Code Section Group

Civil Code - CIV

DIVISION 2. PROPERTY [654 - 1422]

  ( Heading of Division 2 amended by Stats. 1988, Ch. 160, Sec. 13. )

PART 4. ACQUISITION OF PROPERTY [1000 - 1422]

  ( Part 4 enacted 1872. )

TITLE 4. TRANSFER [1039 - 1231]

  ( Title 4 enacted 1872. )

CHAPTER 2. Transfer of Real Property [1091 - 1134]

  ( Chapter 2 enacted 1872. )

ARTICLE 1.7. Disclosure of Natural and Environmental Hazards, Right-to-Farm, and Other Disclosures Upon Transfer of Residential Property [1103 - 1103.15]
  ( Heading of Article 1.7 amended by Stats. 2008, Ch. 686, Sec. 2. )

1103.
  

(a) For purpose of this article, the definitions in Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 10000) of Part 1 of Division 4 of the Business and Professions Code shall apply.

(b) Except as provided in Section 1103.1, this article applies to a sale, exchange, real property sales contract, as defined in Section 2985, lease with an option to purchase, any other option to purchase, or ground lease coupled with improvements, of any single-family residential real property.

(c) This article shall apply to the transactions described in subdivision (b) only if the seller or his or her agent is required by one or more of the following to disclose the property’s location within a hazard zone:

(1) A seller’s agent for a seller of real property that is located within a special flood hazard area (any type Zone “A” or “V”) designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, or the seller if the seller is acting without a seller’s agent, shall disclose to any prospective buyer the fact that the property is located within a special flood hazard area if either:

(A) The seller, or the seller’s agent, has actual knowledge that the property is within a special flood hazard area.

(B) The local jurisdiction has compiled a list, by parcel, of properties that are within the special flood hazard area and a notice has been posted at the offices of the county recorder, county assessor, and county planning agency that identifies the location of the parcel list.

(2) A seller’s agent for a seller of real property that is located within an area of potential flooding designated pursuant to Section 6161 of the Water Code, or the seller if the seller is acting without a seller’s agent, shall disclose to any prospective buyer the fact that the property is located within an area of potential flooding if either:

(A) The seller, or the seller’s agent, has actual knowledge that the property is within an inundation area.

(B) The local jurisdiction has compiled a list, by parcel, of properties that are within the inundation area and a notice has been posted at the offices of the county recorder, county assessor, and county planning agency that identifies the location of the parcel list.

(3) A seller of real property that is located within a very high fire hazard severity zone, designated pursuant to Section 51178 of the Government Code, or the seller’s agent, shall disclose to any prospective buyer the fact that the property is located within a very high fire hazard severity zone and is subject to the requirements of Section 51182 of the Government Code if either:

(A) The seller or the seller’s agent, has actual knowledge that the property is within a very high fire hazard severity zone.

(B) A map that includes the property has been provided to the local agency pursuant to Section 51178 of the Government Code and a notice has been posted at the offices of the county recorder, county assessor, and county planning agency that identifies the location of the map and any information regarding changes to the map received by the local agency.

(4) A seller’s agent for a seller of real property that is located within an earthquake fault zone, designated pursuant to Section 2622 of the Public Resources Code, or the seller, if the seller is acting without an agent, shall disclose to any prospective buyer the fact that the property is located within a delineated earthquake fault zone if either:

(A) The seller, or the seller’s agent, has actual knowledge that the property is within a delineated earthquake fault zone.

(B) A map that includes the property has been provided to the city or county pursuant to Section 2622 of the Public Resources Code and a notice has been posted at the offices of the county recorder, county assessor, and county planning agency that identifies the location of the map and any information regarding changes to the map received by the county.

(5) A seller’s agent for a seller of real property that is located within a seismic hazard zone, designated pursuant to Section 2696 of the Public Resources Code, or the seller if the seller is acting without an agent, shall disclose to any prospective buyer the fact that the property is located within a seismic hazard zone if either:

(A) The seller, or the seller’s agent, has actual knowledge that the property is within a seismic hazard zone.

