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AB-1022 Peace officers: use of force.(2019-2020)



Current Version: 06/29/20 - Amended Senate         Compare Versions information image


AB1022:v94#DOCUMENT

Amended  IN  Senate  June 29, 2020
Amended  IN  Senate  July 01, 2019
Amended  IN  Assembly  April 25, 2019
Amended  IN  Assembly  April 22, 2019
Amended  IN  Assembly  March 25, 2019

CALIFORNIA LEGISLATURE— 2019–2020 REGULAR SESSION

Assembly Bill
No. 1022


Introduced by Assembly Member Wicks Holden
(Coauthor: Assembly Member Gipson)(Coauthor: Senator Wiener)

February 21, 2019


An act to add Chapter 10.5 (commencing with Section 18946) to Part 6 of Division 9 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, relating to CalFresh. amend Sections 1029 and 7286 of the Government Code, and to add Section 34 to the Penal Code, relating to peace officers.


LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST


AB 1022, as amended, Wicks Holden. California Antihunger Response and Employment Training Act of 2019. Peace officers: use of force.
Existing law requires each law enforcement agency, on or before January 1, 2021, to maintain a policy that provides a minimum standard on the use of force. Existing law requires that policy, among other things, to require that officers report potential excessive force to a superior officer when present and observing another officer using force that the officer believes to be unnecessary, and to require that officers intercede when present and observing another officer using force that is clearly beyond that which is necessary, as specified.
This bill would require those law enforcement policies to require those officers to immediately report potential excessive force, and to intercede when present and observing an officer using excessive force. The bill would define excessive force as a level of force that is not reasonably believed to be proportional to the seriousness of the suspected offense or the reasonably perceived level of actual or threatened resistance. The bill would additionally require those policies to, among other things, prohibit retaliation against officers that report violations of law or regulation of another officer to a supervisor, as specified, and to require that an officer who fails to intercede be disciplined in the same manner as the officer who used excessive force. By imposing additional duties on local agencies, this bill would create a state-mandated local program.
Existing law requires the law enforcement policies on use of force to include procedures for disclosing public records of peace officers, as specified, and to include procedures for the filing, investigation, and reporting of citizen complaints regarding use of force incidents.
This bill would require those law enforcement policies to also include an internet website that makes specified public records of peace officers available in a form searchable by each officer’s name, and to include an internet website that allows members of the public to file citizen complaints, as specified. By imposing additional duties on local agencies, this bill would create a state-mandated local program.
Existing law disqualifies specified persons from being a peace officer, including, among others, any person convicted of a felony.
This bill would also disqualify a person from being a peace officer if they have, on three separate occasions, been found by a law enforcement agency that employees them to have either used excessive force or to have failed to intercede as required by a law enforcement agency’s policies.
Existing law makes all persons concerned in the commission of a crime, whether they directly commit the act constituting the offense, or aid and abet in its commission, principals in that crime.
This bill would make a peace officer who is present and observes another peace officer using excessive force, and willfully fails to intercede as required by the policy of their employing law enforcement, a principal in any crime committed by the other officer during the use of excessive force. By creating a new crime, this bill would create a state-mandated local program.
The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse local agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the state. Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that reimbursement.
This bill would provide that with regard to certain mandates no reimbursement is required by this act for a specified reason.
With regard to any other mandates, this bill would provide that, if the Commission on State Mandates determines that the bill contains costs so mandated by the state, reimbursement for those costs shall be made pursuant to the statutory provisions noted above.

Existing federal law establishes the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), known in California as CalFresh, under which supplemental nutrition assistance benefits allocated to the state by the federal government are distributed to eligible individuals by each county.

Existing federal law limits a participant who is an able-bodied adult without dependents (ABAWD) to 3 months of CalFresh benefits in a 3-year period unless that participant has met work participation requirements or is otherwise exempt. Existing federal law authorizes a waiver of that time limit upon the request of a state if it is determined that the area in which the individuals reside has an unemployment rate of over 10% or does not have a sufficient number of jobs to provide employment for the individuals. Existing state law requires the State Department of Social Services, to the extent permitted by federal law, to annually seek a federal waiver of the time limit. Existing federal law also authorizes a state to provide, in each fiscal year, an exemption from the 3-month time limit for covered individuals, to the extent that the average monthly number of exemptions in effect during a fiscal year does not exceed 15% of the number of covered individuals in the state.

