Code Section Group

Civil Code - CIV

DIVISION 3. OBLIGATIONS [1427 - 3272.9]

  ( Heading of Division 3 amended by Stats. 1988, Ch. 160, Sec. 14. )

PART 4. OBLIGATIONS ARISING FROM PARTICULAR TRANSACTIONS [1738 - 3273]

  ( Part 4 enacted 1872. )

TITLE 14. LIEN [2872 - 3081]

  ( Title 14 enacted 1872. )

CHAPTER 2. Mortgage [2920 - 2967]

  ( Chapter 2 enacted 1872. )

ARTICLE 2. Mortgage of Real Property [2947 - 2955.5]
  ( Article 2 enacted 1872. )

2947.
  

Any interest in real property which is capable of being transferred may be mortgaged.

(Enacted 1872.)

2948.
  

A mortgage of real property may be made in substantially the following form:

This mortgage, made the ____ day of ________, in the year ____, by A B, of _____, mortgagor, to C D, of ______, mortgagee, witnesseth:

That the mortgagor mortgages to the mortgagee [here describe the property], as security for the payment to him of _______ dollars, on [or before] the _____ day of ________, in the year ____, with interest thereon [or as security for the payment of an obligation, describing it, etc.]

A B.

(Enacted 1872.)

2948.5.
  

(a) A borrower shall not be required to pay interest on a principal obligation under a promissory note secured by a mortgage or deed of trust on real property improved with between one to four residential dwelling units for any period that meets any of the following requirements:

(1) Is more than one day prior to the date that the loan proceeds are disbursed from escrow.

(2) In the event of no escrow, if a request for recording is made in connection with the disbursement, is more than one day prior to the date the loan proceeds are disbursed to the borrower, to a third party on behalf of the borrower, or to the lender to satisfy an existing obligation of the borrower.

(3) In all other circumstances where there is no escrow and no request for recording, is prior to the date funds are disbursed to the borrower, to a third party on behalf of the borrower, or to the lender to satisfy an existing obligation of the borrower.

(b) Interest may commence to accrue on the business day immediately preceding the day of disbursement, for obligations described in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (a) if both of the following occur:

(1) The borrower affirmatively requests, and the lender agrees, that the disbursement will occur on Monday, or a day immediately following a bank holiday.

(2) The following information is disclosed to the borrower in writing: (A) the amount of additional per diem interest charged to facilitate disbursement on Monday or the day following a holiday, as the case may be, and (B) that it may be possible to avoid the additional per diem interest charge by disbursing the loan proceeds on a day immediately following a business day. This disclosure shall be provided to the borrower and acknowledged by the borrower by signing a copy of the disclosure document prior to placing funds in escrow.

(c) This section does not apply to a loan that is subject to subdivision (c) of Section 10242 of the Business and Professions Code.

(Amended by Stats. 2003, Ch. 554, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2004.)

2949.
  

(a) No mortgage or deed of trust on real property containing only a single-family, owner-occupied dwelling may be declared in default, nor may the maturity date of the indebtedness secured thereby be accelerated, solely by reason of the owner further encumbering the real property or any portion thereof, with a junior mortgage or junior deed of trust.

(b) As used in this section, “single-family, owner-occupied dwelling” means a dwelling which will be owned and occupied by a signatory to the mortgage or deed of trust secured by such dwelling within 90 days of the execution of such mortgage or deed of trust.

(Added by Stats. 1972, Ch. 698.)

2950.
  

When a grant of real property purports to be an absolute conveyance, but is intended to be defeasible on the performance of certain conditions, such grant is not defeated or affected as against any person other than the grantee or his or her heirs or devisees, or persons having actual notice, unless an instrument of defeasance, duly executed and acknowledged, shall have been recorded in the office of the county recorder of the county where the property is situated.

(Amended by Stats. 2013, Ch. 76, Sec. 19. (AB 383) Effective January 1, 2014.)

2952.
  

Mortgages and deeds of trust of real property may be acknowledged or proved, certified and recorded, in like manner and with like effect, as grants thereof; provided, however, that a mortgage or deed of trust of real property may be recorded and constructive notice of the same and the contents thereof given in the following manner:

Any person may record in the office of the county recorder of any county fictitious mortgages and deeds of trust of real property. Those fictitious mortgages and deeds of trust need not be acknowledged, or proved or certified to be recorded or entitled to record. Those mortgages and deeds of trust shall have noted upon the face thereof that they are fictitious. The county recorder shall index and record fictitious mortgages and deeds of trust in the same manner as other mortgages and deeds of trust are recorded, and shall note on all indices and records of the same that they are fictitious. Thereafter, any of the provisions of any recorded fictitious mortgage or deed of trust may be included for any and all purposes in any mortgage or deed of trust by reference therein to any of those provisions, without setting the same forth in full; provided, the fictitious mortgage or deed of trust is of record in the county in which the mortgage or deed of trust adopting or including by reference any of the provisions thereof is recorded. The reference shall contain a statement, as to each county in which the mortgage or deed of trust containing such a reference is recorded, of the date the fictitious mortgage or deed of trust was recorded, the county recorder’s office wherein it is recorded, and the book or volume and the first page of the records in the recorder’s office wherein and at which the fictitious mortgage or deed of trust was recorded, and a statement by paragraph numbers or any other method that will definitely identify the same, of the specific provisions of the fictitious mortgage or deed of trust that are being so adopted and included therein. The recording of any mortgage or deed of trust which has included therein any of those provisions by reference as aforesaid shall operate as constructive notice of the whole thereof including the terms, as a part of the written contents of the mortgage or deed of trust, of those provisions so included by reference as though the same were written in full therein. The parties bound or to be bound by provisions so adopted and included by reference shall be bound thereby in the same manner and with like effect for all purposes as though those provisions had been and were set forth in full in any mortgage or deed of trust.

