Code Section Group

Civil Code - CIV

DIVISION 3. OBLIGATIONS [1427 - 3272.9]

  ( Heading of Division 3 amended by Stats. 1988, Ch. 160, Sec. 14. )

PART 2. CONTRACTS [1549 - 1701]

  ( Part 2 enacted 1872. )

TITLE 2. MANNER OF CREATING CONTRACTS [1619 - 1633]
  ( Title 2 enacted 1872. )

1619.
  

A contract is either express or implied.

(Enacted 1872.)

1620.
  

An express contract is one, the terms of which are stated in words.

(Enacted 1872.)

1621.
  

An implied contract is one, the existence and terms of which are manifested by conduct.

(Enacted 1872.)

1622.
  

All contracts may be oral, except such as are specially required by statute to be in writing.

(Enacted 1872.)

1623.
  

Where a contract, which is required by law to be in writing, is prevented from being put into writing by the fraud of a party thereto, any other party who is by such fraud led to believe that it is in writing, and acts upon such belief to his prejudice, may enforce it against the fraudulent party.

(Enacted 1872.)

1624.
  

(a) The following contracts are invalid, unless they, or some note or memorandum thereof, are in writing and subscribed by the party to be charged or by the party’s agent:

(1) An agreement that by its terms is not to be performed within a year from the making thereof.

(2) A special promise to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another, except in the cases provided for in Section 2794.

(3) An agreement for the leasing for a longer period than one year, or for the sale of real property, or of an interest therein; such an agreement, if made by an agent of the party sought to be charged, is invalid, unless the authority of the agent is in writing, subscribed by the party sought to be charged.

(4) An agreement authorizing or employing an agent, broker, or any other person to purchase or sell real estate, or to lease real estate for a longer period than one year, or to procure, introduce, or find a purchaser or seller of real estate or a lessee or lessor of real estate where the lease is for a longer period than one year, for compensation or a commission.

(5) An agreement that by its terms is not to be performed during the lifetime of the promisor.

(6) An agreement by a purchaser of real property to pay an indebtedness secured by a mortgage or deed of trust upon the property purchased, unless assumption of the indebtedness by the purchaser is specifically provided for in the conveyance of the property.

(7) A contract, promise, undertaking, or commitment to loan money or to grant or extend credit, in an amount greater than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000), not primarily for personal, family, or household purposes, made by a person engaged in the business of lending or arranging for the lending of money or extending credit. For purposes of this section, a contract, promise, undertaking, or commitment to loan money secured solely by residential property consisting of one to four dwelling units shall be deemed to be for personal, family, or household purposes.

(b) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of subdivision (a):

(1) An agreement or contract that is valid in other respects and is otherwise enforceable is not invalid for lack of a note, memorandum, or other writing and is enforceable by way of action or defense, provided that the agreement or contract is a qualified financial contract as defined in paragraph (2) and one of the following apply:

(A) There is, as provided in paragraph (3), sufficient evidence to indicate that a contract has been made.

(B) The parties thereto by means of a prior or subsequent written contract, have agreed to be bound by the terms of the qualified financial contract from the time they reached agreement (by telephone, by exchange of electronic messages, or otherwise) on those terms.

(2) For purposes of this subdivision, a “qualified financial contract” means an agreement as to which each party thereto is other than a natural person and that is any of the following:

(A) For the purchase and sale of foreign exchange, foreign currency, bullion, coin, or precious metals on a forward, spot, next-day value or other basis.

(B) A contract (other than a contract for the purchase of a commodity for future delivery on, or subject to the rules of, a contract market or board of trade) for the purchase, sale, or transfer of any commodity or any similar good, article, service, right, or interest that is presently or in the future becomes the subject of a dealing in the forward contract trade, or any product or byproduct thereof, with a maturity date more than two days after the date the contract is entered into.

(C) For the purchase and sale of currency, or interbank deposits denominated in United States dollars.

(D) For a currency option, currency swap, or cross-currency rate swap.

(E) For a commodity swap or a commodity option (other than an option contract traded on, or subject to the rules of, a contract market or board of trade).

(F) For a rate swap, basis swap, forward rate transaction, or an interest rate option.

(G) For a security-index swap or option, or a security or securities price swap or option.

(H) An agreement that involves any other similar transaction relating to a price or index (including, without limitation, any transaction or agreement involving any combination of the foregoing, any cap, floor, collar, or similar transaction with respect to a rate, commodity price, commodity index, security or securities price, security index, other price index, or loan price).