Existing law authorizes counties to participate in the CalFresh Employment and Training (CalFresh E&T) program, established by federal law, and requires a participating county to demonstrate in its CalFresh E&T plan how it is effectively using CalFresh E&T funds for each of the components that the county offers, including work experience or training and job search.

This bill would require the department to establish the California Antihunger Response and Employment Training (CARET) program to provide benefits to a person who has been determined ineligible for CalFresh benefits, or for whom CalFresh benefits have been discontinued, as a result of the ABAWD time limit, and who also is ineligible for a percentage exemption, as specified. The bill would require that the person receive the same amount of benefits under the CARET program that they would have received under the CalFresh program if the ABAWD time limit did not make them ineligible. The bill would also make a CARET program recipient eligible for CalFresh E&T program benefits, and would make a CalFresh E&T provider serving a CARET recipient eligible to draw down a state-funded reimbursement in the same amount that the provider would have been eligible to receive for allowable CalFresh E&T services for a CalFresh recipient. The bill would require the issuance of CARET benefits through a state-administered and state-funded electronic benefits transfer system, as specified.

The bill would require the department to develop, in consultation with specified entities, and to issue, guidance to maximize the use of percentage exemptions from the 3-month time limit available under federal law and guidance relating to SNAP. The bill would authorize the guidance to include redistribution of percentage exemptions between counties, as specified. The bill would require the guidance to be issued no later than April 1, 2020, and to remain operative until the CARET program is operative.

To the extent that the bill would expand eligibility for county-administered benefits through the establishment of the CARET program, the bill would impose a state-mandated local program.

The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse local agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the state. Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that reimbursement.

This bill would provide that, if the Commission on State Mandates determines that the bill contains costs mandated by the state, reimbursement for those costs shall be made pursuant to the statutory provisions noted above.

Vote: MAJORITY   Appropriation: NO   Fiscal Committee: YES   Local Program: YES  

The people of the State of California do enact as follows:


SECTION 1.

 Section 1029 of the Government Code is amended to read:

1029.
 (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), (c), or (d), each of the following persons is disqualified from holding office as a peace officer or being employed as a peace officer of the state, county, city, city and county or other political subdivision, whether with or without compensation, and is disqualified from any office or employment by the state, county, city, city and county or other political subdivision, whether with or without compensation, which confers upon the holder or employee the powers and duties of a peace officer:
(1) Any person who has been convicted of a felony.
(2) Any person who has been convicted of any offense in any other jurisdiction which would have been a felony if committed in this state.
(3) Any person who, after January 1, 2004, has been convicted of a crime based upon a verdict or finding of guilt of a felony by the trier of fact, or upon the entry of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere to a felony. This paragraph shall apply regardless of whether, pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 17 of the Penal Code, the court declares the offense to be a misdemeanor or the offense becomes a misdemeanor by operation of law.
(4) Any person who has been charged with a felony and adjudged by a superior court to be mentally incompetent under Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 1367) of Title 10 of Part 2 of the Penal Code.
(5) Any person who has been found not guilty by reason of insanity of any felony.
(6) Any person who has been determined to be a mentally disordered sex offender pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 6300) of Chapter 2 of Part 2 of Division 6 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.
(7) Any person adjudged addicted or in danger of becoming addicted to narcotics, convicted, and committed to a state institution as provided in Section 3051 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.
(8) Any person who has, on three separate occasions, been found by a law enforcement agency that employs them to have either used excessive force, as defined in Section 7286, or to have failed to intercede as required pursuant to paragraph (9) of subdivision (b) of Section 7286.
(b) (1) A plea of guilty to a felony pursuant to a deferred entry of judgment program as set forth in Sections 1000 to 1000.4, inclusive, of the Penal Code shall not alone disqualify a person from being a peace officer unless a judgment of guilty is entered pursuant to Section 1000.3 of the Penal Code.
(2) A person who pleads guilty or nolo contendere to, or who is found guilty by a trier of fact of, an alternate felony-misdemeanor drug possession offense and successfully completes a program of probation pursuant to Section 1210.1 of the Penal Code shall not be disqualified from being a peace officer solely on the basis of the plea or finding if the court deems the offense to be a misdemeanor or reduces the offense to a misdemeanor.
(c) Any person who has been convicted of a felony, other than a felony punishable by death, in this state or any other state, or who has been convicted of any offense in any other state which would have been a felony, other than a felony punishable by death, if committed in this state, and who demonstrates the ability to assist persons in programs of rehabilitation may hold office and be employed as a parole officer of the Department of Corrections or the Department of the Youth Authority, or as a probation officer in a county probation department, if he or she the person has been granted a full and unconditional pardon for the felony or offense of which he or she the person was convicted. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Department of Corrections or the Department of the Youth Authority, or a county probation department, may refuse to employ that person regardless of his or her that person’s qualifications.
(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit or curtail the power or authority of any board of police commissioners, chief of police, sheriff, mayor, or other appointing authority to appoint, employ, or deputize any person as a peace officer in time of disaster caused by flood, fire, pestilence or similar public calamity, or to exercise any power conferred by law to summon assistance in making arrests or preventing the commission of any criminal offense.
(e) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit any person from holding office or being employed as a superintendent, supervisor, or employee having custodial responsibilities in an institution operated by a probation department, if at the time of the person’s hire a prior conviction of a felony was known to the person’s employer, and the class of office for which the person was hired was not declared by law to be a class prohibited to persons convicted of a felony, but as a result of a change in classification, as provided by law, the new classification would prohibit employment of a person convicted of a felony.