The amendment to this section enacted by the 1957 Regular Session of the Legislature does not constitute a change in, but is declaratory of, the preexisting law.

(Amended by Stats. 2000, Ch. 924, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2001.)

2953.
  

Any express agreement made or entered into by a borrower at the time of or in connection with the making of or renewing of any loan secured by a deed of trust, mortgage or other instrument creating a lien on real property, whereby the borrower agrees to waive the rights, or privileges conferred upon him by Sections 2924, 2924b, 2924c of the Civil Code or by Sections 580a or 726 of the Code of Civil Procedure, shall be void and of no effect. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any deed of trust, mortgage or other liens given to secure the payment of bonds or other evidences of indebtedness authorized or permitted to be issued by the Commissioner of Corporations, or is made by a public utility subject to the provisions of the Public Utilities Act.

(Amended by Stats. 1941, Ch. 599.)

2953.1.
  

As used in this section:

(a) “Real property security instrument” shall include any mortgage or trust deed or land contract in or on real property.

(b) “Subordination clause” shall mean a clause in a real property security instrument whereby the holder of the security interest under such instrument agrees that upon the occurrence of conditions or circumstances specified therein his security interest will become subordinate to or he will execute an agreement subordinating his interest to the lien of another real property security instrument which would otherwise be of lower priority than his lien or security interest.

(c) “Subordination agreement” shall mean a separate agreement or instrument whereby the holder of the security interest under a real property security instrument agrees that (1) his existing security interest is subordinate to, or (2) upon the occurrence of conditions or circumstances specified in such separate agreement his security interest will become subordinate to, or (3) he will execute an agreement subordinating his interest to, the lien of another real property security instrument which would otherwise be of lower priority than his lien or security interest.

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1861.)

2953.2.
  

Every real property security instrument which contains or has attached a subordination clause shall contain:

(a) At the top of the real property security instrument there shall appear in at least 10-point bold type, or, if typewritten, in capital letters and underlined, the word “Subordinated” followed by a description of the type of security instrument.

(b) A notice in at least eight-point bold type, or, if typewritten, in capital letters, shall appear immediately below the legend required by subdivision (a) of this section reading as follows: “Notice: This (insert description of real property security instrument) contains a subordination clause which may result in your security interest in the property becoming subject to and of lower priority than the lien of some other or later security instrument.”

(c) If the terms of the subordination clause allow the obligor on the debt secured by the real property security instrument to obtain a loan, secured by another real property security instrument covering all or any part of the same parcel of real property, the proceeds of which may be used for any purpose or purposes other than defraying the costs for improvement of the land covered by the real property security instrument containing the subordination clause, a notice in at least eight-point bold type, or, if typewritten, in capital letters shall appear directly above the space reserved for the signature of the person whose security interest is to be subordinated, reading as follows: “Notice: This (insert description of real property security instrument) contains a subordination clause which allows the person obligated on your real property security instrument to obtain a loan a portion of which may be expended for other purposes than improvement of the land.”

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1861.)

2953.3.
  

Every subordination agreement shall contain:

(a) At the top of the subordination agreement there shall appear in at least 10-point bold type, or, if typewritten, in capital letters and underlined, the words “Subordination Agreement.”

(b) A notice in at least eight-point bold type, or, if typewritten, in capital letters, shall appear immediately below the legend required by subdivision (a) of this section reading as follows:

“Notice: This subordination agreement (“may result” or “results” as appropriate) in your security interest in the property becoming subject to and of lower priority than the lien of some other or later security instrument.”

(c) If the terms of the subordination agreement provide that the obligor on the debt secured by the real property security instrument may either obtain a loan, or obtain an agreement from the holder of the real property security which will allow him to obtain a loan, the proceeds of which may be used for any purpose or purposes other than defraying the actual contract costs for improvement of the land, covered by the real property security instrument which is, or is to become subordinated, a notice in at least eight-point bold type or, if typewritten, in capital letters, shall appear directly above the space reserved for the signature of the person whose security interest is to be subordinated, reading as follows: “Notice: This subordination agreement contains a provision which (“allows” or “may allow” as appropriate) the person obligated on your real property security to obtain a loan a portion of which may be expended for other purposes than improvement of the land.”

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1861.)

2953.4.
  

(a) Any subordination clause and any subordination agreement which is executed after the effective date of this act and which does not substantially comply with the provisions of Section 2953.2 or Section 2953.3 shall be voidable upon the election of the person whose security interest is to be subordinated or his successor-in-interest exercised within two years of the date on which the instrument to which his security interest is subordinated is executed; provided that such power of avoidance shall not be exercisable by any person having actual knowledge of the existence and terms of the subordination clause or agreement.

(b) The person whose security interest was to be subordinated or his successor-in-interest shall exercise his election to void the subordination clause or subordination agreement provided by subdivision (a) of this section by recording a notice stating that the provisions of Civil Code Section 2953.2 or Civil Code Section 2953.3 have not been complied with, and that he is the holder of the security instrument which is or was to become subordinated and that he elects to avoid the effect of the subordination clause or subordination agreement.

(c) The provisions of this section may be waived by the subsequent execution and recordation by the holder of the security interest which is or may become subordinated, of a statement that he knows of the existence of the subordination clause or agreement and of its terms and that he waives the provisions of this section and the requirements of Sections 2953.1, 2953.2, and 2953.3.

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1861.)

2953.5.
  

(a) Sections 2953.1 through 2953.4 shall not apply to any subordination clause or subordination agreement which expressly states that the subordinating loan shall exceed twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000).

(b) Sections 2953.1 through 2953.4 shall not apply to any subordination clause or subordination agreement which is executed in connection with a loan which exceeds twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000).

(Added by Stats. 1963, Ch. 1861.)