(I) An option with respect to any of the foregoing.

(3) There is sufficient evidence that a contract has been made in any of the following circumstances:

(A) There is evidence of an electronic communication (including, without limitation, the recording of a telephone call or the tangible written text produced by computer retrieval), admissible in evidence under the laws of this state, sufficient to indicate that in the communication a contract was made between the parties.

(B) A confirmation in writing sufficient to indicate that a contract has been made between the parties and sufficient against the sender is received by the party against whom enforcement is sought no later than the fifth business day after the contract is made (or any other period of time that the parties may agree in writing) and the sender does not receive, on or before the third business day after receipt (or the other period of time that the parties may agree in writing), written objection to a material term of the confirmation. For purposes of this subparagraph, a confirmation or an objection thereto is received at the time there has been an actual receipt by an individual responsible for the transaction or, if earlier, at the time there has been constructive receipt, which is the time actual receipt by that individual would have occurred if the receiving party, as an organization, had exercised reasonable diligence. For the purposes of this subparagraph, a “business day” is a day on which both parties are open and transacting business of the kind involved in that qualified financial contract that is the subject of confirmation.

(C) The party against whom enforcement is sought admits in its pleading, testimony, or otherwise in court that a contract was made.

(D) There is a note, memorandum, or other writing sufficient to indicate that a contract has been made, signed by the party against whom enforcement is sought or by its authorized agent or broker.

For purposes of this paragraph, evidence of an electronic communication indicating the making in that communication of a contract, or a confirmation, admission, note, memorandum, or writing is not insufficient because it omits or incorrectly states one or more material terms agreed upon, as long as the evidence provides a reasonable basis for concluding that a contract was made.

(4) For purposes of this subdivision, the tangible written text produced by telex, telefacsimile, computer retrieval, or other process by which electronic signals are transmitted by telephone or otherwise shall constitute a writing, and any symbol executed or adopted by a party with the present intention to authenticate a writing shall constitute a signing. The confirmation and notice of objection referred to in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3) may be communicated by means of telex, telefacsimile, computer, or other similar process by which electronic signals are transmitted by telephone or otherwise, provided that a party claiming to have communicated in that manner shall, unless the parties have otherwise agreed in writing, have the burden of establishing actual or constructive receipt by the other party as set forth in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3).

(c) This section does not apply to leases subject to Division 10 (commencing with Section 10101) of the Commercial Code.

(d) An electronic message of an ephemeral nature that is not designed to be retained or to create a permanent record, including, but not limited to, a text message or instant message format communication, is insufficient under this title to constitute a contract to convey real property, in the absence of a written confirmation that conforms to the requirements of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (b).

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 107, Sec. 2. (AB 2136) Effective January 1, 2015.)

1624.5.
  

(a) Except in the cases described in subdivision (b), a contract for the sale of personal property is not enforceable by way of action or defense beyond five thousand dollars ($5,000) in amount or value of remedy unless there is some record, as defined in subdivision (m) of Section 1633.2, but solely to the extent permitted by applicable law, that indicates that a contract for sale has been made between the parties at a defined or stated price, reasonably identifies the subject matter, and is signed, including by way of electronic signature, as defined in subdivision (h) of Section 1633.2, but solely to the extent permitted by applicable law, by the party against whom enforcement is sought or by his or her authorized agent.

(b) Subdivision (a) does not apply to contracts governed by the Commercial Code, including contracts for the sale of goods (Section 2201 of the Commercial Code), contracts for the sale of securities (Section 8113 of the Commercial Code), and security agreements (Sections 9201 and 9203 of the Commercial Code).

(c) Subdivision (a) does not apply to a qualified financial contract as that term is defined in paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 1624 if either of the following exists:

(1) There is, as provided in paragraph (3) of subdivision (b) of Section 1624, sufficient evidence to indicate that a contract has been made.

(2) The parties thereto, by means of a prior or subsequent written contract, have agreed to be bound by the terms of the qualified financial contract from the time they reach agreement (by telephone, by exchange of electronic messages, or otherwise) on those terms.

(Added by Stats. 2006, Ch. 254, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2007.)

1625.
  

The execution of a contract in writing, whether the law requires it to be written or not, supersedes all the negotiations or stipulations concerning its matter which preceded or accompanied the execution of the instrument.

(Amended by Stats. 1905, Ch. 451.)

1626.
  

A contract in writing takes effect upon its delivery to the party in whose favor it is made, or to his agent.