(B) A map that includes the property has been provided to the city or county pursuant to Section 2696 of the Public Resources Code and a notice has been posted at the offices of the county recorder, county assessor, and county planning agency that identifies the location of the map and any information regarding changes to the map received by the county.

(6) A seller of real property that is located within a state responsibility area determined by the board, pursuant to Section 4125 of the Public Resources Code, or the seller’s agent, shall disclose to any prospective buyer the fact that the property is located within a wildland area that may contain substantial forest fire risks and hazards and is subject to the requirements of Section 4291 of the Public Resources Code if either:

(A) The seller, or the seller’s agent, has actual knowledge that the property is within a wildland fire zone.

(B) A map that includes the property has been provided to the city or county pursuant to Section 4125 of the Public Resources Code and a notice has been posted at the offices of the county recorder, county assessor, and county planning agency that identifies the location of the map and any information regarding changes to the map received by the county.

(d) Any waiver of the requirements of this article is void as against public policy.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 907, Sec. 20. (AB 1289) Effective January 1, 2019.)

1103.1.
  

(a) This article does not apply to the following sales:

(1) Sales or transfers pursuant to court order, including, but not limited to, sales ordered by a probate court in administration of an estate, sales pursuant to a writ of execution, sales by any foreclosure sale, sales by a trustee in bankruptcy, sales by eminent domain, and sales resulting from a decree for specific performance.

(2) Sales or transfers to a mortgagee by a mortgagor or successor in interest who is in default, sales to a beneficiary of a deed of trust by a trustor or successor in interest who is in default, transfers by any foreclosure sale after default, any foreclosure sale after default in an obligation secured by a mortgage, sale under a power of sale or any foreclosure sale under a decree of foreclosure after default in an obligation secured by a deed of trust or secured by any other instrument containing a power of sale, or sales by a mortgagee or a beneficiary under a deed of trust who has acquired the real property at a sale conducted pursuant to a power of sale under a mortgage or deed of trust or a sale pursuant to a decree of foreclosure or has acquired the real property by a deed in lieu of foreclosure.

(3) Sales or transfers by a fiduciary in the course of the administration of a trust, guardianship, conservatorship, or decedent’s estate. This exemption shall not apply to a sale if the trustee is a natural person who is a trustee of a revocable trust and the seller is a former owner of the property or an occupant in possession of the property within the preceding year.

(4) Sales or transfers from one coowner to one or more other coowners.

(5) Sales or transfers made to a spouse, or to a person or persons in the lineal line of consanguinity of one or more of the sellers.

(6) Sales or transfers between spouses resulting from a judgment of dissolution of marriage or of legal separation of the parties or from a property settlement agreement incidental to that judgment.

(7) Sales or transfers by the Controller in the course of administering Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 1500) of Title 10 of Part 3 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

(8) Sales or transfers under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 3691) or Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 3771) of Part 6 of Division 1 of the Revenue and Taxation Code.

(9) Sales, transfers, or exchanges to or from any governmental entity.

(b) Sales and transfers not subject to this article may be subject to other disclosure requirements, including those under Sections 8589.3, 8589.4, and 51183.5 of the Government Code and Sections 2621.9, 2694, and 4136 of the Public Resources Code. In sales not subject to this article, agents may make required disclosures in a separate writing.

(c) Notwithstanding the definition of sale in Section 10018.5 of the Business and Professions Code and Section 2079.13, the terms “sale” and “transfer,” as they are used in this section, shall have their commonly understood meanings. The changes made to this section by Assembly Bill 1289 of the 2017–18 Legislative Session shall not be interpreted to change the application of the law as it read prior to January 1, 2019.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 907, Sec. 21. (AB 1289) Effective January 1, 2019.)

1103.2.
  

(a) The disclosures required by this article are set forth in, and shall be made on a copy of, the following Natural Hazard Disclosure Statement:

NATURAL HAZARD DISCLOSURE STATEMENT

This statement applies to the following property: 

The seller and the seller’s agent(s) or a third-party consultant disclose the following information with the knowledge that even though this is not a warranty, prospective buyers may rely on this information in deciding whether and on what terms to purchase the subject property. Seller hereby authorizes any agent(s) representing any principal(s) in this action to provide a copy of this statement to any person or entity in connection with any actual or anticipated sale of the property.

