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SB-610 Wrongful concealment: statute of limitations. (2017-2018)

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Date Published: 07/18/2017 09:00 PM
SB610:v95#DOCUMENT

Senate Bill No. 610
CHAPTER 74

An act to amend Section 803 of the Penal Code, relating to wrongful concealment.

[ Approved by Governor  July 17, 2017. Filed with Secretary of State  July 17, 2017. ]

LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST


SB 610, Nguyen. Wrongful concealment: statute of limitations.
Existing law makes it a misdemeanor for a person who has knowledge of an accidental death to actively conceal or attempt to conceal that death. Existing law provides that the punishment for that offense is imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not less than $1,000 nor more than $10,000, or by both that fine and imprisonment.
Existing law also sets forth various time limits to prosecute crimes. Except as otherwise specified, prosecution for an offense that is not punishable by death or imprisonment in the state prison is required to be commenced within one year after commission of the offense. Existing law provides that for certain offenses, the prescribed limitation of time does not commence to run until the discovery of the offense. Existing law also provides that for other offenses, the criminal complaint may be filed within one year after the person is initially identified by law enforcement as a suspect in the commission of the crime, as specified.
This bill would provide that for the offense of actively concealing or attempting to conceal an accidental death, as described above, a criminal complaint may be filed within one year after the person is initially identified by law enforcement as a suspect in the commission of the offense, provided however, that in any case a complaint may not be filed more than 4 years after the commission of the offense.
Vote: MAJORITY   Appropriation: NO   Fiscal Committee: NO   Local Program: NO  

The people of the State of California do enact as follows:


SECTION 1.

 This act shall be known and may be cited as Erica’s Law.

SEC. 2.

 Section 803 of the Penal Code is amended to read:

