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SB-1056 Juveniles: family reunification.(2015-2016)

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SB1056:v96#DOCUMENT

Amended  IN  Senate  April 19, 2016
Amended  IN  Senate  March 31, 2016
Amended  IN  Senate  March 28, 2016

CALIFORNIA LEGISLATURE— 2015–2016 REGULAR SESSION

Senate Bill No. 1056


Introduced by Senator Liu

February 16, 2016


An act to amend Sections 361.5, 366.1, 366.21, 366.215, 366.22, 366.25, 16500.1, 16500.5, and 16517 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, relating to juveniles.


LEGISLATIVE COUNSEL'S DIGEST


SB 1056, as amended, Liu. Juveniles: family reunification.
Existing law establishes the jurisdiction of the juvenile court, which is authorized to adjudge certain children to be dependents of the court under certain circumstances, and prescribes various hearings and other procedures for these purposes, including the periodic review of the status of every dependent child in foster care, as determined by the court. Existing law requires a supplemental report, with specified content, to be filed in connection with this review, as specified.
This bill would require the county, if the parent is in substantial compliance with the case plan and a lack of housing is the sole impediment to family reunification, to include information in the supplemental report about its consideration of the services offered by the county welfare department to assist the parent in securing appropriate housing. The bill would also require the court, at the periodic reviews, to consider whether the parent is in substantial compliance with the court-ordered case plan, whether lack of housing is the sole impediment to family reunification, and whether the child can be returned to the parent upon the parent securing appropriate housing. The bill would authorize the court, if the parent is in substantial compliance with the court-ordered case plan and lack of housing is the sole impediment to family reunification, to order that the child be returned to the parent’s physical custody within 5 days after the parent has secured appropriate housing and to order supportive services for the family to assist the family in maintaining housing, as specified. safe and adequate housing, as confirmed by the county child welfare agency, and to order the county to assist the family in maintaining housing with referral to, and coordination of, supportive services. The bill would also require the court to consider a parent’s homelessness or whether he or she is a minor parent when deciding whether to continue the case or hold certain hearings. By imposing additional duties on local entities and social workers, the bill would impose a state-mandated local program.
Existing law generally requires, whenever a child is removed from a parent’s or guardian’s custody, the juvenile court to order a social worker to provide child welfare services to a child, the child’s mother and statutorily presumed father, or guardians. Existing law authorizes the court to extend the time that court-ordered services are provided, and requires the court, when determining whether to extend the time, to consider the special circumstances of certain types of parents, including, among others, parents who have been incarcerated or institutionalized. Existing law requires the court to order reasonable services for those parents, as specified, taking into consideration particular barriers to those persons. Existing law requires the social worker to document in the child’s case plan those particular barriers.
This bill would require the court to consider the special circumstances of homeless parents or minor parents when determining whether to extend the time that court-ordered services are provided. The bill would also require the court to order reasonable services for minor parents, taking into consideration particular barriers to those persons. The bill would require the inclusion of that information in the child’s case plan. By imposing additional duties on local entities and social workers, the bill would impose a state-mandated local program.
Existing law declares the intent of the Legislature to encourage the continuity of the family unit by providing family preservation services. Existing law specifies the types of services that may be provided under this program, including, transportation and family support services.
This bill would specify that the services provided may also include housing and supportive services for homeless parents, as specified.
The California Constitution requires the state to reimburse local agencies and school districts for certain costs mandated by the state. Statutory provisions establish procedures for making that reimbursement.
This bill would provide that no reimbursement is required by this act for a specified reason.
Vote: MAJORITY   Appropriation: NO   Fiscal Committee: YES   Local Program: YES  

The people of the State of California do enact as follows:


SECTION 1.

 Section 361.5 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is amended to read:

