 1, 2008, pursuant to Section 15912.04.)

15911.23.
  

Within 30 days after the date on which notice of the approval of the outstanding interests of the limited partnership is mailed to the limited partner pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 15911.22, the limited partner shall submit to the limited partnership at its principal office or at the office of any transfer agent thereof, (a) if the interest is evidenced by a certificate, the limited partner’s certificate representing the interest which the limited partner demands that the limited partnership purchase, to be stamped or endorsed with a statement that the interest is a dissenting interest or to be exchanged for certificates of appropriate denominations so stamped or endorsed, or (b) if the interest is not evidenced by a certificate, written notice of the number or amount of interest which the limited partner demands that the limited partnership purchase. Upon subsequent transfers of the dissenting interest on the books of the limited partnership, the new certificates or other written statement issued therefor shall bear a like statement, together with the name of the original holder of the dissenting interest.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2007. Section operative January 1, 2008, pursuant to Section 15912.04.)

15911.24.
  

(a) If the limited partnership and the dissenting limited partner agree that such limited partner’s interest is a dissenting interest and agree upon the price to be paid for the dissenting interest, the dissenting limited partner is entitled to the agreed price with interest thereon at the legal rate on judgments from the date of consummation of the reorganization. All agreements fixing the fair market value of any dissenting limited partner’s interest as between the limited partnership and such limited partner shall be in writing and filed in the records of the limited partnership.

(b) Subject to the provisions of Section 15911.27, payment of the fair market value for a dissenting interest shall be made within 30 days after the amount thereof has been agreed to or within 30 days after any statutory or contractual conditions to the reorganization are satisfied, whichever is later, and in the case of dissenting interests evidenced by certificates of interest, subject to surrender of such certificates of interest, unless provided otherwise by agreement.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2007. Section operative January 1, 2008, pursuant to Section 15912.04.)

15911.25.
  

(a) If the limited partnership denies that a limited partnership interest is a dissenting interest, or the limited partnership and a dissenting limited partner fail to agree upon the fair market value of a dissenting interest, then such limited partner or any interested limited partnership, within six months after the date on which notice of the approval of the reorganization by the requisite vote or consent of the limited partners was mailed to the limited partner, but not thereafter, may file a complaint in the superior court of the proper county praying the court to determine whether the interest is a dissenting interest, or the fair market value of the dissenting interest, or both, or may intervene in any action pending on such a complaint.

(b) Two or more dissenting limited partners may join as plaintiffs or be joined as defendants in any such action and two or more such actions may be consolidated.

(c) On the trial of the action, the court shall determine the issues. If the status of the limited partnership interest as a dissenting interest is in issue, the court shall first determine that issue. If the fair market value of the dissenting interest is in issue, the court shall determine, or shall appoint one or more impartial appraisers to determine, the fair market value of the dissenting interest.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2007. Section operative January 1, 2008, pursuant to Section 15912.04.)

15911.26.
  

(a) If the court appoints an appraiser or appraisers, they shall proceed forthwith to determine the fair market value per interest of the outstanding limited partnership interests of the limited partnership, by class if necessary. Within the time fixed by the court, the appraisers, or a majority of them, shall make and file a report in the office of the clerk of the court. Thereupon, on the motion of any party, the report shall be submitted to the court and considered on any additional evidence as the court considers relevant. If the court finds the report reasonable, the court may confirm it.

(b) If a majority of the appraisers appointed fails to make and file a report within 30 days from the date of their appointment, or within any further time as may be allowed by the court, or the report is not confirmed by the court, the court shall determine the fair market value per interest of the outstanding limited partnership interests of the limited partnership, by class if necessary.

(c) Subject to Section 15911.27, judgment shall be rendered against the limited partnership for payment of an amount equal to the fair market value, as determined by the court, of each dissenting interest which any dissenting limited partner who is a party, or has intervened, is entitled to require the limited partnership to purchase, with interest thereon at the legal rate on judgments from the date of consummation of the reorganization.

(d) Any judgment shall be payable forthwith, provided, however, that with respect to limited partnership interests evidenced by transferable certificates of interest, only upon the endorsement and delivery to the limited partnership of those certificates representing the interests described in the judgment. Any party may appeal from the judgment.

(e) The costs of the action, including reasonable compensation for the appraisers, to be fixed by the court, shall be assessed or apportioned as the court considers equitable, but, if the appraisal exceeds the price offered by the limited partnership, the limited partnership shall pay the costs (including, in the discretion of the court, if the value awarded by the court for the dissenting interest is more than 125 percent of the price offered by the limited partnership under subdivision (a) of Section 15911.22, attorney’s fees and fees of expert witnesses).

(Amended by Stats. 2007, Ch. 130, Sec. 46. Effective January 1, 2008.)

15911.27.
  

To the extent that the payment to dissenting limited partners of the fair market value of their dissenting interests would require the dissenting limited partners to return such payment or a portion thereof by reason of Section 15905.09 or the Uniform Voidable Transactions Act (Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 3439) of Title 2 of Part 2 of Division 4 of the Civil Code), then that payment or portion thereof shall not be made and the dissenting limited partners shall become creditors of the limited partnership for the amount not paid, together with interest thereon at the legal rate on judgments until the date of payment, but subordinate to all other creditors in any proceeding relating to the winding up and dissolution of the limited partnership, such debt to be payable when permissible.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 44, Sec. 22. Effective January 1, 2016.)