(Enacted 1872.)

1627.
  

The provisions of the Chapter on Transfers in General, concerning the delivery of grants, absolute and conditional, apply to all written contracts.

(Enacted 1872.)

1628.
  

A corporate or official seal may be affixed to an instrument by a mere impression upon the paper or other material on which such instrument is written.

(Enacted 1872.)

1629.
  

All distinctions between sealed and unsealed instruments are abolished.

(Enacted 1872.)

1630.
  

Except as provided in Section 1630.5, a printed contract of bailment providing for the parking or storage of a motor vehicle shall not be binding, either in whole or in part, on the vehicle owner or on the person who leaves the vehicle with another, unless the contract conforms to the following:

(a) “This contract limits our liability—read it” is printed at the top in capital letters of 10-point type or larger.

(b) All the provisions of the contract are printed legibly in eight-point type or larger.

(c) Acceptance of benefits under a contract included within the provisions of this section shall not be construed a waiver of this section, and it shall be unlawful to issue such a contract on condition that provisions of this section are waived.

A copy of the contract printed in large type, in an area at least 17 by 22 inches, shall be posted in a conspicuous place at each entrance of the parking lot.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the enactment of city ordinances on this subject that are not less restrictive, and such enactments are expressly authorized.

(Amended by Stats. 1970, Ch. 1277.)

1630.5.
  

The provisions of any contract of bailment for the parking or storage of a motor vehicle shall not exempt the bailee from liability, either in whole or in part, for the theft of any motor vehicle, when such motor vehicle is parked or stored with such bailee, and the keys are required by such bailee to be left in the parked or stored vehicle.

(Added by Stats. 1970, Ch. 1277.)

1631.
  

Every person in this State who sells machinery used or to be used for mining purposes shall, at the time of sale, give to the buyer a bill of sale for the machinery. The seller shall keep a written record of the sale, giving the date thereof, describing the machinery, and showing the name and address of the buyer, and the buyer, if in this State, shall keep a record of his purchase, giving the name and address of the seller, describing the machinery, and showing the date of the purchase.

(Added by Stats. 1959, Ch. 222.)

1632.
  

(a) The Legislature hereby finds and declares all of the following:

(1) This section was enacted in 1976 to increase consumer information and protections for the state’s sizeable and growing Spanish-speaking population.

(2) Since 1976, the state’s population has become increasingly diverse and the number of Californians who speak languages other than English as their primary language at home has increased dramatically.

(3) According to data from the American Community Survey, which has replaced the decennial census for detailed socioeconomic information about United States residents, approximately 15.2 million Californians speak a language other than English at home, based on data from combined years 2009 through 2011. This compares to approximately 19.6 million people who speak only English at home. Among the Californians who speak a language other than English at home, approximately 8.4 million speak English very well, and another 3 million speak English well. The remaining 3.8 million Californians surveyed do not speak English well or do not speak English at all. Among this group, the five languages other than English that are most widely spoken at home are Spanish, Chinese, Tagalog, Vietnamese, and Korean. These five languages are spoken at home by approximately 3.5 million of the 3.8 million Californians with limited or no English proficiency, who speak a language other than English at home.

(b) Any person engaged in a trade or business who negotiates primarily in Spanish, Chinese, Tagalog, Vietnamese, or Korean, orally or in writing, in the course of entering into any of the following, shall deliver to the other party to the contract or agreement and prior to the execution thereof, a translation of the contract or agreement in the language in which the contract or agreement was negotiated, that includes a translation of every term and condition in that contract or agreement:

(1) A contract or agreement subject to the provisions of Title 2 (commencing with Section 1801) of, and Chapter 2b (commencing with Section 2981) and Chapter 2d (commencing with Section 2985.7) of Title 14 of, Part 4 of Division 3.

(2) A loan or extension of credit secured other than by real property, or unsecured, for use primarily for personal, family, or household purposes.

(3) A lease, sublease, rental contract or agreement, or other term of tenancy contract or agreement, for a period of longer than one month, covering a dwelling, an apartment, or mobilehome, or other dwelling unit normally occupied as a residence.

(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), a loan or extension of credit for use primarily for personal, family, or household purposes in which the loan or extension of credit is subject to the provisions of Article 7 (commencing with Section 10240) of Chapter 3 of Part 1 of Division 4 of the Business and Professions Code, or Division 7 (commencing with Section 18000), or Division 9 (commencing with Section 22000) of the Financial Code.