361.5.
 (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), or when the parent has voluntarily relinquished the child and the relinquishment has been filed with the State Department of Social Services, or upon the establishment of an order of guardianship pursuant to Section 360, or when a court adjudicates a petition under Section 329 to modify the court’s jurisdiction from delinquency jurisdiction to dependency jurisdiction pursuant to subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 607.2 and the parents or guardian of the ward have had reunification services terminated under the delinquency jurisdiction, whenever a child is removed from a parent’s or guardian’s custody, the juvenile court shall order the social worker to provide child welfare services to the child and the child’s mother and statutorily presumed father or guardians. Upon a finding and declaration of paternity by the juvenile court or proof of a prior declaration of paternity by any court of competent jurisdiction, the juvenile court may order services for the child and the biological father, if the court determines that the services will benefit the child.
(1) Family reunification services, when provided, shall be provided as follows:
(A) Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (C), for a child who, on the date of initial removal from the physical custody of his or her parent or guardian, was three years of age or older, court-ordered services shall be provided beginning with the dispositional hearing and ending 12 months after the date the child entered foster care as provided in Section 361.49, unless the child is returned to the home of the parent or guardian.
(B) For a child who, on the date of initial removal from the physical custody of his or her parent or guardian, was under three years of age, court-ordered services shall be provided for a period of six months from the dispositional hearing as provided in subdivision (e) of Section 366.21, but no longer than 12 months from the date the child entered foster care as provided in Section 361.49 unless the child is returned to the home of the parent or guardian.
(C) For the purpose of placing and maintaining a sibling group together in a permanent home should reunification efforts fail, for a child in a sibling group whose members were removed from parental custody at the same time, and in which one member of the sibling group was under three years of age on the date of initial removal from the physical custody of his or her parent or guardian, court-ordered services for some or all of the sibling group may be limited as set forth in subparagraph (B). For the purposes of this paragraph, “a sibling group” shall mean two or more children who are related to each other as full or half siblings.
(2) Any motion to terminate court-ordered reunification services prior to the hearing set pursuant to subdivision (f) of Section 366.21 for a child described by subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1), or prior to the hearing set pursuant to subdivision (e) of Section 366.21 for a child described by subparagraph (B) or (C) of paragraph (1), shall be made pursuant to the requirements set forth in subdivision (c) of Section 388. A motion to terminate court-ordered reunification services shall not be required at the hearing set pursuant to subdivision (e) of Section 366.21 if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence one of the following:
(A) That the child was removed initially under subdivision (g) of Section 300 and the whereabouts of the parent are still unknown.
(B) That the parent has failed to contact and visit the child.
(C) That the parent has been convicted of a felony indicating parental unfitness.
(3) Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1), court-ordered services may be extended up to a maximum time period not to exceed 18 months after the date the child was originally removed from physical custody of his or her parent or guardian if it can be shown, at the hearing held pursuant to subdivision (f) of Section 366.21, that the permanent plan for the child is that he or she will be returned and safely maintained in the home within the extended time period. The court shall extend the time period only if it finds that there is a substantial probability that the child will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or guardian within the extended time period or that reasonable services have not been provided to the parent or guardian. In determining whether court-ordered services may be extended, the court shall consider the special circumstances of an incarcerated or institutionalized parent or parents, parent or parents court-ordered to a residential substance abuse treatment program, a minor parent, a homeless parent, or a parent who has been arrested and issued an immigration hold, detained by the United States Department of Homeland Security, or deported to his or her country of origin, including, but not limited to, barriers to the parent’s or guardian’s access to services and ability to maintain contact with his or her child. The court shall also consider, among other factors, good faith efforts that the parent or guardian has made to maintain contact with the child. If the court extends the time period, the court shall specify the factual basis for its conclusion that there is a substantial probability that the child will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or guardian within the extended time period. The court also shall make findings pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 366 and subdivision (e) of Section 358.1.
When counseling or other treatment services are ordered, the parent or guardian shall be ordered to participate in those services, unless the parent’s or guardian’s participation is deemed by the court to be inappropriate or potentially detrimental to the child, or unless a parent or guardian is incarcerated of or detained by the United States Department of Homeland Security and the corrections facility in which he or she is incarcerated does not provide access to the treatment services ordered by the court, or has been deported to his or her country of origin and services ordered by the court are not accessible in that country. Physical custody of the child by the parents or guardians during the applicable time period under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (1) shall not serve to interrupt the running of the time period. If at the end of the applicable time period, a child cannot be safely returned to the care and custody of a parent or guardian without court supervision, but the child clearly desires contact with the parent or guardian, the court shall take the child’s desire into account in devising a permanency plan.
In cases where the child was under three years of age on the date of the initial removal from the physical custody of his or her parent or guardian or is a member of a sibling group as described in subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1), the court shall inform the parent or guardian that the failure of the parent or guardian to participate regularly in any court-ordered treatment programs or to cooperate or avail himself or herself of services provided as part of the child welfare services case plan may result in a termination of efforts to reunify the family after six months. The court shall inform the parent or guardian of the factors used in subdivision (e) of Section 366.21 to determine whether to limit services to six months for some or all members of a sibling group as described in subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1).
(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (3), court-ordered services may be extended up to a maximum time period not to exceed 24 months after the date the child was originally removed from physical custody of his or her parent or guardian if it is shown, at the hearing held pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 366.22, that the permanent plan for the child is that he or she will be returned and safely maintained in the home within the extended time period. The court shall extend the time period only if it finds that it is in the child’s best interest to have the time period extended and that there is a substantial probability that the child will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or guardian who is described in subdivision (b) of Section 366.22 within the extended time period, or that reasonable services have not been provided to the parent or guardian. If the court extends the time period, the court shall specify the factual basis for its conclusion that there is a substantial probability that the child will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or guardian within the extended time period. The court also shall make findings pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 366 and subdivision (e) of Section 358.1.
When counseling or other treatment services are ordered, the parent or guardian shall be ordered to participate in those services, in order for substantial probability to be found. Physical custody of the child by the parents or guardians during the applicable time period under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (1) shall not serve to interrupt the running of the time period. If at the end of the applicable time period, the child cannot be safely returned to the care and custody of a parent or guardian without court supervision, but the child clearly desires contact with the parent or guardian, the court shall take the child’s desire into account in devising a permanency plan.
Except in cases where, pursuant to subdivision (b), the court does not order reunification services, the court shall inform the parent or parents of Section 366.26 and shall specify that the parent’s or parents’ parental rights may be terminated.
(b) Reunification services need not be provided to a parent or guardian described in this subdivision when the court finds, by clear and convincing evidence, any of the following:
(1) That the whereabouts of the parent or guardian is unknown. A finding pursuant to this paragraph shall be supported by an affidavit or by proof that a reasonably diligent search has failed to locate the parent or guardian. The posting or publication of notices is not required in that search.
(2) That the parent or guardian is suffering from a mental disability that is described in Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 7820) of Part 4 of Division 12 of the Family Code and that renders him or her incapable of utilizing those services.
(3) That the child or a sibling of the child has been previously adjudicated a dependent pursuant to any subdivision of Section 300 as a result of physical or sexual abuse, that following that adjudication the child had been removed from the custody of his or her parent or guardian pursuant to Section 361, that the child has been returned to the custody of the parent or guardian from whom the child had been taken originally, and that the child is being removed pursuant to Section 361, due to additional physical or sexual abuse.
(4) That the parent or guardian of the child has caused the death of another child through abuse or neglect.
(5) That the child was brought within the jurisdiction of the court under subdivision (e) of Section 300 because of the conduct of that parent or guardian.
(6) That the child has been adjudicated a dependent pursuant to any subdivision of Section 300 as a result of severe sexual abuse or the infliction of severe physical harm to the child, a sibling, or a half sibling by a parent or guardian, as defined in this subdivision, and the court makes a factual finding that it would not benefit the child to pursue reunification services with the offending parent or guardian.
A finding of severe sexual abuse, for the purposes of this subdivision, may be based on, but is not limited to, sexual intercourse, or stimulation involving genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal contact, whether between the parent or guardian and the child or a sibling or half sibling of the child, or between the child or a sibling or half sibling of the child and another person or animal with the actual or implied consent of the parent or guardian; or the penetration or manipulation of the child’s, sibling’s, or half sibling’s genital organs or rectum by any animate or inanimate object for the sexual gratification of the parent or guardian, or for the sexual gratification of another person with the actual or implied consent of the parent or guardian.
A finding of the infliction of severe physical harm, for the purposes of this subdivision, may be based on, but is not limited to, deliberate and serious injury inflicted to or on a child’s body or the body of a sibling or half sibling of the child by an act or omission of the parent or guardian, or of another individual or animal with the consent of the parent or guardian; deliberate and torturous confinement of the child, sibling, or half sibling in a closed space; or any other torturous act or omission that would be reasonably understood to cause serious emotional damage.
(7) That the parent is not receiving reunification services for a sibling or a half sibling of the child pursuant to paragraph (3), (5), or (6).
(8) That the child was conceived by means of the commission of an offense listed in Section 288 or 288.5 of the Penal Code, or by an act committed outside of this state that, if committed in this state, would constitute one of those offenses. This paragraph only applies to the parent who committed the offense or act.
(9) That the child has been found to be a child described in subdivision (g) of Section 300; that the parent or guardian of the child willfully abandoned the child, and the court finds that the abandonment itself constituted a serious danger to the child; or that the parent or other person having custody of the child voluntarily surrendered physical custody of the child pursuant to Section 1255.7 of the Health and Safety Code. For the purposes of this paragraph, “serious danger” means that without the intervention of another person or agency, the child would have sustained severe or permanent disability, injury, illness, or death. For purposes of this paragraph, “willful abandonment” shall not be construed as actions taken in good faith by the parent without the intent of placing the child in serious danger.
(10) That the court ordered court-ordered termination of reunification services for any siblings or half siblings of the child because the parent or guardian failed to reunify with the sibling or half sibling after the sibling or half sibling had been removed from that parent or guardian pursuant to Section 361 and that parent or guardian is the same parent or guardian described in subdivision (a) and that, according to the findings of the court, this parent or guardian has not subsequently made a reasonable effort to treat the problems that led to removal of the sibling or half sibling of that child from that parent or guardian.
(11) That the parental rights of a parent over any sibling or half sibling of the child had been permanently severed, and this parent is the same parent described in subdivision (a), and that, according to the findings of the court, this parent has not subsequently made a reasonable effort to treat the problems that led to removal of the sibling or half sibling of that child from the parent.
(12) That the parent or guardian of the child has been convicted of a violent felony, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 667.5 of the Penal Code.
(13) That the parent or guardian of the child has a history of extensive, abusive, and chronic use of drugs or alcohol and has resisted prior court-ordered treatment for this problem during a three-year period immediately prior to the filing of the petition that brought that child to the court’s attention, or has failed or refused to comply with a program of drug or alcohol treatment described in the case plan required by Section 358.1 on at least two prior occasions, even though the programs identified were available and accessible.
(14) That the parent or guardian of the child has advised the court that he or she is not interested in receiving family maintenance or family reunification services or having the child returned to or placed in his or her custody and does not wish to receive family maintenance or reunification services.