SEC. 2.

 Section 7286 of the Government Code is amended to read:

7286.
 (a) For the purposes of this section:
(1) “Deadly force” means any use of force that creates a substantial risk of causing death or serious bodily injury. Deadly force includes, but is not limited to, the discharge of a firearm.
(2) “Excessive force” means a level of force that is not reasonably believed to be proportional to the seriousness of the suspected offense or the reasonably perceived level of actual or threatened resistance.

(2)

(3) “Feasible” means reasonably capable of being done or carried out under the circumstances to successfully achieve the arrest or lawful objective without increasing risk to the officer or another person.
(4) “Intercede” includes, but is not limited to, physically stopping the excessive use of force, recording the excessive force and documenting efforts to intervene, efforts to deescalate the offending officer’s excessive use of force, and confronting the offending officer about the excessive force during the use of force and, if the officer continues, reporting to dispatch or the watch commander on duty and stating the offending officer’s name, unit, location, time and situation, in order to establish a duty for that officer to intervene.

(3)

(5) “Law enforcement agency” means any police department, sheriff’s department, district attorney, county probation department, transit agency police department, school district police department, the police department of any campus of the University of California, the California State University, or community college, the Department of the California Highway Patrol, the Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Department of Justice.
(6) “Retaliation” means demotion, failure to promote to a higher position when warranted by merit, denial of access to training and professional development opportunities, denial of access to resources necessary for an officer to properly perform their duties, or intimidation, harassment, or the threat of injury while on duty or off duty.
(b) Each law enforcement agency shall, by no later than January 1, 2021, maintain a policy that provides a minimum standard on the use of force. Each agency’s policy shall include all of the following:
(1) A requirement that officers utilize deescalation techniques, crisis intervention tactics, and other alternatives to force when feasible.
(2) A requirement that an officer may only use a level of force that they reasonably believe is proportional to the seriousness of the suspected offense or the reasonably perceived level of actual or threatened resistance.
(3) A requirement that officers immediately report potential excessive force to a superior officer when present and observing another officer using force that the officer believes to be beyond that which is necessary, as determined by an objectively reasonable officer under the circumstances based upon the totality of information actually known to the officer.
(4) A prohibition on retaliation against an officer that reports a suspected violation of a law or regulation of another officer to a supervisor or other person of the law enforcement agency who has the authority to investigate the violation.

(4)

(5) Clear and specific guidelines regarding situations in which officers may or may not draw a firearm or point a firearm at a person.