15911.28.
  

Any cash distributions made by a limited partnership to a dissenting limited partner after the date of consummation of the reorganization, but prior to any payment by the limited partnership for such dissenting limited partner’s interest, shall be credited against the total amount to be paid by the limited partnership for such dissenting interest.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2007. Section operative January 1, 2008, pursuant to Section 15912.04.)

15911.29.
  

Except as expressly limited by this article, dissenting limited partners shall continue to have all the rights and privileges incident to their interests immediately prior to the reorganization, including limited liability, until payment by the limited partnership for their dissenting interests. A dissenting limited partner may not withdraw a demand for payment unless the limited partnership consents thereto.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2007. Section operative January 1, 2008, pursuant to Section 15912.04.)

15911.30.
  

A dissenting interest loses its status as a dissenting interest and the holder thereof ceases to be a dissenting limited partner and ceases to be entitled to require the limited partnership to purchase the interest upon the happening of any of the following:

(a) The limited partnership abandons the reorganization. Upon abandonment of the reorganization, the limited partnership shall pay, on demand, to any dissenting limited partner who has initiated proceeding in good faith under this article, all reasonable expenses incurred in such proceedings and reasonable attorneys’ fees.

(b) The interest is transferred prior to its submission for endorsement in accordance with Section 15911.23.

(c) The dissenting limited partner and the limited partnership do not agree upon the status of the interest as a dissenting interest or upon the purchase price of the dissenting interest, and neither files a complaint nor intervenes in a pending action, as provided in Section 15911.25, within six months after the date upon which notice of the approval of the reorganization by the requisite vote or consent of limited partners was mailed to the limited partner.

(d) The dissenting limited partner, with the consent of the limited partnership, withdraws such limited partner’s demand for purchase of the dissenting interest.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2007. Section operative January 1, 2008, pursuant to Section 15912.04.)

15911.31.
  

If litigation is instituted to test the sufficient or regularity of the vote or consent of the limited partners in authorizing a reorganization, any proceedings under Sections 15911.25 and 15911.26 shall be suspended until final determination of that litigation.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2007. Section operative January 1, 2008, pursuant to Section 15912.04.)

15911.32.
  

(a) This article applies to the following:

(1) A domestic limited partnership formed on or after January 1, 1991.

(2) A foreign limited partnership if (A) the foreign limited partnership was formed on or after January 1, 1991, or filed an application to qualify to do business on or after January 1, 1991, and (B) limited partners holding more than 50 percent of the voting power held by all limited partners of the foreign limited partnership reside in this state.

(3) A limited partnership if the partnership agreement so provides or if all general partners and a majority in interest of the limited partners determine that this article shall apply.

(b) This article does not apply to limited partnership interests governed by limited partnership agreements whose terms and provisions specifically set forth the amount to be paid in respect of such interests in the event of a reorganization of the limited partnership, or to limited partnerships with 35 or fewer limited partners, unless the partnership agreement provides that this article shall apply or unless all general partners and a majority in interest of the limited partners agree that this article shall apply.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2007. Section operative January 1, 2008, pursuant to Section 15912.04.)

15911.33.
  

(a) No limited partner of a limited partnership who has a right under this article to demand payment of cash for the interest owned by such limited partner in a limited partnership shall have any right at law or in equity to attack the validity of the reorganization, or to have the reorganization set aside or rescinded, except in an action to test whether the vote or consent of limited partners required to authorize or approve the reorganization has been obtained in accordance with the procedures established therefor by the partnership agreement of the limited partnership.

(b) If one of the parties to a reorganization is directly or indirectly controlled by, or under common control with, another party to the reorganization, subdivision (a) shall not apply to any limited partner of such controlled party who has not demanded payment of cash for such limited partner’s interest pursuant to this article; but if such limited partner institutes any action to attack the validity of the reorganization or to have the reorganization set aside or rescinded, the limited partner shall not thereafter have any right to demand payment of cash for such limited partner’s interest pursuant to this article.

(c) If one of the parties to a reorganization is directly or indirectly controlled by, or under common control with, another party to the reorganization, then, in any action to attack the validity of the reorganization or to have the reorganization set aside or rescinded, (1) a party to a reorganization which controls another party to a reorganization shall have the burden of proving that the transaction is just and reasonable as to the limited partners of the controlled party, and (2) a person who controls two or more parties to a reorganization shall have the burden of proving that the transaction is just and reasonable as to the limited partners of any party so controlled.

(d) Subdivisions (b) and (c) shall not apply if a majority in interest of the limited partners other than limited partners who are directly or indirectly controlled by, or under common control with, another party to the reorganization approve or consent to the reorganization.

(e) This section shall not prevent a partner of a limited partnership that is a party to a reorganization from bringing an action against a general partner of the limited partnership, the limited partnership, or any person controlling a general partner at law or in equity as to any matters (including, without limitation, an action for breach of fiduciary obligation or fraud) other than to attack the validity of the reorganization or to have the reorganization set aside or rescinded.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 495, Sec. 20. Effective January 1, 2007. Section operative January 1, 2008, pursuant to Section 15912.04.)

CORPCorporations Code - CORP11.5.