(5) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), a reverse mortgage as described in Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 1923) of Title 4 of Part 4 of Division 3.

(6) A contract or agreement, containing a statement of fees or charges, entered into for the purpose of obtaining legal services, when the person who is engaged in business is currently licensed to practice law pursuant to Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 6000) of Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code.

(7) A foreclosure consulting contract subject to Article 1.5 (commencing with Section 2945) of Chapter 2 of Title 14 of Part 4 of Division 3.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (b), for a loan subject to this part and to Article 7 (commencing with Section 10240) of Chapter 3 of Part 1 of Division 4 of the Business and Professions Code, the delivery of a translation of the statement to the borrower required by Section 10240 of the Business and Professions Code in any of the languages specified in subdivision (b) in which the contract or agreement was negotiated, is in compliance with subdivision (b).

(d) At the time and place where a lease, sublease, or rental contract or agreement described in subdivision (b) is executed, notice in any of the languages specified in subdivision (b) in which the contract or agreement was negotiated shall be provided to the lessee or tenant.

(e) Provision by a supervised financial organization of a translation of the disclosures required by Regulation M or Regulation Z, and, if applicable, Division 7 (commencing with Section 18000) or Division 9 (commencing with Section 22000) of the Financial Code in any of the languages specified in subdivision (b) in which the contract or agreement was negotiated, prior to the execution of the contract or agreement, shall also be deemed in compliance with the requirements of subdivision (b) with regard to the original contract or agreement.

(1) “Regulation M” and “Regulation Z” mean any rule, regulation, or interpretation promulgated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and any interpretation or approval issued by an official or employee duly authorized by the board to issue interpretations or approvals dealing with, respectively, consumer leasing or consumer lending, pursuant to the Federal Truth in Lending Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. Sec. 1601 et seq.).

(2) As used in this section, “supervised financial organization” means a bank, savings association as defined in Section 5102 of the Financial Code, credit union, or holding company, affiliate, or subsidiary thereof, or any person subject to Article 7 (commencing with Section 10240) of Chapter 3 of Part 1 of Division 4 of the Business and Professions Code, or Division 7 (commencing with Section 18000) or Division 9 (commencing with Section 22000) of the Financial Code.

(f) At the time and place where a contract or agreement described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (b) is executed, a notice in any of the languages specified in subdivision (b) in which the contract or agreement was negotiated shall be conspicuously displayed to the effect that the person described in subdivision (b) is required to provide a contract or agreement in the language in which the contract or agreement was negotiated, or a translation of the disclosures required by law in the language in which the contract or agreement was negotiated, as the case may be. If a person described in subdivision (b) does business at more than one location or branch, the requirements of this section shall apply only with respect to the location or branch at which the language in which the contract or agreement was negotiated is used.

(g) The term “contract” or “agreement,” as used in this section, means the document creating the rights and obligations of the parties and includes any subsequent document making substantial changes in the rights and obligations of the parties. The term “contract” or “agreement” does not include any subsequent documents authorized or contemplated by the original document such as periodic statements, sales slips or invoices representing purchases made pursuant to a credit card agreement, a retail installment contract or account or other revolving sales or loan account, memoranda of purchases in an add-on sale, or refinancing of a purchase as provided by, or pursuant to, the original document.

The term “contract” or “agreement” does not include a home improvement contract as defined in Sections 7151.2 and 7159 of the Business and Professions Code, nor does it include plans, specifications, description of work to be done and materials to be used, or collateral security taken or to be taken for the retail buyer’s obligation contained in a contract for the installation of goods by a contractor licensed pursuant to Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 7000) of Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code, if the home improvement contract or installation contract is otherwise a part of a contract described in subdivision (b).

Matters ordinarily incorporated by reference in contracts or agreements as described in paragraph (3) of subdivision (b), including, but not limited to, rules and regulations governing a tenancy and inventories of furnishings to be provided by the person described in subdivision (b), are not included in the term “contract” or “agreement.”

(h) This section does not apply to any person engaged in a trade or business who negotiates primarily in a language other than English, as described by subdivision (b), if the party with whom he or she is negotiating is a buyer of goods or services, or receives a loan or extension of credit, or enters an agreement obligating himself or herself as a tenant, lessee, or sublessee, or similarly obligates himself or herself by contract or lease, and the party negotiates the terms of the contract, lease, or other obligation through his or her own interpreter.