2954.
  

(a) (1) No impound, trust, or other type of account for payment of taxes on the property, insurance premiums, or other purposes relating to the property shall be required as a condition of a real property sale contract or a loan secured by a deed of trust or mortgage on real property containing only a single-family, owner-occupied dwelling, except: (A) where required by a state or federal regulatory authority, (B) where a loan is made, guaranteed, or insured by a state or federal governmental lending or insuring agency, (C) upon a failure of the purchaser or borrower to pay two consecutive tax installments on the property prior to the delinquency date for such payments, (D) where the original principal amount of such a loan is (i) 90 percent or more of the sale price, if the property involved is sold, or is (ii) 90 percent or more of the appraised value of the property securing the loan, (E) whenever the combined principal amount of all loans secured by the real property exceeds 80 percent of the appraised value of the property securing the loans, (F) where a loan is made in compliance with the requirements for higher priced mortgage loans established in Regulation Z, whether or not the loan is a higher priced mortgage loan, or (G) where a loan is refinanced or modified in connection with a lender’s homeownership preservation program or a lender’s participation in such a program sponsored by a federal, state, or local government authority or a nonprofit organization. Nothing contained in this section shall preclude establishment of such an account on terms mutually agreeable to the parties to the loan, if, prior to the execution of the loan or sale agreement, the seller or lender has furnished to the purchaser or borrower a statement in writing, which may be set forth in the loan application, to the effect that the establishment of such an account shall not be required as a condition to the execution of the loan or sale agreement, and further, stating whether or not interest will be paid on the funds in such an account.

An impound, trust, or other type of account for the payment of taxes, insurance premiums, or other purposes relating to property established in violation of this subdivision is voidable, at the option of the purchaser or borrower, at any time, but shall not otherwise affect the validity of the loan or sale.

(2) For the purposes of this subdivision, “Regulation Z” means any rule, regulation, or interpretation promulgated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and any interpretation or approval issued by an official or employee duly authorized by the board to issue interpretations or approvals dealing with, respectively, consumer leasing or consumer lending, pursuant to the federal Truth in Lending Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. Sec. 1601 et seq.).

(b) Every mortgagee of real property, beneficiary under a deed of trust on real property, or vendor on a real property sale contract upon the written request of the mortgagor, trustor, or vendee shall furnish to the mortgagor, trustor, or vendee for each calendar year within 60 days after the end of the year an itemized accounting of moneys received for interest and principal repayment and received and held in or disbursed from an impound or trust account, if any, for payment of taxes on the property, insurance premiums, or other purposes relating to the property subject to the mortgage, deed of trust, or real property sale contract. The mortgagor, trustor, or vendee shall be entitled to receive one such accounting for each calendar year without charge and shall be entitled to additional similar accountings for one or more months upon written request and on payment in advance of fees as follows:

(1) Fifty cents ($0.50) per statement when requested in advance on a monthly basis for one or more years.

(2) One dollar ($1) per statement when requested for only one month.

(3) Five dollars ($5) if requested for a single cumulative statement giving all the information described above back to the last statement rendered.

If the mortgagee, beneficiary, or vendor transmits to the mortgagor, trustor, or vendee a monthly statement or passbook showing moneys received for interest and principal repayment and received and held in and disbursed from an impound or trust account, if any, the mortgagee, beneficiary, or vendor shall be deemed to have complied with this section.

No increase in the monthly rate of payment of a mortgagor, trustor, or vendee on a real property sale contract for impound or trust accounts shall be effective until after the mortgagee, beneficiary, or vendor has furnished the mortgagor, trustor, or vendee with an itemized accounting of the moneys presently held by it in the accounts, and a statement of the new monthly rate of payment, and an explanation of the factors necessitating the increase.

The provisions of this section shall be in addition to the obligations of the parties as stated by Section 2943.

Every person who willfully or repeatedly violates this subdivision shall be subject to punishment by a fine of not less than fifty dollars ($50) nor more than two hundred dollars ($200).

(c) As used in this section, “single-family, owner-occupied dwelling” means a dwelling that will be owned and occupied by a signatory to the mortgage or deed of trust secured by that dwelling within 90 days of the execution of the mortgage or deed of trust.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 328, Sec. 30. (SB 1330) Effective January 1, 2011.)

2954.1.
  

No lender or person who purchases obligations secured by real property, or any agent of such lender or person, who maintains an impound, trust, or other type of account for the payment of taxes and assessments on real property, insurance premiums, or other purposes relating to such property shall do any of the following:

(a) Require the borrower or vendee to deposit in such account in any month an amount in excess of that which would be permitted in connection with a federally related mortgage loan pursuant to Section 10 of the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974 (12 U.S.C. 2609), as amended.

(b) Require the sums maintained in such account to exceed at any time the amount or amounts reasonably necessary to pay such obligations as they become due. Any sum held in excess of the reasonable amount shall be refunded within 30 days unless the parties mutually agree to the contrary. Such an agreement may be rescinded at any time by any party.

(c) Make payments from the account in a manner so as to cause any policy of insurance to be canceled or so as to cause property taxes or other similar payments to become delinquent.

Nothing contained herein shall prohibit requiring additional amounts to be paid into an impound account in order to recover any deficiency which may exist in the account.

Any person harmed by a violation of this section shall be entitled to sue to recover his or her damages or for injunctive relief; but such violation shall not otherwise affect the validity of the loan or sale.

This section applies to all such accounts maintained after the effective date of this act.

(Amended by Stats. 1983, Ch. 74, Sec. 1.)

2954.2.
  