The parent or guardian shall be represented by counsel and shall execute a waiver of services form to be adopted by the Judicial Council. The court shall advise the parent or guardian of any right to services and of the possible consequences of a waiver of services, including the termination of parental rights and placement of the child for adoption. The court shall not accept the waiver of services unless it states on the record its finding that the parent or guardian has knowingly and intelligently waived the right to services.
(15) That the parent or guardian has on one or more occasions willfully abducted the child or child’s sibling or half sibling from his or her placement and refused to disclose the child’s or child’s sibling’s or half sibling’s whereabouts, refused to return physical custody of the child or child’s sibling or half sibling to his or her placement, or refused to return physical custody of the child or child’s sibling or half sibling to the social worker.
(16) That the parent or guardian has been required by the court to be registered on a sex offender registry under the federal Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 (42 U.S.C. Sec. 16913(a)), as required in Section 106(b)(2)(B)(xvi)(VI) of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 2006 (42 U.S.C. Sec. 5106a(2)(B)(xvi)(VI)).
(c) In deciding whether to order reunification in any case in which this section applies, the court shall hold a dispositional hearing. The social worker shall prepare a report that discusses whether reunification services shall be provided. When it is alleged, pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (b), that the parent is incapable of utilizing services due to mental disability, the court shall order reunification services unless competent evidence from mental health professionals establishes that, even with the provision of services, the parent is unlikely to be capable of adequately caring for the child within the time limits specified in subdivision (a).
The court shall not order reunification for a parent or guardian described in paragraph (3), (4), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), (13), (14), (15), or (16) of subdivision (b) unless the court finds, by clear and convincing evidence, that reunification is in the best interest of the child.
In addition, the court shall not order reunification in any situation described in paragraph (5) of subdivision (b) unless it finds that, based on competent testimony, those services are likely to prevent reabuse or continued neglect of the child or that failure to try reunification will be detrimental to the child because the child is closely and positively attached to that parent. The social worker shall investigate the circumstances leading to the removal of the child and advise the court whether there are circumstances that indicate that reunification is likely to be successful or unsuccessful and whether failure to order reunification is likely to be detrimental to the child.
The failure of the parent to respond to previous services, the fact that the child was abused while the parent was under the influence of drugs or alcohol, a past history of violent behavior, or testimony by a competent professional that the parent’s behavior is unlikely to be changed by services are among the factors indicating that reunification services are unlikely to be successful. The fact that a parent or guardian is no longer living with an individual who severely abused the child may be considered in deciding that reunification services are likely to be successful, provided that the court shall consider any pattern of behavior on the part of the parent that has exposed the child to repeated abuse.
(d) If reunification services are not ordered pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) and the whereabouts of a parent become known within six months of the out-of-home placement of the child, the court shall order the social worker to provide family reunification services in accordance with this subdivision.
(e) (1) If the parent is a minor parent or is a parent or guardian who is incarcerated, institutionalized, or detained by the United States Department of Homeland Security, or has been deported to his or her country of origin, the court shall order reasonable services unless the court determines, by clear and convincing evidence, those services would be detrimental to the child. In determining detriment, the court shall consider the age of the child, the degree of parent-child bonding, the length of the sentence, the length and nature of the treatment, the nature of the crime or illness, the degree of detriment to the child if services are not offered and, for children 10 years of age or older, the child’s attitude toward the implementation of family reunification services, the likelihood of the parent’s discharge from incarceration, institutionalization, or detention within the reunification time limitations described in subdivision (a), and any other appropriate factors. In determining the content of reasonable services, the court shall consider the particular barriers to a minor parent or an incarcerated, institutionalized, detained, or deported parent’s access to those court-mandated services and ability to maintain contact with his or her child, and shall document this information in the child’s case plan. Reunification services are subject to the applicable time limitations imposed in subdivision (a). Services may include, but shall not be limited to, all of the following:
(A) Maintaining contact between the parent and child through collect telephone calls.
(B) Transportation services, when appropriate.
(C) Visitation services, when appropriate.
(D) Reasonable services to extended family members or foster parents providing care for the child if the services are not detrimental to the child.
An incarcerated or detained parent may be required to attend counseling, parenting classes, or vocational training programs as part of the reunification service plan if actual access to these services is provided. The social worker shall document in the child’s case plan the particular barriers to a minor parent or an incarcerated, institutionalized, or detained parent’s access to those court-mandated services and ability to maintain contact with his or her child.
(E) Reasonable efforts to assist parents who have been deported to contact child welfare authorities in their country of origin, to identify any available services that would substantially comply with case plan requirements, to document the parents’ participation in those services, and to accept reports from local child welfare authorities as to the parents’ living situation, progress, and participation in services.
(2) The presiding judge of the juvenile court of each county may convene representatives of the county welfare department, the sheriff’s department, and other appropriate entities for the purpose of developing and entering into protocols for ensuring the notification, transportation, and presence of an incarcerated or institutionalized parent at all court hearings involving proceedings affecting the child pursuant to Section 2625 of the Penal Code. The county welfare department shall utilize the prisoner locator system developed by the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation to facilitate timely and effective notice of hearings for incarcerated parents.
(3) Notwithstanding any other law, if the incarcerated parent is a woman seeking to participate in the community treatment program operated by the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation pursuant to Chapter 4.8 (commencing with Section 1174) of Title 7 of Part 2 of, Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 3410) of Title 2 of Part 3 of, the Penal Code, the court shall determine whether the parent’s participation in a program is in the child’s best interest and whether it is suitable to meet the needs of the parent and child.
(f) If the court, pursuant to paragraph (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), (13), (14), (15), or (16) of subdivision (b) or paragraph (1) of subdivision (e), does not order reunification services, it shall, at the dispositional hearing, that shall include a permanency hearing, determine if a hearing under Section 366.26 shall be set in order to determine whether adoption, guardianship, or long-term foster care, or in the case of an Indian child, in consultation with the child’s tribe, tribal customary adoption, is the most appropriate plan for the child, and shall consider in-state and out-of-state placement options. If the court so determines, it shall conduct the hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 within 120 days after the dispositional hearing. However, the court shall not schedule a hearing so long as the other parent is being provided reunification services pursuant to subdivision (a). The court may continue to permit the parent to visit the child unless it finds that visitation would be detrimental to the child.
(g) (1) Whenever a court orders that a hearing shall be held pursuant to Section 366.26, including, when, in consultation with the child’s tribe, tribal customary adoption is recommended, it shall direct the agency supervising the child and the county adoption agency, or the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency, to prepare an assessment that shall include:
(A) Current search efforts for an absent parent or parents and notification of a noncustodial parent in the manner provided for in Section 291.
(B) A review of the amount of and nature of any contact between the child and his or her parents and other members of his or her extended family since the time of placement. Although the extended family of each child shall be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, “extended family” for the purpose of this subparagraph shall include, but not be limited to, the child’s siblings, grandparents, aunts, and uncles.
(C) An evaluation of the child’s medical, developmental, scholastic, mental, and emotional status.
(D) A preliminary assessment of the eligibility and commitment of any identified prospective adoptive parent or guardian, including a prospective tribal customary adoptive parent, particularly the caretaker, to include a social history, including screening for criminal records and prior referrals for child abuse or neglect, the capability to meet the child’s needs, and the understanding of the legal and financial rights and responsibilities of adoption and guardianship. If a proposed guardian is a relative of the minor, the assessment shall also consider, but need not be limited to, all of the factors specified in subdivision (a) of Section 361.3 and in Section 361.4. As used in this subparagraph, “relative” means an adult who is related to the minor by blood, adoption, or affinity within the fifth degree of kinship, including stepparents, stepsiblings, and all relatives whose status is preceded by the words “great,” “great-great,” or “grand,” or the spouse of any of those persons even if the marriage was terminated by death or dissolution. If the proposed permanent plan is guardianship with an approved relative caregiver for a minor eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program, as provided for in Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385) of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9, “relative” as used in this section has the same meaning as “relative” as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 11391.
(E) The relationship of the child to any identified prospective adoptive parent or guardian, including a prospective tribal customary parent, the duration and character of the relationship, the degree of attachment of the child to the prospective relative guardian or adoptive parent, the relative’s or adoptive parent’s strong commitment to caring permanently for the child, the motivation for seeking adoption or guardianship, a statement from the child concerning placement and the adoption or guardianship, and whether the child over 12 years of age has been consulted about the proposed relative guardianship arrangements, unless the child’s age or physical, emotional, or other condition precludes his or her meaningful response, and if so, a description of the condition.
(F) An analysis of the likelihood that the child will be adopted if parental rights are terminated.
(G) In the case of an Indian child, in addition to subparagraphs (A) to (F), inclusive, an assessment of the likelihood that the child will be adopted, when, in consultation with the child’s tribe, a customary adoption, as defined in Section 366.24, is recommended. If tribal customary adoption is recommended, the assessment shall include an analysis of both of the following:
(i) Whether tribal customary adoption would or would not be detrimental to the Indian child and the reasons for reaching that conclusion.
(ii) Whether the Indian child cannot or should not be returned to the home of the Indian parent or Indian custodian and the reasons for reaching that conclusion.
(2) (A) A relative caregiver’s preference for legal guardianship over adoption, if it is due to circumstances that do not include an unwillingness to accept legal or financial responsibility for the child, shall not constitute the sole basis for recommending removal of the child from the relative caregiver for purposes of adoptive placement.
(B) Regardless of his or her immigration status, a relative caregiver shall be given information regarding the permanency options of guardianship and adoption, including the long-term benefits and consequences of each option, prior to establishing legal guardianship or pursuing adoption. If the proposed permanent plan is guardianship with an approved relative caregiver for a minor eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program, as provided for in Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385) of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9, the relative caregiver shall be informed about the terms and conditions of the negotiated agreement pursuant to Section 11387 and shall agree to its execution prior to the hearing held pursuant to Section 366.26. A copy of the executed negotiated agreement shall be attached to the assessment.
(h) If, at any hearing held pursuant to Section 366.26, a guardianship is established for the minor with an approved relative caregiver and juvenile court dependency is subsequently dismissed, the minor shall be eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program as provided for in Article 4.5 (commencing with Section 11360) or Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385) of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9, as applicable.
(i) In determining whether reunification services will benefit the child pursuant to paragraph (6) or (7) of subdivision (b), the court shall consider any information it deems relevant, including the following factors:
(1) The specific act or omission comprising the severe sexual abuse or the severe physical harm inflicted on the child or the child’s sibling or half sibling.
(2) The circumstances under which the abuse or harm was inflicted on the child or the child’s sibling or half sibling.
(3) The severity of the emotional trauma suffered by the child or the child’s sibling or half sibling.
(4) Any history of abuse of other children by the offending parent or guardian.
(5) The likelihood that the child may be safely returned to the care of the offending parent or guardian within 12 months with no continuing supervision.
(6) Whether or not the child desires to be reunified with the offending parent or guardian.
(j) When the court determines that reunification services will not be ordered, it shall order that the child’s caregiver receive the child’s birth certificate in accordance with Sections 16010.4 and 16010.5. Additionally, when the court determines that reunification services will not be ordered, it shall order, when appropriate, that a child who is 16 years of age or older receive his or her birth certificate.
(k) The court shall read into the record the basis for a finding of severe sexual abuse or the infliction of severe physical harm under paragraph (6) of subdivision (b), and shall also specify the factual findings used to determine that the provision of reunification services to the offending parent or guardian would not benefit the child.
(l) As used in this section, “homeless” has the same meaning as that term is defined in Section 103 of the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 11302).