(5)

(6) A requirement that officers consider their surroundings and potential risks to bystanders, to the extent reasonable under the circumstances, before discharging a firearm.

(6)

(7) Procedures for disclosing public records in accordance with Section 832.7. These procedures shall include a public internet website that includes the information made public pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 832.7, in a form that is searchable by the officer’s name.

(7)

(8) Procedures for the filing, investigation, and reporting of citizen complaints regarding use of force incidents. These procedures shall include a public internet website that allows members of the public to file citizen complaints and receive a confirmation number along with the date and time the complaint was received and a hyperlink that allows the member of the public to check the status of their complaint.

(8)

(9) A requirement that an officer intercede when present and observing another officer using force that is clearly beyond that which is necessary, as determined by an objectively reasonable officer under the circumstances, taking into account the possibility that other officers may have additional information regarding the threat posed by a subject. excessive force.

(9)

(10) Comprehensive and specific guidelines regarding approved methods and devices available for the application of force.

(10)

(11) An explicitly stated requirement that officers carry out duties, including use of force, in a manner that is fair and unbiased.

(11)

(12) Comprehensive and specific guidelines for the application of deadly force.

(12)

(13) Comprehensive and detailed requirements for prompt internal reporting and notification regarding a use of force incident, including reporting use of force incidents to the Department of Justice in compliance with Section 12525.2.

(13)

(14) The role of supervisors in the review of use of force applications.

(14)

(15) A requirement that officers promptly provide, if properly trained, or otherwise promptly procure medical assistance for persons injured in a use of force incident, when reasonable and safe to do so.

(15)

(16) Training standards and requirements relating to demonstrated knowledge and understanding of the law enforcement agency’s use of force policy by officers, investigators, and supervisors.

(16)

(17) Training and guidelines regarding vulnerable populations, including, but not limited to, children, elderly persons, people who are pregnant, and people with physical, mental, and developmental disabilities.
(18) Procedures to prohibit an officer from training other officers for a period of one year from the date that an abuse of force complaint against the officer is substantiated.
(19) A requirement that an officer that has received all required training on the requirement to intercede and fails to act pursuant to paragraph (9) be disciplined in the same manner as the officer that committed the excessive force.

(17)

(20) Comprehensive and specific guidelines under which the discharge of a firearm at or from a moving vehicle may or may not be permitted.

(18)

(21) Factors for evaluating and reviewing all use of force incidents.

(19)

(22) Minimum training and course titles required to meet the objectives in the use of force policy.

(20)

(23) A requirement for the regular review and updating of the policy to reflect developing practices and procedures.
(c) Each law enforcement agency shall make their use of force policy adopted pursuant to this section accessible to the public.
(d) This section does not supersede the collective bargaining procedures established pursuant to the Myers-Milias-Brown Act (Chapter 10 (commencing with Section 3500) of Division 4), the Ralph C. Dills Act (Chapter 10.3 (commencing with Section 3512) of Division 4), or the Higher Education Employer-Employee Relations Act (Chapter 12 (commencing with Section 3560) of Division 4).

SEC. 3.

 Section 34 is added to the Penal Code, to read:

34.
 A peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2, who is present and observes another peace officer using excessive force, as defined in Section 7286 of the Government Code, and willfully fails to intercede as required by the policy of their employing law enforcement agency adopted pursuant to Section 7286 of the Government Code, is a principal in any crime committed by the other officer during the use of excessive force.

SEC. 4.

 No reimbursement is required by this act pursuant to Section 6 of Article XIII B of the California Constitution for certain costs that may be incurred by a local agency or school district because, in that regard, this act creates a new crime or infraction, eliminates a crime or infraction, or changes the penalty for a crime or infraction, within the meaning of Section 17556 of the Government Code, or changes the definition of a crime within the meaning of Section 6 of Article XIII B of the California Constitution.
However, if the Commission on State Mandates determines that this act contains other costs mandated by the state, reimbursement to local agencies and school districts for those costs shall be made pursuant to Part 7 (commencing with Section 17500) of Division 4 of Title 2 of the Government Code.
SECTION 1.