(a) Every mortgagee of record of real property containing only a one- to four-family residence, when the mortgage is given to secure payment of the balance of the purchase price of the property or to refinance such a mortgage, shall furnish to the mortgagor within 60 days after the end of each calendar year a written statement showing the amount of moneys received for interest and principal repayment, late charges, moneys received and held in or disbursed from an impound account, if any, for the payment of taxes on the property, insurance premiums, bond assessments, or other purposes relating to the property, and interest credited to the account, if any. The written statement required to be furnished by this section shall be deemed furnished if the mortgagee of record transmits to the mortgagor of record cumulative statements or receipts which, for each calendar year, provide in one of the statements or receipts the information required by this section. The mortgagor, trustor or vendee shall be entitled to receive one such statement for each calendar year without charge and without request. Such statement shall include a notification in 10-point type that additional accountings can be requested by the mortgagor, trustor, or vendee, pursuant to Section 2954.

(b) For the purposes of this section:

(1) “Mortgagee” includes a beneficiary under a deed of trust, a vendor under a real property sale contract, and an organization which services a mortgage or deed of trust by receiving and disbursing payments for the mortgagee or beneficiary.

(2) “Mortgage” includes a first or second mortgage, a first or second deed of trust, and a real property sale contract.

(3) “Impound account” includes a trust or other type of account established for the purposes described in subdivision (a).

(c) The requirements of this section shall be in addition to the requirements of Section 2954.

(d) This section shall become operative on December 31, 1978, and apply to moneys received by a mortgagee on and after January 1, 1978.

(Added by Stats. 1976, Ch. 774.)

2954.4.
  

(a) A charge that may be imposed for late payment of an installment due on a loan secured by a mortgage or a deed of trust on real property containing only a single-family, owner-occupied dwelling, shall not exceed either (1) the equivalent of 6 percent of the installment due that is applicable to payment of principal and interest on the loan, or (2) five dollars ($5), whichever is greater. A charge may not be imposed more than once for the late payment of the same installment. However, the imposition of a late charge on any late payment does not eliminate or supersede late charges imposed on prior late payments. A payment is not a “late payment” for the purposes of this section until at least 10 days following the due date of the installment.

(b) A late charge may not be imposed on any installment which is paid or tendered in full on or before its due date, or within 10 days thereafter, even though an earlier installment or installments, or any late charge thereon, may not have been paid in full when due. For the purposes of determining whether late charges may be imposed, any payment tendered by the borrower shall be applied by the lender to the most recent installment due.

(c) A late payment charge described in subdivision (a) is valid if it satisfies the requirements of this section and Section 2954.5.

(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to alter in any way the duty of the borrower to pay any installment then due or to alter the rights of the lender to enforce the payment of the installments.

(e) This section is not applicable to loans made by a credit union subject to Division 5 (commencing with Section 14000) of the Financial Code, by an industrial loan company subject to Division 7 (commencing with Section 18000) of the Financial Code, or by a finance lender subject to Division 9 (commencing with Section 22000) of the Financial Code, and is not applicable to loans made or negotiated by a real estate broker subject to Article 7 (commencing with Section 10240) of Chapter 3 of Part 1 of Division 4 of the Business and Professions Code.

(f) As used in this section, “single-family, owner-occupied dwelling” means a dwelling that will be owned and occupied by a signatory to the mortgage or deed of trust secured by the dwelling within 90 days of the execution of the mortgage or deed of trust.

(g) This section applies to loans executed on and after January 1, 1976.

(Amended by Stats. 2001, Ch. 159, Sec. 35. Effective January 1, 2002.)

2954.5.
  

(a) Before the first default, delinquency, or late payment charge may be assessed by any lender on a delinquent payment of a loan, other than a loan made pursuant to Division 9 (commencing with Section 22000) of the Financial Code, secured by real property, and before the borrower becomes obligated to pay this charge, the borrower shall either (1) be notified in writing and given at least 10 days from mailing of the notice in which to cure the delinquency, or (2) be informed, by a billing or notice sent for each payment due on the loan, of the date after which this charge will be assessed.

The notice provided in either paragraph (1) or (2) shall contain the amount of the charge or the method by which it is calculated.

(b) If a subsequent payment becomes delinquent the borrower shall be notified in writing, before the late charge is to be imposed, that the charge will be imposed if payment is not received, or the borrower shall be notified at least semiannually of the total amount of late charges imposed during the period covered by the notice.

(c) Notice provided by this section shall be sent to the address specified by the borrower, or, if no address is specified, to the borrower’s address as shown in the lender’s records.

(d) In case of multiple borrowers obligated on the same loan, a notice mailed to one shall be deemed to comply with this section.

(e) The failure of the lender to comply with the requirements of this section does not excuse or defer the borrower’s performance of any obligation incurred in the loan transaction, other than his or her obligation to pay a late payment charge, nor does it impair or defer the right of the lender to enforce any other obligation including the costs and expenses incurred in any enforcement authorized by law.

(f) The provisions of this section as added by Chapter 1430 of the Statutes of 1970 shall only affect loans made on and after January 1, 1971.

The amendments to this section made at the 1975–76 Regular Session of the Legislature shall only apply to loans executed on and after January 1, 1976.

(Amended by Stats. 2001, Ch. 159, Sec. 36. Effective January 1, 2002.)

2954.6.
  

(a) If private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance, as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 12640.02 of the Insurance Code, is required as a condition of a loan secured by a deed of trust or mortgage on real property, the lender or person making or arranging the loan shall notify the borrower whether or not the borrower has the right to cancel the insurance. If the borrower has the right to cancel, then the lender or person making or arranging the loan shall notify the borrower in writing of the following:

(1) Any identifying loan or insurance information necessary to permit the borrower to communicate with the insurer or the lender concerning the insurance.

(2) The conditions that are required to be satisfied before the private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance may be subject to cancellation, which shall include, but is not limited to, both of the following:

(A) If the condition is a minimum ratio between the remaining principal balance of the loan and the original or current value of the property, that ratio shall be stated.