SEC. 2.

 Section 366.1 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is amended to read:

366.1.
 Each supplemental report required to be filed pursuant to Section 366 shall include, but not be limited to, a factual discussion of each of the following subjects:
(a) Whether the county welfare department social worker has considered any of the following:
(1) Child protective services, as defined in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 16500) of Part 4 of Division 9, as a possible solution to the problems at hand, and has offered those services to qualified parents, if appropriate under the circumstances.
(2) Whether the child can be returned to the custody of his or her parent who is enrolled in a certified substance abuse treatment facility that allows a dependent child to reside with his or her parent.
(3) If the parent is in substantial compliance with the case plan and a lack of housing is the sole impediment to family reunification, the services offered by the county welfare department to assist the parent in securing appropriate housing.
(b) What plan, if any, for the return and maintenance of the child in a safe home is recommended to the court by the county welfare department social worker.
(c) Whether the subject child appears to be a person who is eligible to be considered for further court action to free the child from parental custody and control.
(d) What actions, if any, have been taken by the parent to correct the problems that caused the child to be made a dependent child of the court.
(e) If the parent or guardian is unwilling or unable to participate in making an educational decision for his or her child, or if other circumstances exist that compromise the ability of the parent or guardian to make educational decisions for the child, the county welfare department or social worker shall consider whether the right of the parent or guardian to make educational decisions for the child should be limited. If the supplemental report makes that recommendation, the report shall identify whether there is a responsible adult available to make educational decisions for the child pursuant to Section 361.
(f) (1) Whether the child has any siblings under the court’s jurisdiction, and, if any siblings exist, all of the following:
(A) The nature of the relationship between the child and his or her siblings.
(B) The appropriateness of developing or maintaining the sibling relationships pursuant to Section 16002.
(C) If the siblings are not placed together in the same home, why the siblings are not placed together and what efforts are being made to place the siblings together, or why those efforts are not appropriate.
(D) If the siblings are not placed together, all of the following:
(i) The frequency and nature of the visits between the siblings.
(ii) If there are visits between the siblings, whether the visits are supervised or unsupervised. If the visits are supervised, a discussion of the reasons why the visits are supervised, and what needs to be accomplished in order for the visits to be unsupervised.
(iii) If there are visits between the siblings, a description of the location and length of the visits.
(iv) Any plan to increase visitation between the siblings.
(E) The impact of the sibling relationships on the child’s placement and planning for legal permanence.
(2) The factual discussion shall include a discussion of indicators of the nature of the child’s sibling relationships, including, but not limited to, whether the siblings were raised together in the same home, whether the siblings have shared significant common experiences or have existing close and strong bonds, whether either sibling expresses a desire to visit or live with his or her sibling, as applicable, and whether ongoing contact is in the child’s best emotional interests.
(g) Whether a child who is 10 years of age or older and who has been in an out-of-home placement for six months or longer has relationships with individuals other than the child’s siblings that are important to the child, consistent with the child’s best interests, and actions taken to maintain those relationships. The social worker shall ask every child who is 10 years of age or older and who has been in an out-of-home placement for six months or longer to identify any individuals other than the child’s siblings who are important to the child, consistent with the child’s best interest. The social worker may ask any other child to provide that information, as appropriate.
(h) The implementation and operation of the amendments to subdivision (g) enacted at the 2005–06 Regular Session shall be subject to appropriation through the budget process and by phase, as provided in Section 366.35.

SEC. 3.

 Section 366.21 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is amended to read:

366.21.
 (a) Every hearing conducted by the juvenile court reviewing the status of a dependent child shall be placed on the appearance calendar. The court shall advise all persons present at the hearing of the date of the future hearing and of their right to be present and represented by counsel.
(b) Except as provided in Sections 294 and 295, notice of the hearing shall be provided pursuant to Section 293.
(c) At least 10 calendar days prior to the hearing, the social worker shall file a supplemental report with the court regarding the services provided or offered to the parent or legal guardian to enable him or her to assume custody and the efforts made to achieve legal permanence for the child if efforts to reunify fail, including, but not limited to, efforts to maintain relationships between a child who is 10 years of age or older and has been in out-of-home placement for six months or longer and individuals who are important to the child, consistent with the child’s best interests; the progress made; and, when relevant, the prognosis for return of the child to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian; and shall make his or her recommendation for disposition. If the child is a member of a sibling group described in subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 361.5, the report and recommendation may also take into account those factors described in subdivision (e) relating to the child’s sibling group. If the recommendation is not to return the child to a parent or legal guardian, the report shall specify why the return of the child would be detrimental to the child. The social worker shall provide the parent or legal guardian, counsel for the child, and any court-appointed child advocate with a copy of the report, including his or her recommendation for disposition, at least 10 calendar days prior to the hearing. In the case of a child removed from the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian, the social worker shall, at least 10 calendar days prior to the hearing, provide a summary of his or her recommendation for disposition to any foster parents, relative caregivers, and certified foster parents who have been approved for adoption by the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency or by a county adoption agency, community care facility, or foster family agency having the physical custody of the child. The social worker shall include a copy of the Judicial Council Caregiver Information Form (JV-290) with the summary of recommendations to the child’s foster parents, relative caregivers, or foster parents approved for adoption, in the caregiver’s primary language when available, along with information on how to file the form with the court.
(d) Prior to any hearing involving a child in the physical custody of a community care facility or a foster family agency that may result in the return of the child to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian, or in adoption or the creation of a legal guardianship, or in the case of an Indian child, in consultation with the child’s tribe, tribal customary adoption, the facility or agency shall file with the court a report, or a Judicial Council Caregiver Information Form (JV-290), containing its recommendation for disposition. Prior to the hearing involving a child in the physical custody of a foster parent, a relative caregiver, or a certified foster parent who has been approved for adoption by the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency or by a county adoption agency, the foster parent, relative caregiver, or the certified foster parent who has been approved for adoption by the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency or by a county adoption agency, may file with the court a report containing his or her recommendation for disposition. The court shall consider the report and recommendation filed pursuant to this subdivision prior to determining any disposition.
(e) (1) At the review hearing held six months after the initial dispositional hearing, but no later than 12 months after the date the child entered foster care as determined in Section 361.49, whichever occurs earlier, after considering the admissible and relevant evidence, the court shall order the return of the child to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian unless the court finds, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the return of the child to his or her parent or legal guardian would create a substantial risk of detriment to the safety, protection, or physical or emotional well-being of the child. The social worker shall have the burden of establishing that detriment. At the hearing, the court shall consider the criminal history, obtained pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (f) of Section 16504.5, of the parent or legal guardian subsequent to the child’s removal to the extent that the criminal record is substantially related to the welfare of the child or the parent’s or guardian’s ability to exercise custody and control regarding his or her child, provided the parent or legal guardian agreed to submit fingerprint images to obtain criminal history information as part of the case plan. The court shall also consider whether the child can be returned to the custody of his or her parent who is enrolled in a certified substance abuse treatment facility that allows a dependent child to reside with his or her parent. The fact that the parent is enrolled in a certified substance abuse treatment facility shall not be, for that reason alone, prima facie evidence of detriment. The failure of the parent or legal guardian to participate regularly and make substantive progress in court-ordered treatment programs shall be prima facie evidence that return would be detrimental. In making its determination, the court shall review and consider the social worker’s report and recommendations and the report and recommendations of any child advocate appointed pursuant to Section 356.5; and shall consider the efforts or progress, or both, demonstrated by the parent or legal guardian and the extent to which he or she availed himself or herself of services provided, taking into account the particular barriers to a minor parent or a nonminor dependent parent, or an incarcerated, institutionalized, detained, homeless, or deported parent’s or legal guardian’s access to those court-mandated services and ability to maintain contact with his or her child. The court shall also consider whether the parent is in substantial compliance with the court-ordered case plan, whether lack of housing is the sole impediment to family reunification, and whether the child can be returned to the parent upon the parent securing appropriate housing. In making its determination, the court shall review and consider the referral and coordination of services provided by the county, and the efforts, progress, or both demonstrated by the parent, and the extent to which he or she availed himself or herself of services provided, taking into account the particular barriers to a homeless parent’s access to those services and ability to maintain contact with his or her child. If the parent is in substantial compliance with the court-ordered case plan and lack of housing is the sole impediment to family reunification, the court may order that the child be returned to the parent’s physical custody within five days after the parent has secured appropriate housing and order supportive services for the family to assist the family in maintaining housing. safe and adequate housing, as confirmed by the county child welfare agency, and may order the county to assist the family in maintaining housing with referral to, and coordination of, supportive services. Appropriate housing may include, but is not limited to, housing provided through rapid rehousing, transitional, or permanent housing programs, and funded by federal, state, or county sources, or through various nonprofit organizations.
(2) Regardless of whether the child is returned to a parent or legal guardian, the court shall specify the factual basis for its conclusion that the return would be detrimental or would not be detrimental. The court also shall make appropriate findings pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 366; and, when relevant, shall order any additional services reasonably believed to facilitate the return of the child to the custody of his or her parent or legal guardian. The court shall also inform the parent or legal guardian that if the child cannot be returned home by the 12-month permanency hearing, a proceeding pursuant to Section 366.26 may be instituted. This section does not apply in a case where, pursuant to Section 361.5, the court has ordered that reunification services shall not be provided.
(3) If the child was under three years of age on the date of the initial removal, or is a member of a sibling group described in subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 361.5, and the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the parent failed to participate regularly and make substantive progress in a court-ordered treatment plan, the court may schedule a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 within 120 days. If, however, the court finds there is a substantial probability that the child, who was under three years of age on the date of initial removal or is a member of a sibling group described in subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 361.5, may be returned to his or her parent or legal guardian within six months or that reasonable services have not been provided, the court shall continue the case to the 12-month permanency hearing.
(4) For the purpose of placing and maintaining a sibling group together in a permanent home, the court, in making its determination to schedule a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 for some or all members of a sibling group, as described in subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 361.5, shall review and consider the social worker’s report and recommendations. Factors the report shall address, and the court shall consider, may include, but need not be limited to, whether the sibling group was removed from parental care as a group, the closeness and strength of the sibling bond, the ages of the siblings, the appropriateness of maintaining the sibling group together, the detriment to the child if sibling ties are not maintained, the likelihood of finding a permanent home for the sibling group, whether the sibling group is currently placed together in a preadoptive home or has a concurrent plan goal of legal permanency in the same home, the wishes of each child whose age and physical and emotional condition permits a meaningful response, and the best interests of each child in the sibling group. The court shall specify the factual basis for its finding that it is in the best interests of each child to schedule a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 within 120 days for some or all of the members of the sibling group.
(5) If the child was removed initially under subdivision (g) of Section 300 and the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the whereabouts of the parent are still unknown, or the parent has failed to contact and visit the child, the court may schedule a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 within 120 days. The court shall take into account any particular barriers to a parent’s ability to maintain contact with his or her child due to the parent’s incarceration, institutionalization, status as a minor, homelessness, detention by the United States Department of Homeland Security, or deportation. If the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the parent has been convicted of a felony indicating parental unfitness, the court may schedule a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 within 120 days.
(6) If the child had been placed under court supervision with a previously noncustodial parent pursuant to Section 361.2, the court shall determine whether supervision is still necessary. The court may terminate supervision and transfer permanent custody to that parent, as provided for by paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 361.2.
(7) In all other cases, the court shall direct that any reunification services previously ordered shall continue to be offered to the parent or legal guardian pursuant to the time periods set forth in subdivision (a) of Section 361.5, provided that the court may modify the terms and conditions of those services.
(8) If the child is not returned to his or her parent or legal guardian, the court shall determine whether reasonable services that were designed to aid the parent or legal guardian in overcoming the problems that led to the initial removal and the continued custody of the child have been provided or offered to the parent or legal guardian. The court shall order that those services be initiated, continued, or terminated.
(f) (1) The permanency hearing shall be held no later than 12 months after the date the child entered foster care, as that date is determined pursuant to Section 361.49. At the permanency hearing, the court shall determine the permanent plan for the child, which shall include a determination of whether the child will be returned to the child’s home and, if so, when, within the time limits of subdivision (a) of Section 361.5. After considering the relevant and admissible evidence, the court shall order the return of the child to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian unless the court finds, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the return of the child to his or her parent or legal guardian would create a substantial risk of detriment to the safety, protection, or physical or emotional well-being of the child. The social worker shall have the burden of establishing that detriment.
(A) At the permanency hearing, the court shall consider the criminal history, obtained pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (f) of Section 16504.5, of the parent or legal guardian subsequent to the child’s removal to the extent that the criminal record is substantially related to the welfare of the child or the parent’s or legal guardian’s ability to exercise custody and control regarding his or her child, provided that the parent or legal guardian agreed to submit fingerprint images to obtain criminal history information as part of the case plan. The court shall also determine whether reasonable services that were designed to aid the parent or legal guardian to overcome the problems that led to the initial removal and continued custody of the child have been provided or offered to the parent or legal guardian.
(B) The court shall also consider whether the child can be returned to the custody of his or her parent who is enrolled in a certified substance abuse treatment facility that allows a dependent child to reside with his or her parent. The fact that the parent is enrolled in a certified substance abuse treatment facility shall not be, for that reason alone, prima facie evidence of detriment. The failure of the parent or legal guardian to participate regularly and make substantive progress in court-ordered treatment programs shall be prima facie evidence that return would be detrimental.
(C) In making its determination, the court shall review and consider the social worker’s report and recommendations and the report and recommendations of any child advocate appointed pursuant to Section 356.5, shall consider the efforts or progress, or both, demonstrated by the parent or legal guardian and the extent to which he or she availed himself or herself of services provided, taking into account the particular barriers to a minor parent or a nonminor dependent parent, or an incarcerated, institutionalized, detained, homeless, or deported parent’s or legal guardian’s access to those court-mandated services and ability to maintain contact with his or her child, and shall make appropriate findings pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 366.
(D) The court shall also consider whether the parent is in substantial compliance with the court-ordered case plan, whether lack of housing is the sole impediment to family reunification, and whether the child can be returned to the parent upon the parent securing appropriate housing. In making its determination, the court shall review and consider the referral and coordination of services provided by the county, and the efforts, progress, or both demonstrated by the parent, and the extent to which he or she availed himself or herself of services provided, taking into account the particular barriers to a homeless parent’s access to those services and ability to maintain contact with his or her child. If the parent is in substantial compliance with the court-ordered case plan and lack of housing is the sole impediment to family reunification, the court may order that the child be returned to the parent’s physical custody within five days after the parent has secured appropriate housing and order supportive services for the family to assist the family in maintaining housing. safe and adequate housing, as confirmed by the county child welfare agency, and may order the county to assist the family in maintaining housing with referral to, and coordination of, supportive services. Appropriate housing may include, but is not limited to, housing provided through rapid rehousing, transitional, or permanent housing programs, and funded by federal, state, or county sources, or through various nonprofit organizations.
(E) For each youth 16 years of age and older, the court shall also determine whether services have been made available to assist him or her in making the transition from foster care to successful adulthood.
(2) Regardless of whether the child is returned to his or her parent or legal guardian, the court shall specify the factual basis for its decision. If the child is not returned to a parent or legal guardian, the court shall specify the factual basis for its conclusion that the return would be detrimental. The court also shall make a finding pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 366. If the child is not returned to his or her parent or legal guardian, the court shall consider, and state for the record, in-state and out-of-state placement options. If the child is placed out of the state, the court shall make a determination whether the out-of-state placement continues to be appropriate and in the best interests of the child.
(g) If the time period in which the court-ordered services were provided has met or exceeded the time period set forth in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 361.5, as appropriate, and a child is not returned to the custody of a parent or legal guardian at the permanency hearing held pursuant to subdivision (f), the court shall do one of the following:
(1) Continue the case for up to six months for a permanency review hearing, provided that the hearing shall occur within 18 months of the date the child was originally taken from the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian. The court shall continue the case only if it finds that there is a substantial probability that the child will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian and safely maintained in the home within the extended period of time or that reasonable services have not been provided to the parent or legal guardian. For the purposes of this section, in order to find a substantial probability that the child will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian and safely maintained in the home within the extended period of time, the court shall be required to find all of the following:
(A) That the parent or legal guardian has consistently and regularly contacted and visited with the child.
(B) That the parent or legal guardian has made significant progress in resolving problems that led to the child’s removal from the home.
(C) The parent or legal guardian has demonstrated the capacity and ability both to complete the objectives of his or her treatment plan and to provide for the child’s safety, protection, physical and emotional well-being, and special needs.
(i) For purposes of this subdivision, the court’s decision to continue the case based on a finding or substantial probability that the child will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian is a compelling reason for determining that a hearing held pursuant to Section 366.26 is not in the best interests of the child.
(ii) The court shall inform the parent or legal guardian that if the child cannot be returned home by the next permanency review hearing, a proceeding pursuant to Section 366.26 may be instituted. The court shall not order that a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 be held unless there is clear and convincing evidence that reasonable services have been provided or offered to the parent or legal guardian.
(2) Continue the case for up to six months for a permanency review hearing, provided that the hearing shall occur within 18 months of the date the child was originally taken from the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian, if the parent is a minor parent, homeless, or has been arrested and issued an immigration hold, detained by the United States Department of Homeland Security, or deported to his or her country of origin, and the court determines either that there is a substantial probability that the child will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian and safely maintained in the home within the extended period of time or that reasonable services have not been provided to the parent or legal guardian.
(3) For purposes of paragraph (2), in order to find a substantial probability that the child will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian and safely maintained in the home within the extended period of time, the court shall find all of the following:
(A) The parent or legal guardian has consistently and regularly contacted and visited with the child, taking into account any particular barriers to a parent’s ability to maintain contact with his or her child due to the parent’s status as a minor, homelessness, or arrest and receipt of an immigration hold, detention by the United States Department of Homeland Security, or deportation.
(B) The parent or legal guardian has made significant progress in resolving the problems that led to the child’s removal from the home.
(C) The parent or legal guardian has demonstrated the capacity or ability both to complete the objectives of his or her treatment plan and to provide for the child’s safety, protection, physical and emotional well-being, and special needs.
(4) Order that a hearing be held within 120 days, pursuant to Section 366.26, but only if the court does not continue the case to the permanency planning review hearing and there is clear and convincing evidence that reasonable services have been provided or offered to the parents or legal guardians. On and after January 1, 2012, a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 shall not be ordered if the child is a nonminor dependent, unless the nonminor dependent is an Indian child and tribal customary adoption is recommended as the permanent plan.
(5) Order that the child remain in foster care, but only if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence, based upon the evidence already presented to it, including a recommendation by the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency or by a county adoption agency, that there is a compelling reason for determining that a hearing held pursuant to Section 366.26 is not in the best interests of the child because the child is not a proper subject for adoption and has no one willing to accept legal guardianship as of the hearing date. For purposes of this section, a recommendation by the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency or by a county adoption agency that adoption is not in the best interests of the child shall constitute a compelling reason for the court’s determination. That recommendation shall be based on the present circumstances of the child and shall not preclude a different recommendation at a later date if the child’s circumstances change. On and after January 1, 2012, the nonminor dependent’s legal status as an adult is in and of itself a compelling reason not to hold a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26. The court may order that a nonminor dependent who otherwise is eligible pursuant to Section 11403 remain in a planned, permanent living arrangement.
(A) The court shall make factual findings identifying any barriers to achieving the permanent plan as of the hearing date. When the child is under 16 years of age, the court shall order a permanent plan of return home, adoption, tribal customary adoption in the case of an Indian child, legal guardianship, or placement with a fit and willing relative, as appropriate. When the child is 16 years of age or older, or is a nonminor dependent, and no other permanent plan is appropriate at the time of the hearing, the court may order another planned permanent living arrangement, as described in paragraph (2) of subdivision (i) of Section 16501.
(B) If the court orders that a child who is 10 years of age or older remain in foster care, the court shall determine whether the agency has made reasonable efforts to maintain the child’s relationships with individuals other than the child’s siblings who are important to the child, consistent with the child’s best interests, and may make any appropriate order to ensure that those relationships are maintained.
(C) If the child is not returned to his or her parent or legal guardian, the court shall consider, and state for the record, in-state and out-of-state options for permanent placement. If the child is placed out of the state, the court shall make a determination whether the out-of-state placement continues to be appropriate and in the best interests of the child.
(h) In any case in which the court orders that a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 shall be held, it shall also order the termination of reunification services to the parent or legal guardian. The court shall continue to permit the parent or legal guardian to visit the child pending the hearing unless it finds that visitation would be detrimental to the child. The court shall make any other appropriate orders to enable the child to maintain relationships with individuals, other than the child’s siblings, who are important to the child, consistent with the child’s best interests. When the court orders a termination of reunification services to the parent or legal guardian, it shall also order that the child’s caregiver receive the child’s birth certificate in accordance with Sections 16010.4 and 16010.5. Additionally, when the court orders a termination of reunification services to the parent or legal guardian, it shall order, when appropriate, that a child who is 16 years of age or older receive his or her birth certificate.
(i) (1) Whenever a court orders that a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26, including, when, in consultation with the child’s tribe, tribal customary adoption is recommended, shall be held, it shall direct the agency supervising the child and the county adoption agency, or the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency, to prepare an assessment that shall include:
(A) Current search efforts for an absent parent or parents or legal guardians.
(B) A review of the amount of and nature of any contact between the child and his or her parents or legal guardians and other members of his or her extended family since the time of placement. Although the extended family of each child shall be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, “extended family” for the purpose of this subparagraph shall include, but not be limited to, the child’s siblings, grandparents, aunts, and uncles.
(C) An evaluation of the child’s medical, developmental, scholastic, mental, and emotional status.
(D) A preliminary assessment of the eligibility and commitment of any identified prospective adoptive parent or legal guardian, including the prospective tribal customary adoptive parent, particularly the caretaker, to include a social history including screening for criminal records and prior referrals for child abuse or neglect, the capability to meet the child’s needs, and the understanding of the legal and financial rights and responsibilities of adoption and guardianship. If a proposed guardian is a relative of the minor, the assessment shall also consider, but need not be limited to, all of the factors specified in subdivision (a) of Section 361.3 and in Section 361.4.
(E) The relationship of the child to any identified prospective adoptive parent or legal guardian, the duration and character of the relationship, the degree of attachment of the child to the prospective relative guardian or adoptive parent, the relative’s or adoptive parent’s strong commitment to caring permanently for the child, the motivation for seeking adoption or guardianship, a statement from the child concerning placement and the adoption or guardianship, and whether the child, if over 12 years of age, has been consulted about the proposed relative guardianship arrangements, unless the child’s age or physical, emotional, or other condition precludes his or her meaningful response, and if so, a description of the condition.
(F) A description of efforts to be made to identify a prospective adoptive parent or legal guardian, including, but not limited to, child-specific recruitment and listing on an adoption exchange within the state or out of the state.
(G) An analysis of the likelihood that the child will be adopted if parental rights are terminated.
(H) In the case of an Indian child, in addition to subparagraphs (A) to (G), inclusive, an assessment of the likelihood that the child will be adopted, when, in consultation with the child’s tribe, a tribal customary adoption, as defined in Section 366.24, is recommended. If tribal customary adoption is recommended, the assessment shall include an analysis of both of the following:
(i) Whether tribal customary adoption would or would not be detrimental to the Indian child and the reasons for reaching that conclusion.
(ii) Whether the Indian child cannot or should not be returned to the home of the Indian parent or Indian custodian and the reasons for reaching that conclusion.
(2) (A) A relative caregiver’s preference for legal guardianship over adoption, if it is due to circumstances that do not include an unwillingness to accept legal or financial responsibility for the child, shall not constitute the sole basis for recommending removal of the child from the relative caregiver for purposes of adoptive placement.
(B) Regardless of his or her immigration status, a relative caregiver shall be given information regarding the permanency options of guardianship and adoption, including the long-term benefits and consequences of each option, prior to establishing legal guardianship or pursuing adoption. If the proposed permanent plan is guardianship with an approved relative caregiver for a minor eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program, as provided for in Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385) of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9, the relative caregiver shall be informed about the terms and conditions of the negotiated agreement pursuant to Section 11387 and shall agree to its execution prior to the hearing held pursuant to Section 366.26. A copy of the executed negotiated agreement shall be attached to the assessment.
(j) If, at any hearing held pursuant to Section 366.26, a guardianship is established for the minor with an approved relative caregiver, and juvenile court dependency is subsequently dismissed, the minor shall be eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program, as provided for in Article 4.5 (commencing with Section 11360) or Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385), as applicable, of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9.
(k) As used in this section, “relative” means an adult who is related to the minor by blood, adoption, or affinity within the fifth degree of kinship, including stepparents, stepsiblings, and all relatives whose status is preceded by the words “great,” “great-great,” or “grand,” or the spouse of any of those persons even if the marriage was terminated by death or dissolution. If the proposed permanent plan is guardianship with an approved relative caregiver for a minor eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program, as provided for in Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385) of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9, “relative” as used in this section has the same meaning as “relative” as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 11391.
(l) For purposes of this section, evidence of any of the following circumstances shall not, in and of itself, be deemed a failure to provide or offer reasonable services:
(1) The child has been placed with a foster family that is eligible to adopt a child, or has been placed in a preadoptive home.
(2) The case plan includes services to make and finalize a permanent placement for the child if efforts to reunify fail.
(3) Services to make and finalize a permanent placement for the child, if efforts to reunify fail, are provided concurrently with services to reunify the family.
(m) As used in this section, “homeless” has the same meaning as that term is defined in Section 103 of the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 11302). “Homelessness” is the status of being homeless.