The following are representations made by the seller and the seller’s agent(s) based on their knowledge and maps drawn by the state and federal governments. This information is a disclosure and is not intended to be part of any contract between the seller and buyer.

THIS REAL PROPERTY LIES WITHIN THE FOLLOWING
HAZARDOUS AREA(S):

A SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA (Any type Zone “A” or “V”) designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Yes ____ No ____ Do not know and
_____ information not
_____ available from local
_____ jurisdiction ____

AN AREA OF POTENTIAL FLOODING shown on a dam failure inundation map pursuant to Section 8589.5 of the Government Code.

Yes ____ No ____ Do not know and
_____ information not
_____ available from local
_____ jurisdiction ____

A VERY HIGH FIRE HAZARD SEVERITY ZONE pursuant to Section 51178 or 51179 of the Government Code. The owner of this property is subject to the maintenance requirements of Section 51182 of the Government Code.

Yes ____ No ____

A WILDLAND AREA THAT MAY CONTAIN SUBSTANTIAL FOREST FIRE RISKS AND HAZARDS pursuant to Section 4125 of the Public Resources Code. The owner of this property is subject to the maintenance requirements of Section 4291 of the Public Resources Code. Additionally, it is not the state’s responsibility to provide fire protection services to any building or structure located within the wildlands unless the Department of Forestry and Fire Protection has entered into a cooperative agreement with a local agency for those purposes pursuant to Section 4142 of the Public Resources Code.

Yes ____ No ____

AN EARTHQUAKE FAULT ZONE pursuant to Section 2622 of the Public Resources Code.

Yes ____ No ____

A SEISMIC HAZARD ZONE pursuant to Section 2696 of the Public
Resources Code.

Yes (Landslide Zone)____________ Yes (Liquefaction Zone) ______

No ____ Map not yet released by

state ____

THESE HAZARDS MAY LIMIT YOUR ABILITY TO DEVELOP THE REAL PROPERTY, TO OBTAIN INSURANCE, OR TO RECEIVE ASSISTANCE AFTER A DISASTER.

THE MAPS ON WHICH THESE DISCLOSURES ARE BASED ESTIMATE WHERE NATURAL HAZARDS EXIST. THEY ARE NOT DEFINITIVE INDICATORS OF WHETHER OR NOT A PROPERTY WILL BE AFFECTED BY A NATURAL DISASTER. SELLER(S) AND BUYER(S) MAY WISH TO OBTAIN PROFESSIONAL ADVICE REGARDING THOSE HAZARDS AND OTHER HAZARDS THAT MAY AFFECT THE PROPERTY.

Signature of Seller(s)

Date

Signature of Seller(s)

Date

Seller’s Agent(s)

Date

Seller’s Agent(s)

Date

Check only one of the following: _____

◻ Seller(s) and their agent(s) represent that the information herein is true and correct to the best of their knowledge as of the date signed by the transferor(s) and agent(s).

_____

◻ Seller(s) and their agent(s) acknowledge that they have exercised good faith in the selection of a third-party report provider as required in Section 1103.7 of the Civil Code, and that the representations made in this Natural Hazard Disclosure Statement are based upon information provided by the independent third-party disclosure provider as a substituted disclosure pursuant to Section 1103.4 of the Civil Code. Neither seller(s) nor their agent(s) (1) has independently verified the information contained in this statement and report or (2) is personally aware of any errors or inaccuracies in the information contained on the statement. This statement was prepared by the provider below:

Third-Party

Disclosure Provider(s)

Date

Buyer represents that he or she has read and understands this document. Pursuant to Civil Code Section 1103.8, the representations made in this Natural Hazard Disclosure Statement do not constitute all of the seller’s or agent’s disclosure obligations in this transaction.

Signature of Buyer(s)

Date

Signature of Buyer(s)

Date

(b) If an earthquake fault zone, seismic hazard zone, very high fire hazard severity zone, or wildland fire area map or accompanying information is not of sufficient accuracy or scale that a reasonable person can determine if the subject real property is included in a natural hazard area, the seller or seller’s agent shall mark “Yes” on the Natural Hazard Disclosure Statement. The seller’s agent may mark “No” on the Natural Hazard Disclosure Statement if the seller attaches a report prepared pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 1103.4 that verifies the property is not in the hazard zone. Nothing in this subdivision is intended to limit or abridge any existing duty of the seller or the seller’s agent to exercise reasonable care in making a determination under this subdivision.