(B) Information concerning whether or not an appraisal may be necessary.

(3) The procedure the borrower is required to follow to cancel the private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance.

(b) The notice required in subdivision (a) shall be given to the borrower no later than 30 days after the close of escrow. The notice shall be set forth in at least 10-point bold type.

(c) With respect to any loan specified in subdivision (a) for which private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance is still maintained, the lender or person making, arranging, or servicing the loan shall provide the borrower with a notice containing the same information as specified in subdivision (a) or a clear and conspicuous written statement indicating that (1) the borrower may be able to cancel the private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance based upon various factors, including appreciation of the value of the property derived from a current appraisal performed by an appraiser selected by the lender or servicer, and paid for by the borrower, and (2) the borrower may contact the lender or person making, arranging, or servicing the loan at a designated address and telephone number to determine whether the borrower has a right of cancellation and, if so, the conditions and procedure to effect cancellation. The notice or statement required by this subdivision shall be provided in or with each written statement required by Section 2954.2.

(d) The notice required under this section shall be provided without cost to the borrower.

(e) Any person harmed by a violation of this section may obtain injunctive relief and may recover treble damages and reasonable attorney’s fees and costs.

(f) This section shall not apply to any mortgage funded with bond proceeds issued under an indenture requiring mortgage insurance for the life of the loan nor to any insurance issued pursuant to Part 4 (commencing with Section 51600) of Division 31 of the Health and Safety Code, or loans insured by the Federal Housing Administration or Veterans Administration.

(Amended by Stats. 2001, Ch. 137, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2002. Operative July 1, 2002, by Sec. 2 of Ch. 137.)

2954.65.
  

Within 30 days after notice of cancellation from the insured, a private mortgage insurer or mortgage guaranty insurer shall, if the policy is cancellable, refund the remaining portion of the unused premium to the person or persons designated by the insured.

(Added by Stats. 1990, Ch. 1099, Sec. 2.)

2954.7.
  

Except when a statute, regulation, rule, or written guideline promulgated by an institutional third party applicable to notes or evidence of indebtedness secured by a deed of trust or mortgage purchased in whole or in part by an institutional third party specifically prohibits cancellation during the term of the indebtedness, if a borrower so requests and the conditions established by paragraphs (1) to (5), inclusive, of subdivision (a) are met, a borrower may terminate future payments for private mortgage insurance, or mortgage guaranty insurance as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 12640.02 of the Insurance Code, issued as a condition to the extension of credit in the form of a loan evidenced by a note or other evidence of indebtedness that is secured by a deed of trust or mortgage on the subject real property.

(a) The following conditions shall be satisfied in order for a borrower to be entitled to terminate payments for private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance:

(1) The request to terminate future payments for private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance shall be in writing.

(2) The origination date of the note or evidence of indebtedness shall be at least two years prior to the date of the request.

(3) The note or evidence of indebtedness shall be for personal, family, household, or purchase money purposes, secured by a deed of trust or mortgage on owner-occupied, one- to four-unit, residential real property.

(4) The unpaid principal balance owed on the secured obligation that is the subject of the private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance shall not be more than 75 percent, unless the borrower and lender or servicer of the loan agree in writing upon a higher loan-to-value ratio, of either of the following:

(A) The sale price of the property at the origination date of the note or evidence of indebtedness, provided that the current fair market value of the property is equal to or greater than the original appraised value used at the origination date.

(B) The current fair market value of the property as determined by an appraisal, the cost of which shall be paid for by the borrower. The appraisal shall be ordered and the appraiser shall be selected by the lender or servicer of the loan.

(5) The borrower’s monthly installments of principal, interest, and escrow obligations on the encumbrance or encumbrances secured by the real property shall be current at the time the request is made and those installments shall not have been more than 30 days past due over the 24-month period immediately preceding the request, provided further, that no notice of default has been recorded against the security real property pursuant to Section 2924, as a result of a nonmonetary default by the borrower (trustor) during the 24-month period immediately preceding the request.

(b) This section does not apply to any of the following:

(1) A note or evidence of indebtedness secured by a deed of trust or mortgage, or mortgage insurance, executed under the authority of Part 3 (commencing with Section 50900) or Part 4 (commencing with Section 51600) of Division 31 of the Health and Safety Code.

(2) Any note or evidence of indebtedness secured by a deed of trust or mortgage that is funded in whole or in part pursuant to authority granted by statute, regulation, or rule that, as a condition of that funding, prohibits or limits termination of payments for private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance during the term of the indebtedness.

(3) Notes or evidence of indebtedness that require private mortgage insurance and were executed prior to January 1, 1991.

(c) If the note secured by the deed of trust or mortgage will be or has been sold in whole or in part to an institutional third party, adherence to the institutional third party’s standards for termination of future payments for private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance shall be deemed in compliance with the requirements of this section.

(d) For the purposes of this section, “institutional third party” means the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, the Government National Mortgage Association, and other substantially similar institutions, whether public or private, provided the institutions establish and adhere to rules applicable to the right of cancellation of private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance, which are the same or substantially the same as those utilized by the above-named institutions.

(Amended by Stats. 2006, Ch. 538, Sec. 56. Effective January 1, 2007.)

2954.8.
  

(a) Every financial institution that makes loans upon the security of real property containing only a one- to four-family residence and located in this state or purchases obligations secured by such property and that receives money in advance for payment of taxes and assessments on the property, for insurance, or for other purposes relating to the property, shall pay interest on the amount so held to the borrower. The interest on such amounts shall be at the rate of at least 2 percent simple interest per annum. Such interest shall be credited to the borrower’s account annually or upon termination of such account, whichever is earlier.