SEC. 4.

 Section 366.215 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is amended to read:

366.215.
 (a) With respect to a hearing held pursuant to subdivision (e) of Section 366.21, if the child in question was under three years of age on the date of the initial removal, or is a member of a sibling group described in subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) of Section 361.5, the court, in determining whether to schedule a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26, shall take into account any particular barriers to a parent’s ability to maintain contact with his or her child due to the parent’s incarceration, institutionalization, status as a minor, homelessness, detention by the United States Department of Homeland Security, or deportation.
(b) As used in this section, “homelessness” is the status of being homeless, as defined in Section 103 of the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 11302).

SEC. 5.

 Section 366.22 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is amended to read:

366.22.
 (a) (1) When a case has been continued pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) of subdivision (g) of Section 366.21, the permanency review hearing shall occur within 18 months after the date the child was originally removed from the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian. After considering the admissible and relevant evidence, the court shall order the return of the child to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian unless the court finds, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the return of the child to his or her parent or legal guardian would create a substantial risk of detriment to the safety, protection, or physical or emotional well-being of the child. The social worker shall have the burden of establishing that detriment. At the permanency review hearing, the court shall consider the criminal history, obtained pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (f) of Section 16504.5, of the parent or legal guardian subsequent to the child’s removal, to the extent that the criminal record is substantially related to the welfare of the child or the parent’s or legal guardian’s ability to exercise custody and control regarding his or her child, provided that the parent or legal guardian agreed to submit fingerprint images to obtain criminal history information as part of the case plan. The court shall also consider whether the child can be returned to the custody of his or her parent who is enrolled in a certified substance abuse treatment facility that allows a dependent child to reside with his or her parent. The fact that the parent is enrolled in a certified substance abuse treatment facility shall not be, for that reason alone, prima facie evidence of detriment. The failure of the parent or legal guardian to participate regularly and make substantive progress in court-ordered treatment programs shall be prima facie evidence that return would be detrimental. In making its determination, the court shall review and consider the social worker’s report and recommendations and the report and recommendations of any child advocate appointed pursuant to Section 356.5; shall consider the efforts or progress, or both, demonstrated by the parent or legal guardian and the extent to which he or she availed himself or herself of services provided, taking into account the particular barriers of a minor parent or a nonminor dependent parent, or an incarcerated, institutionalized, or homeless parent’s or legal guardian’s access to those court-mandated services and ability to maintain contact with his or her child; and shall make appropriate findings pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 366. The court shall also consider whether the parent is in substantial compliance with the court-ordered case plan, whether lack of housing is the sole impediment to family reunification, and whether the child can be returned to the parent upon the parent securing appropriate housing. In making its determination, the court shall review and consider the referral and coordination of services provided by the county, and the efforts, progress, or both demonstrated by the parent, and the extent to which he or she availed himself or herself of services provided, taking into account the particular barriers to a homeless parent’s access to those services and ability to maintain contact with his or her child. If the parent is in substantial compliance with the court-ordered case plan and lack of housing is the sole impediment to family reunification, the court may order that the child be returned to the parent’s physical custody within five days after the parent has secured appropriate housing and order supportive services for the family to assist the family in maintaining housing. safe and adequate housing, as confirmed by the county child welfare agency, and may order the county to assist the family in maintaining housing with referral to, and coordination of, supportive services. Appropriate housing may include, but is not limited to, housing provided through rapid rehousing, transitional, or permanent housing programs, and funded by federal, state, or county sources, or through various nonprofit organizations.
(2) Whether or not the child is returned to his or her parent or legal guardian, the court shall specify the factual basis for its decision. If the child is not returned to a parent or legal guardian, the court shall specify the factual basis for its conclusion that return would be detrimental. If the child is not returned to his or her parent or legal guardian, the court shall consider, and state for the record, in-state and out-of-state options for the child’s permanent placement. If the child is placed out of the state, the court shall make a determination whether the out-of-state placement continues to be appropriate and in the best interests of the child.
(3) Unless the conditions in subdivision (b) are met and the child is not returned to a parent or legal guardian at the permanency review hearing, the court shall order that a hearing be held pursuant to Section 366.26 in order to determine whether adoption, or, in the case of an Indian child, in consultation with the child’s tribe, tribal customary adoption, guardianship, or continued placement in foster care is the most appropriate plan for the child. On and after January 1, 2012, a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 shall not be ordered if the child is a nonminor dependent, unless the nonminor dependent is an Indian child, and tribal customary adoption is recommended as the permanent plan. However, if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence, based on the evidence already presented to it, including a recommendation by the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency or by a county adoption agency, that there is a compelling reason, as described in paragraph (5) of subdivision (g) of Section 366.21, for determining that a hearing held under Section 366.26 is not in the best interests of the child because the child is not a proper subject for adoption and has no one willing to accept legal guardianship as of the hearing date, the court may, only under these circumstances, order that the child remain in foster care with a permanent plan of return home, adoption, tribal customary adoption in the case of an Indian child, legal guardianship, or placement with a fit and willing relative, as appropriate. If the child is 16 years of age or older or is a nonminor dependent, and no other permanent plan is appropriate at the time of the hearing, the court may order another planned permanent living arrangement, as described in paragraph (2) of subdivision (i) of Section 16501. The court shall make factual findings identifying any barriers to achieving the permanent plan as of the hearing date. On and after January 1, 2012, the nonminor dependent’s legal status as an adult is in and of itself a compelling reason not to hold a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26. The court may order that a nonminor dependent who otherwise is eligible pursuant to Section 11403 remain in a planned, permanent living arrangement. If the court orders that a child who is 10 years of age or older remain in foster care, the court shall determine whether the agency has made reasonable efforts to maintain the child’s relationships with individuals other than the child’s siblings who are important to the child, consistent with the child’s best interests, and may make any appropriate order to ensure that those relationships are maintained. The hearing shall be held no later than 120 days from the date of the permanency review hearing. The court shall also order termination of reunification services to the parent or legal guardian. The court shall continue to permit the parent or legal guardian to visit the child unless it finds that visitation would be detrimental to the child. The court shall determine whether reasonable services have been offered or provided to the parent or legal guardian. For purposes of this subdivision, evidence of any of the following circumstances shall not, in and of themselves, be deemed a failure to provide or offer reasonable services:
(A) The child has been placed with a foster family that is eligible to adopt a child, or has been placed in a preadoptive home.
(B) The case plan includes services to make and finalize a permanent placement for the child if efforts to reunify fail.
(C) Services to make and finalize a permanent placement for the child, if efforts to reunify fail, are provided concurrently with services to reunify the family.
(b) If the child is not returned to a parent or legal guardian at the permanency review hearing and the court determines by clear and convincing evidence that the best interests of the child would be met by the provision of additional reunification services to a parent or legal guardian who is making significant and consistent progress in a court-ordered residential substance abuse treatment program, a parent who was either a minor parent or a nonminor dependent parent at the time of the initial hearing making significant and consistent progress in establishing a safe home for the child’s return, or a parent recently discharged from incarceration, institutionalization, or the custody of the United States Department of Homeland Security or a parent who is homeless and making significant and consistent progress in establishing a safe home for the child’s return, the court may continue the case for up to six months for a subsequent permanency review hearing, provided that the hearing shall occur within 24 months of the date the child was originally taken from the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian. The court shall continue the case only if it finds that there is a substantial probability that the child will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian and safely maintained in the home within the extended period of time or that reasonable services have not been provided to the parent or legal guardian. For the purposes of this section, in order to find a substantial probability that the child will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian and safely maintained in the home within the extended period of time, the court shall be required to find all of the following:
(1) That the parent or legal guardian has consistently and regularly contacted and visited with the child.
(2) That the parent or legal guardian has made significant and consistent progress in the prior 18 months in resolving problems that led to the child’s removal from the home.
(3) The parent or legal guardian has demonstrated the capacity and ability both to complete the objectives of his or her substance abuse treatment plan as evidenced by reports from a substance abuse provider as applicable, or complete a treatment plan postdischarge from incarceration, institutionalization, or detention, or following deportation to his or her country of origin and his or her return to the United States, or to locate housing, and to provide for the child’s safety, protection, physical and emotional well-being, and special needs.
For purposes of this subdivision, the court’s decision to continue the case based on a finding or substantial probability that the child will be returned to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian is a compelling reason for determining that a hearing held pursuant to Section 366.26 is not in the best interests of the child.
The court shall inform the parent or legal guardian that if the child cannot be returned home by the subsequent permanency review hearing, a proceeding pursuant to Section 366.26 may be instituted. The court shall not order that a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 be held unless there is clear and convincing evidence that reasonable services have been provided or offered to the parent or legal guardian.
(c) (1) Whenever a court orders that a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26, including when a tribal customary adoption is recommended, shall be held, it shall direct the agency supervising the child and the county adoption agency, or the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency, to prepare an assessment that shall include:
(A) Current search efforts for an absent parent or parents.
(B) A review of the amount of and nature of any contact between the child and his or her parents and other members of his or her extended family since the time of placement. Although the extended family of each child shall be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, “extended family” for the purposes of this subparagraph shall include, but not be limited to, the child’s siblings, grandparents, aunts, and uncles.
(C) An evaluation of the child’s medical, developmental, scholastic, mental, and emotional status.
(D)  A preliminary assessment of the eligibility and commitment of any identified prospective adoptive parent or legal guardian, particularly the caretaker, to include a social history including screening for criminal records and prior referrals for child abuse or neglect, the capability to meet the child’s needs, and the understanding of the legal and financial rights and responsibilities of adoption and guardianship. If a proposed legal guardian is a relative of the minor, the assessment shall also consider, but need not be limited to, all of the factors specified in subdivision (a) of Section 361.3 and Section 361.4.
(E) The relationship of the child to any identified prospective adoptive parent or legal guardian, the duration and character of the relationship, the degree of attachment of the child to the prospective relative guardian or adoptive parent, the relative’s or adoptive parent’s strong commitment to caring permanently for the child, the motivation for seeking adoption or legal guardianship, a statement from the child concerning placement and the adoption or legal guardianship, and whether the child, if over 12 years of age, has been consulted about the proposed relative guardianship arrangements, unless the child’s age or physical, emotional, or other condition precludes his or her meaningful response, and if so, a description of the condition.
(F) An analysis of the likelihood that the child will be adopted if parental rights are terminated.
(G) In the case of an Indian child, in addition to subparagraphs (A) to (F), inclusive, an assessment of the likelihood that the child will be adopted, when, in consultation with the child’s tribe, a tribal customary adoption, as defined in Section 366.24, is recommended. If tribal customary adoption is recommended, the assessment shall include an analysis of both of the following:
(i) Whether tribal customary adoption would or would not be detrimental to the Indian child and the reasons for reaching that conclusion.
(ii) Whether the Indian child cannot or should not be returned to the home of the Indian parent or Indian custodian and the reasons for reaching that conclusion.
(2) (A) A relative caregiver’s preference for legal guardianship over adoption, if it is due to circumstances that do not include an unwillingness to accept legal or financial responsibility for the child, shall not constitute the sole basis for recommending removal of the child from the relative caregiver for purposes of adoptive placement.
(B) Regardless of his or her immigration status, a relative caregiver shall be given information regarding the permanency options of guardianship and adoption, including the long-term benefits and consequences of each option, prior to establishing legal guardianship or pursuing adoption. If the proposed permanent plan is guardianship with an approved relative caregiver for a minor eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program, as provided for in Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385) of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9, the relative caregiver shall be informed about the terms and conditions of the negotiated agreement pursuant to Section 11387 and shall agree to its execution prior to the hearing held pursuant to Section 366.26. A copy of the executed negotiated agreement shall be attached to the assessment.
(d) This section shall become operative January 1, 1999. If at any hearing held pursuant to Section 366.26, a legal guardianship is established for the minor with an approved relative caregiver, and juvenile court dependency is subsequently dismissed, the minor shall be eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program, as provided for in Article 4.5 (commencing with Section 11360) or Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385), as applicable, of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9.
(e) As used in this section, “relative” means an adult who is related to the child by blood, adoption, or affinity within the fifth degree of kinship, including stepparents, stepsiblings, and all relatives whose status is preceded by the words “great,” “great-great,” or “grand,” or the spouse of any of those persons even if the marriage was terminated by death or dissolution. If the proposed permanent plan is guardianship with an approved relative caregiver for a minor eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program, as provided for in Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385) of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9, “relative” as used in this section has the same meaning as “relative” as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 11391.
(f) As used in this section, “homeless” has the same meaning as that term is defined in Section 103 of the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 11302).