(c) If the Federal Emergency Management Agency has issued a Letter of Map Revision confirming that a property is no longer within a special flood hazard area, then the seller or seller’s agent may mark “No” on the Natural Hazard Disclosure Statement, even if the map has not yet been updated. The seller or seller’s agent shall attach a copy of the Letter of Map Revision to the disclosure statement.

(d) If the Federal Emergency Management Agency has issued a Letter of Map Revision confirming that a property is within a special flood hazard area and the location of the letter has been posted pursuant to subdivision (g) of Section 8589.3 of the Government Code, then the seller or seller’s agent shall mark “Yes” on the Natural Hazard Disclosure Statement, even if the map has not yet been updated. The seller or seller’s agent shall attach a copy of the Letter of Map Revision to the disclosure statement.

(e) The disclosure required pursuant to this article may be provided by the seller and the seller’s agent in the Local Option Real Estate Disclosure Statement described in Section 1102.6a, provided that the Local Option Real Estate Disclosure Statement includes substantially the same information and substantially the same warnings that are required by this section.

(f) (1) The legal effect of a consultant’s report delivered to satisfy the exemption provided by Section 1103.4 is not changed when it is accompanied by a Natural Hazard Disclosure Statement.

(2) A consultant’s report shall always be accompanied by a completed and signed Natural Hazard Disclosure Statement.

(3) In a disclosure statement required by this section, an agent and third-party provider may cause his or her name to be preprinted in lieu of an original signature in the portions of the form reserved for signatures. The use of a preprinted name shall not change the legal effect of the acknowledgment.

(g) The disclosure required by this article is only a disclosure between the seller, the seller’s agent, and the prospective buyer, and shall not be used by any other party, including, but not limited to, insurance companies, lenders, or governmental agencies, for any purpose.

(h) In any transaction in which a seller has accepted, prior to June 1, 1998, an offer to purchase, the seller, or his or her agent shall be deemed to have complied with the requirement of subdivision (a) if the seller or agent delivers to the prospective buyer a statement that includes substantially the same information and warning as the Natural Hazard Disclosure Statement.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 907, Sec. 22. (AB 1289) Effective January 1, 2019.)

1103.3.
  

(a) The seller of any real property subject to this article shall deliver to the prospective buyer the written statement required by this article, as follows:

(1) In the case of a sale, as soon as practicable before transfer of title.

(2) In the case of a sale by a real property sales contract, as defined in Section 2985, or by a lease together with an option to purchase, or a ground lease coupled with improvements, as soon as practicable before the prospective buyer’s execution of the contract. For the purpose of this subdivision, “execution” means the making or acceptance of an offer.

(b) The seller shall indicate compliance with this article either on the real property sales contract, the lease, any addendum attached thereto, or on a separate document.

(c) If any disclosure, or any material amendment of any disclosure, required to be made pursuant to this article is delivered after the execution of an offer to purchase, the prospective buyer shall have three days after delivery in person, five days after delivery by deposit in the mail, or five days after delivery of an electronic record in transactions where the parties have agreed to conduct the transaction by electronic means, pursuant to provisions of the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (Title 2.5 (commencing with Section 1633.1) of Part 2 of Division 3), to terminate his or her offer by delivery of a written notice of termination to the seller or the seller’s agent.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 907, Sec. 23. (AB 1289) Effective January 1, 2019.)

1103.4.
  

(a) Neither the seller nor any seller’s agent or buyer’s agent shall be liable for any error, inaccuracy, or omission of any information delivered pursuant to this article if the error, inaccuracy, or omission was not within the personal knowledge of the seller or the seller’s agent or buyer’s agent and was based on information timely provided by public agencies or by other persons providing information as specified in subdivision (c) that is required to be disclosed pursuant to this article, and ordinary care was exercised in obtaining and transmitting the information.