(b) No financial institution subject to the provisions of this section shall impose any fee or charge in connection with the maintenance or disbursement of money received in advance for the payment of taxes and assessments on real property securing loans made by such financial institution, or for the payment of insurance, or for other purposes relating to such real property, that will result in an interest rate of less than 2 percent per annum being paid on the moneys so received.

(c) For the purposes of this section, “financial institution” means a bank, savings and loan association or credit union chartered under the laws of this state or the United States, or any other person or organization making loans upon the security of real property containing only a one- to four-family residence.

(d) The provisions of this section do not apply to any of the following:

(1) Loans executed prior to the effective date of this section.

(2) Moneys which are required by a state or federal regulatory authority to be placed by a financial institution other than a bank in a non-interest-bearing demand trust fund account of a bank.

The amendment of this section made by the 1979–80 Regular Session of the Legislature shall only apply to loans executed on or after January 1, 1980.

(Amended by Stats. 1979, Ch. 803.)

2954.9.
  

(a) (1) Except as otherwise provided by statute, where the original principal obligation is a loan for residential property of four units or less, the borrower under any note or evidence of indebtedness secured by a deed of trust or mortgage or any other lien on real property shall be entitled to prepay the whole or any part of the balance due, together with accrued interest, at any time.

(2) Nothing in this subdivision shall prevent a borrower from obligating himself, by an agreement in writing, to pay a prepayment charge.

(3) This subdivision does not apply during any calendar year to a bona fide loan secured by a deed of trust or mortgage given back during such calendar year to the seller by the purchaser on account of the purchase price if the seller does not take back four or more such deeds of trust or mortgages during such calendar year. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to prohibit a borrower from making a prepayment by an agreement in writing with the lender.

(b) Except as otherwise provided in Section 10242.6 of the Business and Professions Code, the principal and accrued interest on any loan secured by a mortgage or deed of trust on owner-occupied residential real property containing only four units or less may be prepaid in whole or in part at any time but only a prepayment made within five years of the date of execution of such mortgage or deed of trust may be subject to a prepayment charge and then solely as herein set forth. An amount not exceeding 20 percent of the original principal amount may be prepaid in any 12-month period without penalty. A prepayment charge may be imposed on any amount prepaid in any 12-month period in excess of 20 percent of the original principal amount of the loan which charge shall not exceed an amount equal to the payment of six months’ advance interest on the amount prepaid in excess of 20 percent of the original principal amount.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivisions (a) and (b), there shall be no prepayment penalty charged to a borrower under a loan subject to this section if the residential structure securing the loan has been damaged to such an extent by a natural disaster for which a state of emergency is declared by the Governor, pursuant to Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 8550) of Division 1 of Title 2 of the Government Code, that the residential structure cannot be occupied and the prepayment is causally related thereto.

(Amended by Stats. 1990, Ch. 663, Sec. 2.)

2954.10.
  

An obligee which accelerates the maturity date of the principal and accrued interest, pursuant to contract, on any loan secured by a mortgage or deed of trust on real property or an estate for years therein, upon the conveyance of any right, title, or interest in that property, may not claim, exact, or collect any charge, fee, or penalty for any prepayment resulting from that acceleration.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to a loan other than a loan secured by residential real property or any interest therein containing four units or less, in which the obligor has expressly waived, in writing, the right to repay in whole or part without penalty, or has expressly agreed, in writing, to the payment of a penalty for prepayment upon acceleration. For any loan executed on or after January 1, 1984, this waiver or agreement shall be separately signed or initialed by the obligor and its enforcement shall be supported by evidence of a course of conduct by the obligee of individual weight to the consideration in that transaction for the waiver or agreement.

(Amended by Stats. 1989, Ch. 698, Sec. 11.)

2954.11.
  

(a) As used in this section:

(1) “Open-end credit plan” has the meaning set forth in Regulation Z of the Federal Reserve System (12 C.F.R. 226.2(a)(20)).

(2) “Installment loan” means any loan specified in subdivision (h) extended under an installment loan feature.

(3) “Installment loan feature” means a feature of an open-end credit plan which provides for a separate subaccount of the open-end credit plan pursuant to which the principal of, and interest on, the loan associated with that subaccount are to be repaid in substantially equal installments over a specified period without regard to the amount outstanding under any other feature of the open-end credit plan or the payment schedule with respect to the other feature.

(b) (1) Except as otherwise provided by statute, the borrower under any installment loan shall be entitled to prepay the whole or any part of the installment loan, together with any accrued interest, at any time.

(2) With respect to any installment loan, nothing in this section shall preclude a borrower from becoming obligated, by an agreement in writing, to pay a prepayment charge; but only a prepayment made within five years of the date the installment loan is made may be subject to a prepayment charge and then solely as herein set forth. An amount not exceeding 20 percent of the original principal amount of the installment loan may be prepaid in any one 12-month period without incurring a prepayment charge. A prepayment charge may be imposed on any amount prepaid in any 12-month period in excess of 20 percent of the original principal amount of the installment loan, which charge shall not exceed an amount equal to the payment of six months’ advance interest on the amount prepaid in excess of 20 percent of the original principal amount of the installment loan.

(c) For purposes of subdivision (b):

(1) If the deed of trust or mortgage secures repayment of more than one installment loan, each of the installment loans shall be deemed to have been separately made on the date that the proceeds of the installment loan are advanced.

(2) If the outstanding balance of a loan advanced pursuant to an open-end credit plan thereafter becomes subject to an installment loan feature of the credit plan, the loan shall be deemed to have been made when the loan becomes subject to the installment loan feature, whether the feature was available at the borrower’s option under original terms of the open-end credit plan or the feature thereafter became available upon modification of the original terms of the open-end credit plan.