SEC. 6.

 Section 366.25 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is amended to read:

366.25.
 (a) (1) When a case has been continued pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 366.22, the subsequent permanency review hearing shall occur within 24 months after the date the child was originally removed from the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian. After considering the relevant and admissible evidence, the court shall order the return of the child to the physical custody of his or her parent or legal guardian unless the court finds, by a preponderance of the evidence, that the return of the child to his or her parent or legal guardian would create a substantial risk of detriment to the safety, protection, or physical or emotional well-being of the child. The social worker shall have the burden of establishing that detriment. At the subsequent permanency review hearing, the court shall consider the criminal history, obtained pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (f) of Section 16504.5, of the parent or legal guardian subsequent to the child’s removal to the extent that the criminal record is substantially related to the welfare of the child or parent’s or legal guardian’s ability to exercise custody and control regarding his or her child provided that the parent or legal guardian agreed to submit fingerprint images to obtain criminal history information as part of the case plan. The court shall also consider whether the child can be returned to the custody of a parent who is enrolled in a certified substance abuse treatment facility that allows a dependent child to reside with his or her parent. The fact that the parent is enrolled in a certified substance abuse treatment facility shall not be, for that reason alone, prima facie evidence of detriment. The failure of the parent or legal guardian to participate regularly and make substantive progress in court-ordered treatment programs shall be prima facie evidence that return would be detrimental. In making its determination, the court shall review and consider the social worker’s report and recommendations and the report and recommendations of any child advocate appointed pursuant to Section 356.5; shall consider the efforts or progress, or both, demonstrated by the parent or legal guardian and the extent to which he or she availed himself or herself of services provided; and shall make appropriate findings pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 366. The court shall also consider whether the parent is in substantial compliance with the court-ordered case plan, whether lack of housing is the sole impediment to family reunification, and whether the child can be returned to the parent upon the parent securing appropriate housing. In making its determination, the court shall review and consider the referral and coordination of services provided by the county, and the efforts, progress, or both demonstrated by the parent, and the extent to which he or she availed himself or herself of services provided, taking into account the particular barriers to a homeless parent’s access to those services and ability to maintain contact with his or her child. If the parent is in substantial compliance with the court-ordered case plan and lack of housing is the sole impediment to family reunification, the court may order that the child be returned to the parent’s physical custody within five days after the parent has secured appropriate housing and order supportive services for the family to assist the family in maintaining housing. safe and adequate housing, as confirmed by the county child welfare agency, and may order the county to assist the family in maintaining housing with referral to, and coordination of, supportive services. Appropriate housing may include, but is not limited to, housing provided through rapid rehousing, transitional, or permanent housing programs, and funded by federal, state, or county sources, or through various nonprofit organizations.
(2) Whether or not the child is returned to his or her parent or legal guardian, the court shall specify the factual basis for its decision. If the child is not returned to a parent or legal guardian, the court shall specify the factual basis for its conclusion that return would be detrimental. If the child is not returned to his or her parent or legal guardian, the court shall consider and state for the record, in-state and out-of-state options for the child’s permanent placement. If the child is placed out of the state, the court shall make a determination whether the out-of-state placement continues to be appropriate and in the best interests of the child.
(3) If the child is not returned to a parent or legal guardian at the subsequent permanency review hearing, the court shall order that a hearing be held pursuant to Section 366.26 in order to determine whether adoption, or, in the case of an Indian child, tribal customary adoption, guardianship, or, in the case of a child 16 years of age or older when no other permanent plan is appropriate, another planned permanent living arrangement is the most appropriate plan for the child. On and after January 1, 2012, a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 shall not be ordered if the child is a nonminor dependent, unless the nonminor dependent is an Indian child and tribal customary adoption is recommended as the permanent plan. However, if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence, based on the evidence already presented to it, including a recommendation by the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency or by a county adoption agency, that there is a compelling reason, as described in paragraph (5) of subdivision (g) of Section 366.21, for determining that a hearing held under Section 366.26 is not in the best interest of the child because the child is not a proper subject for adoption or, in the case of an Indian child, tribal customary adoption, and has no one willing to accept legal guardianship as of the hearing date, then the court may, only under these circumstances, order that the child remain in foster care with a permanent plan of return home, adoption, tribal customary adoption in the case of an Indian child, legal guardianship, or placement with a fit and willing relative, as appropriate. If the child is 16 years of age or older or is a nonminor dependent, and no other permanent plan is appropriate at the time of the hearing, the court may order another planned permanent living arrangement, as described in paragraph (2) of subdivision (i) of Section 16501. The court shall make factual findings identifying any barriers to achieving the permanent plan as of the hearing date. On and after January 1, 2012, the nonminor dependent’s legal status as an adult is in and of itself a compelling reason not to hold a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26. The court may order that a nonminor dependent who otherwise is eligible pursuant to Section 11403 remain in a planned, permanent living arrangement. If the court orders that a child who is 10 years of age or older remain in foster care, the court shall determine whether the agency has made reasonable efforts to maintain the child’s relationships with individuals other than the child’s siblings who are important to the child, consistent with the child’s best interests, and may make any appropriate order to ensure that those relationships are maintained. The hearing shall be held no later than 120 days from the date of the subsequent permanency review hearing. The court shall also order termination of reunification services to the parent or legal guardian. The court shall continue to permit the parent or legal guardian to visit the child unless it finds that visitation would be detrimental to the child. The court shall determine whether reasonable services have been offered or provided to the parent or legal guardian. For purposes of this paragraph, evidence of any of the following circumstances shall not, in and of themselves, be deemed a failure to provide or offer reasonable services:
(A) The child has been placed with a foster family that is eligible to adopt a child, or has been placed in a preadoptive home.
(B) The case plan includes services to make and finalize a permanent placement for the child if efforts to reunify fail.
(C) Services to make and finalize a permanent placement for the child, if efforts to reunify fail, are provided concurrently with services to reunify the family.
(b) (1) Whenever a court orders that a hearing pursuant to Section 366.26 shall be held, it shall direct the agency supervising the child and the county adoption agency, or the State Department of Social Services when it is acting as an adoption agency, to prepare an assessment that shall include:
(A) Current search efforts for an absent parent or parents.
(B) A review of the amount of, and nature of, any contact between the child and his or her parents and other members of his or her extended family since the time of placement. Although the extended family of each child shall be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, “extended family” for the purposes of this paragraph shall include, but not be limited to, the child’s siblings, grandparents, aunts, and uncles.
(C) An evaluation of the child’s medical, developmental, scholastic, mental, and emotional status.
(D) A preliminary assessment of the eligibility and commitment of any identified prospective adoptive parent or legal guardian, including a prospective tribal customary adoptive parent, particularly the caretaker, to include a social history including screening for criminal records and prior referrals for child abuse or neglect, the capability to meet the child’s needs, and the understanding of the legal and financial rights and responsibilities of adoption and guardianship. If a proposed legal guardian is a relative of the minor, the assessment shall also consider, but need not be limited to, all of the factors specified in subdivision (a) of Section 361.3 and in Section 361.4.
(E) The relationship of the child to any identified prospective adoptive parent or legal guardian, including a prospective tribal customary adoptive parent, the duration and character of the relationship, the degree of attachment of the child to the prospective relative guardian or adoptive parent, the relative’s or adoptive parent’s strong commitment to caring permanently for the child, the motivation for seeking adoption or legal guardianship, a statement from the child concerning placement and the adoption or legal guardianship, and whether the child, if over 12 years of age, has been consulted about the proposed relative guardianship arrangements, unless the child’s age or physical, emotional, or other condition precludes his or her meaningful response, and if so, a description of the condition.
(F) An analysis of the likelihood that the child will be adopted if parental rights are terminated.
(G) In the case of an Indian child, in addition to subparagraphs (A) to (F), inclusive, an assessment of the likelihood that the child will be adopted, when, in consultation with the child’s tribe, a tribal customary adoption, as defined in Section 366.24, is recommended. If tribal customary adoption is recommended, the assessment shall include an analysis of both of the following:
(i) Whether tribal customary adoption would or would not be detrimental to the Indian child and the reasons for reaching that conclusion.
(ii) Whether the Indian child cannot or should not be returned to the home of the Indian parent or Indian custodian and the reasons for reaching that conclusion.
(2) (A) A relative caregiver’s preference for legal guardianship over adoption, if it is due to circumstances that do not include an unwillingness to accept legal or financial responsibility for the child, shall not constitute the sole basis for recommending removal of the child from the relative caregiver for purposes of adoptive placement.
(B) Regardless of his or her immigration status, a relative caregiver shall be given information regarding the permanency options of guardianship and adoption, including the long-term benefits and consequences of each option, prior to establishing legal guardianship or pursuing adoption. If the proposed permanent plan is guardianship with an approved relative caregiver for a minor eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program, as provided for in Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385) of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9, the relative caregiver shall be informed about the terms and conditions of the negotiated agreement pursuant to Section 11387 and shall agree to its execution prior to the hearing held pursuant to Section 366.26. A copy of the executed negotiated agreement shall be attached to the assessment.
(c) If, at any hearing held pursuant to Section 366.26, a guardianship is established for the minor with an approved relative caregiver, and juvenile court dependency is subsequently dismissed, the minor shall be eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program, as provided for in Article 4.5 (commencing with Section 11360) or Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385), as applicable, of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9.
(d) As used in this section, “relative” means an adult who is related to the minor by blood, adoption, or affinity within the fifth degree of kinship, including stepparents, stepsiblings, and all relatives whose status is preceded by the words “great,” “great-great,” or “grand,” or the spouse of any of those persons even if the marriage was terminated by death or dissolution. If the proposed permanent plan is guardianship with an approved relative caregiver for a minor eligible for aid under the Kin-GAP Program, as provided in Article 4.7 (commencing with Section 11385) of Chapter 2 of Part 3 of Division 9, “relative” as used in this section has the same meaning as “relative” as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 11391.
(e) As used in this section, “homeless” has the same meaning as that term is defined in Section 103 of the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 11302).