(b) The delivery of any information required to be disclosed by this article to a prospective buyer by a public agency or other person providing information required to be disclosed pursuant to this article shall be deemed to comply with the requirements of this article and shall relieve the seller, seller’s agent, and buyer’s agent of any further duty under this article with respect to that item of information.

(c) The delivery of a report or opinion prepared by a licensed engineer, land surveyor, geologist, or expert in natural hazard discovery dealing with matters within the scope of the professional’s license or expertise shall be sufficient compliance for application of the exemption provided by subdivision (a) if the information is provided to the prospective buyer pursuant to a request therefor, whether written or oral. In responding to that request, an expert may indicate, in writing, an understanding that the information provided will be used in fulfilling the requirements of Section 1103.2 and, if so, shall indicate the required disclosures, or parts thereof, to which the information being furnished is applicable. Where such a statement is furnished, the expert shall not be responsible for any items of information or parts thereof, other than those expressly set forth in the statement.

(1) In responding to the request, the expert shall determine whether the property is within an airport influence area as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 11010 of the Business and Professions Code. If the property is within an airport influence area, the report shall contain the following statement:

NOTICE OF AIRPORT IN VICINITY

This property is presently located in the vicinity of an
airport, within what is known as an airport influence area. For that
reason, the property may be subject to some of the annoyances or
inconveniences associated with proximity to airport operations
(for example: noise, vibration, or odors). Individual sensitivities
to those annoyances can vary from person to person. You may wish to
consider what airport annoyances, if any, are associated with the
property before you complete your purchase and determine whether they
are acceptable to you.

(2) In responding to the request, the expert shall determine whether the property is within the jurisdiction of the San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission, as defined in Section 66620 of the Government Code. If the property is within the commission’s jurisdiction, the report shall contain the following notice:
NOTICE OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION JURISDICTION

This property is located within the jurisdiction of the San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission. Use and development of property within the commission’s jurisdiction may be subject to special regulations, restrictions, and permit requirements. You may wish to investigate and determine whether they are acceptable to you and your intended use of the property before you complete your transaction.

(3) In responding to the request, the expert shall determine whether the property is presently located within one mile of a parcel of real property designated as “Prime Farmland,” “Farmland of Statewide Importance,” “Unique Farmland,” “Farmland of Local Importance,” or “Grazing Land” on the most current “Important Farmland Map” issued by the California Department of Conservation, Division of Land Resource Protection, utilizing solely the county-level GIS map data, if any, available on the Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program Web site. If the residential property is within one mile of a designated farmland area, the report shall contain the following notice:

NOTICE OF RIGHT TO FARM

This property is located within one mile of a farm or ranch land designated on the current county-level GIS “Important Farmland Map,” issued by the California Department of Conservation, Division of Land Resource Protection. Accordingly, the property may be subject to inconveniences or discomforts resulting from agricultural operations that are a normal and necessary aspect of living in a community with a strong rural character and a healthy agricultural sector. Customary agricultural practices in farm operations may include, but are not limited to, noise, odors, dust, light, insects, the operation of pumps and machinery, the storage and disposal of manure, bee pollination, and the ground or aerial application of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. These agricultural practices may occur at any time during the 24-hour day. Individual sensitivities to those practices can vary from person to person. You may wish to consider the impacts of such agricultural practices before you complete your purchase. Please be advised that you may be barred from obtaining legal remedies against agricultural practices conducted in a manner consistent with proper and accepted customs and standards pursuant to Section 3482.5 of the Civil Code or any pertinent local ordinance.

(4) In responding to the request, the expert shall determine, utilizing map coordinate data made available by the Office of Mine Reclamation, whether the property is presently located within one mile of a mine operation for which map coordinate data has been reported to the director pursuant to Section 2207 of the Public Resources Code. If the expert determines, from the available map coordinate data, that the residential property is located within one mile of a mine operation, the report shall contain the following notice:

 

NOTICE OF MINING OPERATIONS:

This property is located within one mile of a mine operation for which the mine owner or operator has reported mine location data to the Department of Conservation pursuant to Section 2207 of the Public Resources Code. Accordingly, the property may be subject to inconveniences resulting from mining operations. You may wish to consider the impacts of these practices before you complete your transaction.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 907, Sec. 24. (AB 1289) Effective January 1, 2019.)