As used in this subdivision, “his or her own interpreter” means a person, not a minor, able to speak fluently and read with full understanding both the English language and any of the languages specified in subdivision (b) in which the contract or agreement was negotiated, and who is not employed by, or whose service is made available through, the person engaged in the trade or business.

(i) Notwithstanding subdivision (b), a translation may retain the following elements of the executed English-language contract or agreement without translation: names and titles of individuals and other persons, addresses, brand names, trade names, trademarks, registered service marks, full or abbreviated designations of the make and model of goods or services, alphanumeric codes, numerals, dollar amounts expressed in numerals, dates, and individual words or expressions having no generally accepted non-English translation. It is permissible, but not required, that this translation be signed.

(j) The terms of the contract or agreement that is executed in the English language shall determine the rights and obligations of the parties. However, the translation of the contract or the disclosures required by subdivision (e) in any of the languages specified in subdivision (b) in which the contract or agreement was negotiated shall be admissible in evidence only to show that no contract was entered into because of a substantial difference in the material terms and conditions of the contract and the translation.

(k) Upon a failure to comply with the provisions of this section, the person aggrieved may rescind the contract or agreement in the manner provided by this chapter. If the contract for a consumer credit sale or consumer lease that has been sold and assigned to a financial institution is rescinded pursuant to this subdivision, the consumer shall make restitution to and have restitution made by the person with whom he or she made the contract, and shall give notice of rescission to the assignee. Notwithstanding that the contract was assigned without recourse, the assignment shall be deemed rescinded and the assignor shall promptly repurchase the contract from the assignee.

(Amended by Stats. 2014, Ch. 117, Sec. 1. (SB 245) Effective January 1, 2015.)

1632.5.
  

(a) A supervised financial organization that negotiates primarily in Spanish, Chinese, Tagalog, Vietnamese, or Korean, whether orally or in writing, in the course of entering into a contract or agreement for a loan or extension of credit secured by residential real property, shall deliver to the other party to that contract or agreement prior to the execution of the contract or agreement the form described in subdivision (i) for that language.

(b) For purposes of this section:

(1) “Contract” or “agreement” shall have the same meaning as defined in subdivision (g) of Section 1632.

(2) “Supervised financial organization” means a bank, savings association, as defined in Section 5102 of the Financial Code, credit union, or holding company, affiliate, or subsidiary thereof, or any person subject to Division 7 (commencing with Section 18000), Division 9 (commencing with Section 22000), or Division 20 (commencing with Section 50000) of the Financial Code.

(c) (1) With respect to a contract or agreement for a loan or extension of credit secured by residential real property as described in subdivision (a), a supervised financial organization that complies with this section shall be deemed in compliance with Section 1632.

(2) A supervised financial organization that complies with Section 1632, with respect to a contract or agreement for a loan or extension of credit secured by residential real property as described in subdivision (a), shall be deemed in compliance with this section.

(d) The supervised financial organization shall provide the form described in subdivision (i) to the borrower no later than three business days after receipt of the written application, and if any of the loan terms summarized materially change after provision of the translated form but prior to consummation of the loan, the supervised financial organization shall provide an updated version of the translated form prior to consummation of the loan.

(e) (1) This section does not apply to a supervised financial organization that negotiates primarily in a language other than English, as described by subdivision (a), if the party with whom the supervised financial organization is negotiating, negotiates the terms of the contract through his or her own interpreter.

(2) For purposes of this subdivision, “his or her own interpreter” means a person, not a minor, able to speak fluently and read with full understanding both the English language and one of the languages specified in subdivision (a) that is the language in which the contract was negotiated, who is not employed by, and whose services are not made available through, the person engaged in the trade or business.

(f) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), a translated form may retain any of the following elements of the executed English language contract or agreement without translation:

(1) Names and titles of individuals and other persons.

(2) Addresses, brand names, trade names, trademarks, or registered service marks.

(3) Full or abbreviated designations of the make and model of goods or services.

(4) Alphanumeric codes.

(5) Individual words or expressions having no generally accepted non-English translation.

(g) The terms of the contract or agreement which is executed in the English language shall determine the rights and obligations of the parties. However, the translation of the form described in subdivision (i) and required by subdivision (a) shall be admissible in evidence only to show that no contract or agreement was entered into because of a substantial difference in the material terms and conditions of the contract or agreement and the prior translated form provided to the borrower.