803.
 (a) Except as provided in this section, a limitation of time prescribed in this chapter is not tolled or extended for any reason.
(b) No time during which prosecution of the same person for the same conduct is pending in a court of this state is a part of a limitation of time prescribed in this chapter.
(c) A limitation of time prescribed in this chapter does not commence to run until the discovery of an offense described in this subdivision. This subdivision applies to an offense punishable by imprisonment in the state prison or imprisonment pursuant to subdivision (h) of Section 1170, a material element of which is fraud or breach of a fiduciary obligation, the commission of the crimes of theft or embezzlement upon an elder or dependent adult, or the basis of which is misconduct in office by a public officer, employee, or appointee, including, but not limited to, the following offenses:
(1) Grand theft of any type, forgery, falsification of public records, or acceptance of, or asking, receiving, or agreeing to receive, a bribe, by a public official or a public employee, including, but not limited to, a violation of Section 68, 86, or 93.
(2) A violation of Section 72, 118, 118a, 132, 134, or 186.10.
(3) A violation of Section 25540, of any type, or Section 25541 of the Corporations Code.
(4) A violation of Section 1090 or 27443 of the Government Code.
(5) Felony welfare fraud or Medi-Cal fraud in violation of Section 11483 or 14107 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.
(6) Felony insurance fraud in violation of Section 548 or 550 of this code or former Section 1871.1, or Section 1871.4, of the Insurance Code.
(7) A violation of Section 580, 581, 582, 583, or 584 of the Business and Professions Code.
(8) A violation of Section 22430 of the Business and Professions Code.
(9) A violation of Section 103800 of the Health and Safety Code.
(10) A violation of Section 529a.
(11) A violation of subdivision (d) or (e) of Section 368.
(d) If the defendant is out of the state when or after the offense is committed, the prosecution may be commenced as provided in Section 804 within the limitations of time prescribed by this chapter, and no time up to a maximum of three years during which the defendant is not within the state shall be a part of those limitations.
(e) A limitation of time prescribed in this chapter does not commence to run until the offense has been discovered, or could have reasonably been discovered, with regard to offenses under Division 7 (commencing with Section 13000) of the Water Code, under Chapter 6.5 (commencing with Section 25100) of, Chapter 6.7 (commencing with Section 25280) of, or Chapter 6.8 (commencing with Section 25300) of, Division 20 of, or Part 4 (commencing with Section 41500) of Division 26 of, the Health and Safety Code, or under Section 386, or offenses under Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 2000) of Division 2 of, Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 4000) of Division 2 of, Section 6126 of, Chapter 10 (commencing with Section 7301) of Division 3 of, or Chapter 19.5 (commencing with Section 22440) of Division 8 of, the Business and Professions Code.
(f) (1) Notwithstanding any other limitation of time described in this chapter, if subdivision (b) of Section 799 does not apply, a criminal complaint may be filed within one year of the date of a report to a California law enforcement agency by a person of any age alleging that he or she, while under 18 years of age, was the victim of a crime described in Section 261, 286, 288, 288a, 288.5, or 289, or Section 289.5, as enacted by Chapter 293 of the Statutes of 1991 relating to penetration by an unknown object.
(2) This subdivision applies only if all of the following occur:
(A) The limitation period specified in Section 800, 801, or 801.1, whichever is later, has expired.
(B) The crime involved substantial sexual conduct, as described in subdivision (b) of Section 1203.066, excluding masturbation that is not mutual.
(C) There is independent evidence that corroborates the victim’s allegation. If the victim was 21 years of age or older at the time of the report, the independent evidence shall clearly and convincingly corroborate the victim’s allegation.
(3) No evidence may be used to corroborate the victim’s allegation that otherwise would be inadmissible during trial. Independent evidence does not include the opinions of mental health professionals.
(4) (A) In a criminal investigation involving any of the crimes listed in paragraph (1) committed against a child, when the applicable limitations period has not expired, that period shall be tolled from the time a party initiates litigation challenging a grand jury subpoena until the end of the litigation, including any associated writ or appellate proceeding, or until the final disclosure of evidence to the investigating or prosecuting agency, if that disclosure is ordered pursuant to the subpoena after the litigation.
(B) Nothing in this subdivision affects the definition or applicability of any evidentiary privilege.
(C) This subdivision shall not apply if a court finds that the grand jury subpoena was issued or caused to be issued in bad faith.
(g) (1) Notwithstanding any other limitation of time described in this chapter, a criminal complaint may be filed within one year of the date on which the identity of the suspect is conclusively established by DNA testing, if both of the following conditions are met:
(A) The crime is one that is described in subdivision (c) of Section 290.
(B) The offense was committed prior to January 1, 2001, and biological evidence collected in connection with the offense is analyzed for DNA type no later than January 1, 2004, or the offense was committed on or after January 1, 2001, and biological evidence collected in connection with the offense is analyzed for DNA type no later than two years from the date of the offense.
(2) For purposes of this section, “DNA” means deoxyribonucleic acid.
(h) For any crime, the proof of which depends substantially upon evidence that was seized under a warrant, but which is unavailable to the prosecuting authority under the procedures described in People v. Superior Court (Laff) (2001) 25 Cal.4th 703, People v. Superior Court (Bauman & Rose) (1995) 37 Cal.App.4th 1757, or subdivision (c) of Section 1524, relating to claims of evidentiary privilege or attorney work product, the limitation of time prescribed in this chapter shall be tolled from the time of the seizure until final disclosure of the evidence to the prosecuting authority. Nothing in this section otherwise affects the definition or applicability of any evidentiary privilege or attorney work product.
(i) Notwithstanding any other limitation of time described in this chapter, a criminal complaint may be filed within one year of the date on which a hidden recording is discovered related to a violation of paragraph (2) or (3) of subdivision (j) of Section 647.
(j) Notwithstanding any other limitation of time described in this chapter, if a person flees the scene of an accident that caused death or permanent, serious injury, as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 20001 of the Vehicle Code, a criminal complaint brought pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 20001 of the Vehicle Code may be filed within the applicable time period described in Section 801 or 802 or one year after the person is initially identified by law enforcement as a suspect in the commission of the offense, whichever is later, but in no case later than six years after the commission of the offense.
(k) Notwithstanding any other limitation of time described in this chapter, if a person flees the scene of an accident, a criminal complaint brought pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 192 may be filed within the applicable time period described in Section 801 or 802, or one year after the person is initially identified by law enforcement as a suspect in the commission of that offense, whichever is later, but in no case later than six years after the commission of the offense.
(l) A limitation of time prescribed in this chapter does not commence to run until the discovery of an offense involving the offering or giving of a bribe to a public official or public employee, including, but not limited to, a violation of Section 67, 67.5, 85, 92, or 165, or Section 35230 or 72530 of the Education Code.
(m) Notwithstanding any other limitation of time prescribed in this chapter, if a person actively conceals or attempts to conceal an accidental death in violation of Section 152, a criminal complaint may be filed within one year after the person is initially identified by law enforcement as a suspect in the commission of that offense, provided, however, that in any case a complaint may not be filed more than four years after the commission of the offense.