(d) Notwithstanding subdivision (b), no prepayment charge may be imposed with respect to an installment loan subject to this section if any of the following apply:

(1) The residential structure securing the installment loan has been damaged to such an extent by a natural disaster for which a state of emergency is declared by the Governor, pursuant to Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 8550) of Division 1 of Title 2 of the Government Code, that the residential structure cannot be occupied and the prepayment is causally related thereto.

(2) The prepayment is made in conjunction with a bona fide sale of the real property securing the installment loan.

(3) The lender does not comply with subdivision (e).

(4) The term of the installment loan is for not more than five years and the original principal amount of the installment loan is less than five thousand dollars ($5,000).

(e) (1) The lender receiving a borrower’s obligation to pay a prepayment charge authorized by subdivision (b) shall furnish the borrower with a written disclosure describing the existence of the prepayment charge obligation, the conditions under which the prepayment charge shall be payable, and the method by which the amount of the prepayment charge shall be determined. If subdivision (f) provides the borrower with a right to rescind the installment loan and the related obligation to pay a prepayment charge, the disclosure required by this subdivision shall also inform the borrower of this right to rescind, how and when to exercise the right, and where to mail or deliver a notice of rescission.

(2) The amount of, or the method for determining the amount of, the prepayment charge for an installment loan shall be set forth in the agreement governing the open-end credit plan.

(f) (1) The disclosure required by paragraph (1) of subdivision (e) shall be furnished when or up to 30 days before the borrower signs the agreement or other documents required by the lender for the installment loan, or no earlier than 30 days before nor later than 10 days following the making of the installment loan, if made without the borrower having to sign an agreement or other documentation, such as may be the case if the installment loan may be made on the basis of telephone or other discussions between the lender and the borrower not taking place in person. If the installment loan is made before the borrower has been furnished with the disclosure required by paragraph (1) of subdivision (e), the borrower shall have the right to rescind the installment loan and the related obligation to pay a prepayment charge by personally delivering or mailing notice to that effect to the lender, by first-class mail with postage prepaid, at the lender’s location stated in its disclosure concerning the right to rescind within 10 days following the furnishing of the disclosure.

(2) If the disclosure required by paragraph (1) of subdivision (e) is included in the agreement or other document signed by the borrower for the installment loan, the disclosure shall be deemed given at that time. In other cases, the disclosure shall be deemed furnished when personally delivered to the borrower or three days after it is mailed to the borrower, first-class mail with postage prepaid, at the address to which billing statements for the open-end credit plan are being sent.

(3) The disclosure required by paragraph (1) of subdivision (e) may be separately furnished or may be included in the agreement or other document for the installment loan, provided that a copy of the disclosure that the borrower may retain is furnished to the borrower.

(4) If there is more than one borrower with respect to the open-end credit plan, a disclosure to any one of them pursuant to subdivision (e) shall satisfy the requirements of that subdivision with respect to all of them.

(g) If after an installment loan is made the lender receives the borrower’s timely notice of the rescission of the installment loan in accordance with subdivision (f), the balance of the installment loan shall be transferred to the open-end subaccount of the open-end credit plan and the borrower shall be obligated to repay the amount under the same terms and conditions, and subject to the same fees and other charges, as would be applicable had the loan initially been extended pursuant to the open-end credit plan or had the installment loan never been made.

(h) This section applies to any installment loan secured by a deed of trust or mortgage or any other lien on residential property of four units or less and Section 2954.9 does not apply to such installment loans. This section shall not apply to any loan that is subject to Section 10242.6 of the Business and Professions Code.

(Added by Stats. 1996, Ch. 32, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1997.)

2954.12.
  

(a) Notwithstanding Section 2954.7, and except when a statute, regulation, rule, or written guideline promulgated by an institutional third party applicable to notes or evidence of indebtedness secured by a deed of trust or mortgage purchased in whole or in part by an institutional third party specifically prohibits cancellation during the term of the indebtedness, the lender or servicer of a loan evidenced by a note or other evidence of indebtedness that is secured by a deed of trust or mortgage on the subject property may not charge or collect future payments from a borrower for private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 12640.02 of the Insurance Code, if all of the following conditions are satisfied:

(1) The loan is for personal, family, household, or purchase money purposes, the subject property is owner-occupied, one-to-four unit residential real property, and the outstanding principal balance of the note or evidence of indebtedness secured by the senior deed of trust or mortgage on the subject property is equal to or less than 75 percent of the lesser of (A) if the loan was made for purchase of the property, the sales price of the property under such purchase; or (B) the appraised value of the property, as determined by the appraisal conducted in connection with the making of the loan.

(2) The borrower’s scheduled payment of monthly installments of principal, interest, and escrow obligations is current at the time the right to cancellation of mortgage insurance accrues.

(3) During the 12 months prior to the date upon which the right to cancellation accrues, the borrower has not been assessed more than one late penalty for any scheduled payment and has not made any scheduled payment more than 30 days late.

(4) The loan evidenced by a note or evidence of indebtedness was made or executed on or after January 1, 1998.

(5) No notice of default has been recorded against the real property pursuant to Section 2924, as a result of a nonmonetary default on the extension of credit by the borrower during the last 12 months prior to the accrual of the borrower’s right to cancellation.

(b) This section does not apply to any of the following:

(1) A note or evidence of indebtedness secured by a deed of trust or mortgage, or mortgage insurance, executed under the authority of Part 3 (commencing with Section 50900) or Part 4 (commencing with Section 51600) of Division 31 of the Health and Safety Code.

(2) Any note or evidence of indebtedness secured by a deed of trust or mortgage that is funded in whole or in part pursuant to authority granted by statute, regulation, or rule that, as a condition of that funding, prohibits or limits termination of payments for private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance during the term of the indebtedness.

(c) If the note secured by the deed of trust or mortgage will be or has been sold in whole or in part to an institutional third party, adherence to the institutional third party’s standards for termination of future payments for private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance shall be deemed in compliance with the requirements of this section.