1103.5.
  

(a) After a seller and his or her agent comply with Section 1103.2, they shall be relieved of further duty under this article with respect to those items of information. The seller and the seller’s agent shall not be required to provide notice to the prospective buyer if the information provided subsequently becomes inaccurate as a result of any governmental action, map revision, changed information, or other act or occurrence, unless the seller or agent has actual knowledge that the information has become inaccurate.

(b) If information disclosed in accordance with this article is subsequently rendered inaccurate as a result of any governmental action, map revision, changed information, or other act or occurrence subsequent to the delivery of the required disclosures, the inaccuracy resulting therefrom does not constitute a violation of this article.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 907, Sec. 25. (AB 1289) Effective January 1, 2019.)

1103.7.
  

Each disclosure required by this article and each act that may be performed in making the disclosure shall be made in good faith. For purposes of this article, “good faith” means honesty in fact in the conduct of the transaction.

(Added by Stats. 1999, Ch. 876, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2000.)

1103.8.
  

(a) The specification of items for disclosure in this article does not limit or abridge any obligation for disclosure created by any other provision of law or that may exist in order to avoid fraud, misrepresentation, or deceit in the sale transaction. The Legislature does not intend to affect the existing obligations of the parties to a real estate contract, or their agents, to disclose any fact materially affecting the value and desirability of the property, including, but not limited to, the physical condition of the property and previously received reports of physical inspection noted on the disclosure form provided pursuant to Section 1102.6 or 1102.6a.

(b) Nothing in this article shall be construed to change the duty of a real estate broker or salesperson pursuant to Section 2079.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 907, Sec. 26. (AB 1289) Effective January 1, 2019.)

1103.9.
  

Any disclosure made pursuant to this article may be amended in writing by the seller or the seller’s agent, but the amendment shall be subject to Section 1103.3.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 907, Sec. 27. (AB 1289) Effective January 1, 2019.)

1103.10.
  

Delivery of disclosures required by this article shall be by personal delivery to the transferee or by mail to the prospective transferee. For the purposes of this article, delivery to the spouse of a transferee shall be deemed delivery to the transferee, unless provided otherwise by contract.

(Added by Stats. 1999, Ch. 876, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2000.)

1103.11.
  

Any person or entity, other than a real estate licensee licensed pursuant to Part 1 (commencing with Section 10000) of Division 4 of the Business and Professions Code, acting in the capacity of an escrow agent for the transfer of real property subject to this article shall not be deemed the agent of the transferor or transferee for purposes of the disclosure requirements of this article, unless the person or entity is empowered to so act by an express written agreement to that effect. The extent of that agency shall be governed by the written agreement.

(Added by Stats. 1999, Ch. 876, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2000.)

1103.12.
  

(a) If more than one licensed real estate broker is acting as an agent in a transaction subject to this article, the broker who has obtained the offer made by the transferee shall, except as otherwise provided in this article, deliver the disclosure required by this article to the transferee, unless the transferor has given other written instructions for delivery.

(b) If a licensed real estate broker responsible for delivering the disclosures under this section cannot obtain the disclosure document required and does not have written assurance from the transferee that the disclosure has been received, the broker shall advise the transferee in writing of his or her rights to the disclosure. A licensed real estate broker responsible for delivering disclosures under this section shall maintain a record of the action taken to effect compliance in accordance with Section 10148 of the Business and Professions Code.

(Added by Stats. 1999, Ch. 876, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2000.)

1103.13.
  

No transfer subject to this article shall be invalidated solely because of the failure of any person to comply with any provision of this article. However, any person who willfully or negligently violates or fails to perform any duty prescribed by any provision of this article shall be liable in the amount of actual damages suffered by a transferee.

(Added by Stats. 1999, Ch. 876, Sec. 3. Effective January 1, 2000.)

1103.15.
  

The provisions of subdivision (d) of Section 1102.1 shall apply to this article.

(Added by Stats. 2018, Ch. 907, Sec. 29. (AB 1289) Effective January 1, 2019.)

CIVCivil Code - CIV1.7