This act shall be known, and may be referred to, as the California Antihunger Response and Employment Training Act of 2019.

SEC. 2.

The Legislature finds and declares all of the following:

(a)One in eight Californians suffers from food insecurity.

(b)The federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), known as CalFresh in California, is the most important defense against hunger, helping millions of Californians prevent hunger and its long-term consequences.

(c)SNAP not only helps prevent hunger among low-income households, as it also creates jobs and supports our food economy across the state.

(d)The Secretary of Food and Agriculture and the Secretary of California Health and Human Services sent the California congressional delegation a letter asking that they prioritize policies that reduce hunger, such as eliminating the able-bodied adult without dependents (ABAWD) time limit, in the upcoming reauthorization of SNAP through the 2018 Farm Bill.

(e)Instead, the 2018 Farm Bill, signed by the President of the United States on December 20, 2018, included a provision that will reduce the number of individual waivers available for people who will lose benefits as a result of the ABAWD time limit, and the Trump Administration has proposed regulations to further reduce protections to low-income, out-of-work, and underemployed people subject to the time limit.

(f)Hunger never makes any person better able to prepare for work, secure a job, or succeed at their place of employment. It only makes them, and our economy, weaker and less able to persevere during hard times.

(g)In addition, cutting low-income Californians from CalFresh disconnects them from CalFresh Employment and Training programs, which can help them reduce barriers to unemployment and gain new skills that increase their employability and likelihood of their future economic success.

(h)California will provide funding to serve low-income, out-of-work, underemployed, and job-seeking Californians who are impacted by this ill-conceived federal law.

SEC. 3.Chapter 10.5 (commencing with Section 18946) is added to Part 6 of Division 9 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, to read:
10.5.California Antihunger Response and Employment Training Program
18946.

(a)The State Department of Social Services shall establish the California Antihunger Response and Employment Training (CARET) program for persons described in subdivision (b).

(b)A person who has been determined ineligible for CalFresh benefits, or for whom CalFresh benefits have been discontinued, as a result of the federal able-bodied adult without dependents (ABAWD) time limit, and who also is ineligible for a percentage exemption, shall receive benefits under the CARET program.

(c)A person described in subdivision (b) shall receive CARET benefits in the same amount as the CalFresh benefits they would have received if the ABAWD time limit did not make them ineligible.

(d)A CARET program recipient shall also be eligible for the same CalFresh Employment and Training (CalFresh E&T) program benefits described in Section 18926.5 that the recipient would have been eligible for if the ABAWD time limit did not make the recipient ineligible for CalFresh benefits.

(e)A CalFresh E&T provider serving a CARET recipient shall be eligible to draw down a state-funded reimbursement in the same amount that the provider would have been eligible to receive for allowable CalFresh E&T services for a CalFresh recipient.

(f)(1)Benefits issued pursuant to this chapter shall be issued through a state-administered and state-funded electronic benefits transfer system that is subject to the standards established in Section 10072.

(2)The electronic benefits transfer system used to issue CARET benefits may also be used to issue other state-funded food assistance benefits.

(g)This chapter applies only if federal law and guidance prohibit the state from retaining an exemption allocated pursuant to Section 273.24(g) of Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations for use in a later month.

SEC. 4.

(a)The State Department of Social Services shall issue guidance to maximize the use of percentage exemptions available under federal law and guidance relating to the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

(b)The department shall develop the guidance in consultation with the Office of Systems Integration, county human services agencies, public benefit recipient advocates, representatives of public benefit caseworkers, and other relevant stakeholders.

(c)The guidance may include redistribution of percentage exemptions between counties if necessary to maximize the use of the percentage exemptions to prevent hunger among persons subject to the federal able-bodied adult without dependents time limit.

(d)The guidance shall be issued no later than April 1, 2020, and shall remain operative until the CARET program described in Section 18946 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is operative.

SEC. 5.

If the Commission on State Mandates determines that this act contains costs mandated by the state, reimbursement to local agencies and school districts for those costs shall be made pursuant to Part 7 (commencing with Section 17500) of Division 4 of Title 2 of the Government Code.