(h) (1) A licensing agency may, by order, after appropriate notice and opportunity for hearing, levy administrative penalties against a supervised financial organization that violates any provision of this section, and the supervised financial organization may be liable for administrative penalties, up to the amounts of two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500) for the first violation, five thousand dollars ($5,000) for the second violation, and ten thousand dollars ($10,000) for each subsequent violation. Except for licensing agencies exempt from the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act, any hearing shall be held in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act (Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 11500) of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code), and the licensing agency shall have all the powers granted under that act.

(2) A licensing agency may exercise any and all authority and powers available to it under any other provisions of law to administer and enforce this section, including, but not limited to, investigating and examining the licensed person’s books and records, and charging and collecting the reasonable costs for these activities. The licensing agency shall not charge a licensed person twice for the same service. Any civil, criminal, and administrative authority and remedies available to the licensing agency pursuant to its licensing law may be sought and employed in any combination deemed advisable by the licensing agency to enforce the provisions of this section.

(3) Any supervised financial organization that violates any provision of this section shall be deemed to have violated its licensing law.

(4) Nothing in this section shall be construed to impair or impede the Attorney General from bringing an action to enforce this division.

(i) The Department of Business Oversight shall create a form to be made available in each of the languages set forth in subdivision (a) for use by a supervised financial organization to summarize the terms of a mortgage loan pursuant to subdivision (a). In creating the form, the Department of Business Oversight may use as guidance the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Good Faith Estimate disclosure form.

(j) This section shall not apply to federally chartered banks, credit unions, savings banks, or thrifts.

(k) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (h), this section shall not be construed to create or enhance any claim, right of action, or civil liability that did not previously exist under state law, or limit any claim, right of action, or civil liability that otherwise exists under state law.

(l) An action against a supervised financial organization for a violation of this section may only be brought by a licensing agency or by the Attorney General.

(m) This section shall become operative beginning on July 1, 2010, or 90 days following the issuance of a form by the Department of Business Oversight pursuant to subdivision (i), whichever occurs later.

(Amended by Stats. 2015, Ch. 190, Sec. 2. (AB 1517) Effective January 1, 2016.)

1633.
  

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an application by a prospective customer to enter into a brokerage agreement with a broker-dealer, which application is transmitted electronically and is accompanied by the prospective customer’s electronic signature or digital signature as described in subdivisions (d), (e), (f), and (g), shall be deemed, upon acceptance by the broker-dealer, to be a fully executed, valid, enforceable, and irrevocable written contract, unless grounds exist which would render any other contract invalid, unenforceable, or revocable.

(b) Nothing in this section abrogates or limits any existing law that would otherwise apply to contracts governed by this section, or any theory of liability or any remedy otherwise available at law.

(c) “Broker-dealer,” for purposes of this section, means any broker-dealer licensed pursuant to Part 3 (commencing with Section 25200) of Division 1 of Title 4 of the Corporations Code or exempted from licensing pursuant thereto.

(d) “Electronic” means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar capabilities.

(e) “Electronic record” means a record created, generated, sent, communicated, received, or stored electronically.

(f) “Electronic signature” means an electronic sound, symbol, or process attached to or logically associated with an electronic record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the electronic record.

(g) “Digital signature,” for the purposes of this section, means an electronic identifier, created by a computer, that is intended by the party using it to have the same force and effect as the use of a manual signature. The use of a digital signature shall have the same force or effect as a manual signature if it embodies all of the following attributes:

(1) It is unique to the person using it.

(2) It is capable of verification.

(3) It is under the sole control of the person using it.

(4) It is linked to data in a manner that if the data is changed, the digital signature is invalidated.

(h) The use of an electronic signature or digital signature shall have the same force or effect as a manual signature.

(i) The application that is transmitted electronically pursuant to subdivision (a) shall comply with all applicable federal and state securities laws and regulations relating to disclosures to prospective customers. Unless those laws and regulations currently require disclosures to be displayed or printed in bold, to be of specific type or print size, and to be placed prominently at specified locations within the application, the disclosures shall be displayed prominently and printed in capital letters, in bold type and displayed or printed immediately above the signature line. Disclosures shall be written in plain English. The full text of the disclosures shall be contained in the application as required by this subdivision.

(j) Whenever a disclosure to a prospective customer is required under federal or state law or regulation to be confirmed as having been made, the application that is transmitted electronically pursuant to subdivision (a) shall provide a means by which the prospective customer shall confirm that he or she has read the disclosure.

(Added by Stats. 1999, Ch. 213, Sec. 1. Effective July 28, 1999.)

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