(d) For the purposes of this section, “institutional third party” means the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, the Government National Mortgage Association and other substantially similar institutions, whether public or private, provided the institutions establish and adhere to rules applicable to the right of cancellation of private mortgage insurance or mortgage guaranty insurance, which are the same or substantially the same as those utilized by the above-named institutions.

(Added by Stats. 1997, Ch. 62, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 1998.)

2955.
  

(a) Money held by a mortgagee or a beneficiary of a deed of trust on real property in this state, or held by a vendor on a contract of sale of real property in this state, in an impound account for the payment of taxes and assessments or insurance premiums or other purposes on or relating to the property, shall be retained in this state and, if invested, shall be invested only with residents of this state in the case of individuals, or with partnerships, corporations, or other persons, or the branches or subsidiaries thereof, which are engaged in business within this state.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), a mortgagee or beneficiary of a deed of trust, secured by a first lien on real property, may deposit money held for the payment of taxes and assessments or insurance premiums or other purposes in an impound account in an out-of-state depository institution insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation if the mortgagee or beneficiary is any one of the following:

(1) The Federal National Mortgage Association, the Government National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, the Federal Housing Administration, or the Veteran’s Administration.

(2) A bank or subsidiary thereof, bank holding company or subsidiary thereof, trust company, savings bank or savings and loan association or subsidiary thereof, savings bank or savings association holding company or subsidiary thereof, credit union, industrial bank or industrial loan company, commercial finance lender, personal property broker, consumer finance lender, or insurer doing business under the authority of and in accordance with the laws of this state, any other state, or of the United States relating to banks, trust companies, savings banks or savings associations, credit unions, industrial banks or industrial loan companies, commercial finance lenders, personal property brokers, consumer finance lenders, or insurers, as evidenced by a license, certificate, or charter issued by the United States or a state, district, territory, or commonwealth of the United States.

(3) Trustees of a pension, profit-sharing, or welfare fund, if the pension, profit-sharing, or welfare fund has a net worth of not less than fifteen million dollars ($15,000,000).

(4) A corporation with outstanding securities registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or a wholly owned subsidiary of that corporation.

(5) A syndication or other combination of any of the entities specified in paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive, that is organized to purchase the promissory note.

(6) The California Housing Finance Agency or a local housing finance agency organized under the Health and Safety Code.

(7) A licensed real estate broker selling all or part of the loan, note, or contract to a lender or purchaser described in paragraphs (1) to (6), inclusive, of this subdivision.

(8) A licensed residential mortgage lender or servicer when acting under the authority of that license.

(c) A mortgagee or beneficiary of a deed of trust who deposits funds held in trust in an out-of-state depository institution in accordance with subdivision (b) shall make available, in this state, the books, records, and files pertaining to those trust accounts to the appropriate state regulatory department or agency, or pay the reasonable expenses for travel and lodging incurred by the regulatory department or agency in order to conduct an examination at an out-of-state location.

(d) The Attorney General may bring an action on behalf of the people of California to enjoin a violation of subdivision (a) or subdivision (b).

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 1992, Ch. 1055, Sec. 3) by Stats. 1995, Ch. 564, Sec. 5. Effective January 1, 1996.)

2955.1.
  

(a) Any lender originating a loan secured by the borrower’s separate interest in a condominium project, as defined in Section 4125 or 6542, which requires earthquake insurance or imposes a fee or any other condition in lieu thereof pursuant to an underwriting requirement imposed by an institutional third-party purchaser shall disclose all of the following to the potential borrower:

(1) That the lender or the institutional third party in question requires earthquake insurance or imposes a fee or any other condition in lieu thereof pursuant to an underwriting requirement imposed by an institutional third-party purchaser.

(2) That not all lenders or institutional third parties require earthquake insurance or impose a fee or any other condition in lieu thereof pursuant to an underwriting requirement imposed by an institutional third-party purchaser.

(3) Earthquake insurance may be required on the entire condominium project.

(4) That lenders or institutional third parties may also require that a condominium project maintain, or demonstrate an ability to maintain, financial reserves in the amount of the earthquake insurance deductible.

(b) For the purposes of this section, “institutional third party” means the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Government National Mortgage Association, and other substantially similar institutions, whether public or private.

(c) The disclosure required by this section shall be made in writing by the lender as soon as reasonably practicable.

(Amended (as amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 181, Sec. 41) by Stats. 2013, Ch. 605, Sec. 18. (SB 752) Effective January 1, 2014.)

2955.5.
  

(a) No lender shall require a borrower, as a condition of receiving or maintaining a loan secured by real property, to provide hazard insurance coverage against risks to the improvements on that real property in an amount exceeding the replacement value of the improvements on the property.

(b) A lender shall disclose to a borrower, in writing, the contents of subdivision (a), as soon as practicable, but before execution of any note or security documents.

(c) Any person harmed by a violation of this section shall be entitled to obtain injunctive relief and may recover damages and reasonable attorney’s fees and costs.

(d) A violation of this section does not affect the validity of the loan, note secured by a deed of trust, mortgage, or deed of trust.

(e) For purposes of this section:

(1) “Hazard insurance coverage” means insurance against losses caused by perils which are commonly covered in policies described as a “Homeowner’s Policy,” “General Property Form,” “Guaranteed Replacement Cost Insurance,” “Special Building Form,” “Standard Fire,” “Standard Fire with Extended Coverage,” “Standard Fire with Special Form Endorsement,” or comparable insurance coverage to protect the real property against loss or damage from fire and other perils covered within the scope of a standard extended coverage endorsement.

(2) “Improvements” means buildings or structures attached to the real property.

(Amended by Stats. 1999, Ch. 412, Sec. 1. Effective January 1, 2000. Operative July 1, 2000, by Sec. 2 of Ch. 412.)

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