SEC. 7.

 Section 16500.1 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is amended to read:

16500.1.
 (a) It is the intent of the Legislature to use the strengths of families and communities to serve the needs of children who are alleged to be abused or neglected, as described in Section 300, to reduce the necessity for removing these children from their home, to encourage speedy reunification of families when it can be safely accomplished, to reduce the length of stay in out-of-home care and hasten reunification when it can be safely accomplished and lack of housing is the only impediment to reunification, to locate permanent homes and families for children who cannot return to their biological families, to reduce the number of placements experienced by these children, to ensure that children leaving the foster care system have support within their communities, to improve the quality and homelike nature of out-of-home care, and to foster the educational progress of children in out-of-home care.
(b) In order to achieve the goals specified in subdivision (a), the state shall encourage the development of approaches to child protection that do all of the following:
(1) Allow children to remain in their own schools, in close proximity to their families.
(2) Increase the number and quality of foster families available to serve these children.
(3) Use a team approach to foster care that permits the biological and foster family and the child to be part of that team.
(4) Use team decisionmaking in case planning.
(5) Provide support to foster children and foster families.
(6) Ensure that licensing requirements do not create barriers to recruitment of qualified, high-quality foster homes.
(7) Provide training for foster parents and professional staff on working effectively with families and communities.
(8) Encourage foster parents to serve as mentors and role models for biological parents.
(9) Use community resources, including community-based agencies and volunteer organizations, to assist in developing placements for children and to provide support for children and their families.
(10) Ensure an appropriate array of placement resources for children in need of out-of-home care.
(11) Ensure that no child leaves foster care without a lifelong connection to a committed adult.
(12) Ensure that children are actively involved in the case plan and permanency planning process.
(13) Provide housing and supportive services to parents who are in substantial compliance with their case plan and lack of housing is the only impediment to family reunification.
(c) (1) Each county shall provide the department with a disaster response plan describing how county programs assisted under Part B (commencing with Section 620) and Part E (commencing with Section 670) of Subchapter IV of Chapter 7 of Title 42 of the United States Code (Titles IV-B and IV-E of the Social Security Act) would respond to a disaster. The plan shall set forth procedures describing how each county will perform the following services:
(A) Identify, locate, and continue availability of services for children under state care or supervision who are displaced or adversely affected by a disaster.
(B) Respond, as appropriate, to new child welfare cases in areas adversely affected by a disaster, and provide services in those cases.
(C) Remain in communication with caseworkers and other essential child welfare personnel who are displaced because of a disaster.
(D) Preserve essential program records.
(E) Coordinate services and share information with other counties.
(2) The department shall review its disaster plan with respect to subparagraphs (A) to (E), inclusive, of paragraph (1), and shall revise the plan to clarify the role and responsibilities of the state in the event of a disaster.
(3) The department shall consult with counties to identify opportunities for collaboration between counties, and between the county and the state, in the event of a disaster.
(d) In carrying out the requirements of subdivisions (b) and (c), the department shall do all of the following:
(1) Consider the existing array of program models provided in statute and in practice, including, but not limited to, wraparound services, as defined in Section 18251, children’s systems of care, as provided for in Section 5852, the Oregon Family Unity or Santa Clara County Family Conference models, which include family conferences at key points in the casework process, such as when out-of-home placement or return home is considered, and the Annie E. Casey Foundation Family to Family initiative, which uses team decisionmaking in case planning, community-based placement practices requiring that children be placed in foster care in the communities where they resided prior to placement, and involve foster families as team members in family reunification efforts.
(2) Ensure that emergency response services, family maintenance services, family reunification services, and permanent placement services are coordinated with the implementation of the models described in paragraph (1).
(3) Ensure consistency between child welfare services program regulations and the program models described in paragraph (1).
(e) The department, in conjunction with stakeholders, including, but not limited to, county child welfare services agencies, foster parent and group home associations, the California Youth Connection, and other child advocacy groups, shall review the existing child welfare services program regulations to ensure that these regulations are consistent with the legislative intent specified in subdivision (a). This review shall also determine how to incorporate the best practice guidelines for assessment of children and families receiving child welfare and foster care services, as required by Section 16501.2.
(f) The department shall report to the Legislature on the results of the actions taken under this section on or before January 1, 2002.

SEC. 8.

 Section 16500.5 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is amended to read:

16500.5.
 (a) (1) The Legislature hereby declares its intent to encourage the continuity of the family unit by:
(A) (i) Providing family preservation services.
(ii) For purposes of this subdivision, “family preservation services” means intensive services for families whose children, without these services, would be subject to any of the following:
(I) Be at imminent risk of out-of-home placement.
(II) Remain in existing out-of-home placement for longer periods of time.
(III) Be placed in a more restrictive out-of-home placement.
(B) Providing supportive services for those children within the meaning of Sections 360, 361, and 364 when they are returned to the family unit or when a minor will probably soon be within the jurisdiction of the juvenile court pursuant to Section 301.
(C) Providing counseling and family support services designed to eradicate the situation that necessitated intervention.
(2) The Legislature finds that maintaining abused and neglected children in foster care grows increasingly costly each year, and that adequate funding for family services that might enable these children to remain in their homes is not as readily available as funding for foster care placement.
(3) The Legislature further finds that other state bodies have addressed this problem through various systems of flexible reimbursement in child welfare programs that provide for more intensive and appropriate services to prevent foster care placement or significantly reduce the length of stay in foster care.
(b) It is the intent of the Legislature that family preservation and support services in California conform to the federal definitions contained in Section 431 of the Social Security Act as contained in Public Law 103-66, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987. The Legislature finds and declares that California’s existing family preservation programs meet the intent of the federal Promoting Safe and Stable Families program.
(c) (1) Services that may be provided under this program may include, but are not limited to, counseling, mental health treatment and substance abuse treatment services, including treatment at a residential substance abuse treatment facility that accepts families, parenting, respite, day treatment, transportation, homemaking, family support services, and housing and supportive services for homeless parents of dependent children removed from the physical custody of their parents or guardians if the parent or guardian is in substantial compliance with their case plan and lack of housing is the sole impediment to reunification. Each county that chooses to provide mental health treatment and substance abuse treatment shall identify and develop these services in consultation with county mental health treatment and substance abuse treatment agencies. Additional services may include those enumerated in Sections 16506 and 16507. The services to be provided pursuant to this section may be determined by each participating county. Each county may contract with individuals and organizations for services to be provided pursuant to this section. Each county shall utilize available private nonprofit resources in the county prior to developing new county-operated resources when these private nonprofit resources are of at least equal quality and costs as county-operated resources and shall utilize available county resources of at least equal quality and cost prior to new private nonprofit resources.
(2) Participating counties authorized by this subdivision shall provide specific programs of direct services based on individual family needs as reflected in the service plans to families of the following:
(A) Children who are dependent children not taken from physical custody of their parents or guardians pursuant to Section 364.
(B) Children who are dependent children removed from the physical custody of their parents or guardian pursuant to Section 361.
(C) Children who it is determined will probably soon be within the jurisdiction of the juvenile court pursuant to Section 301.
(D) Upon approval of the department, children who have been adjudged wards of the court pursuant to Sections 601 and 602.
(E) Upon approval of the department, families of children subject to Sections 726 and 727.
(F) Upon approval of the department, children who are determined to require out-of-home placement pursuant to Section 7572.5 of the Government Code.
(3) The services shall only be provided to families whose children will be placed in out-of-home care without the provision of services or to children who can be returned to their families with the provision of services.
(4) The services selected by a participating county shall be reasonable and meritorious and shall demonstrate cost-effectiveness and success at avoiding out-of-home placement, or reducing the length of stay in out-of-home placement. A county shall not expend more funds for services under this subdivision than that amount which would be expended for placement in out-of-home care.
(5) The program in each county shall be deemed successful if it meets the following standards:
(A) Enables families to resolve their own problems, effectively utilize service systems, and advocate for their children in educational and social agencies.
(B) Enhancing family functioning by building on family strengths.
(C) At least 75 percent of the children receiving services remain in their own home for six months after termination of services.
(D) During the first year after services are terminated:
(i) At least 60 percent of the children receiving services remain at home one year after services are terminated.
(ii) The average length of stay in out-of-home care of children selected to receive services who have already been removed from their home and placed in out-of-home care is 50 percent less than the average length of stay in out-of-home care of children who do not receive program services.
(E) Two years after the termination of family preservation services:
(i) The average length of out-of-home stay of children selected to receive services under this section who, at the time of selection, are in out-of-home care, is 50 percent less than the average length of stay in out-of-home care for children in out-of-home care who do not receive services pursuant to this section.
(ii) At least 60 percent of the children who were returned home pursuant to this section remain at home.
(6) Funds used for services provided under this section shall supplement, not supplant, child welfare services funds available for services pursuant to Sections 16506 and 16507.
(7) Programs authorized after the original pilot projects shall submit data to the department upon the department’s request.
(d) (1) A county welfare department social worker or probation officer may, pursuant to an appropriate court order, return a dependent minor or ward of the court removed from the home pursuant to Section 361 to his or her home, with appropriate interagency family preservation program services.
(2) The county probation department may, with the approval of the State Department of Social Services, through an interagency agreement with the county welfare department, refer cases to the county welfare department for the direct provision of services under this subdivision.
(e) Foster care funds shall remain within the administrative authority of the county welfare department and shall be used only for placement services or placement prevention services or county welfare department administrative cost related to the interagency family preservation program.
(f) To the extent permitted by federal law, any federal funds provided for services to families and children, including Title IV-E waiver funds through the Social Security Act, may be utilized for the purposes of this section.
(g) A county may establish family preservation programs that serve one or more geographic areas of the county, subject to the approval of the State Department of Social Services.
(1) All funds expended by a county for activities under this section shall be expended by the county in a manner that will maximize eligibility for federal financial participation.
(2) A county, subject to the approval of the State Department of Social Services, may claim federal financial participation, if allowable and available, as provided by the State Department of Social Services in the federal Promoting Safe and Stable Families program in accordance with the federal guidelines and regulations for that county’s AFDC–FC expenditures pursuant to subdivision (d) of Section 11450, for children subject to Sections 300, 301, 360, and 364, in advance, provided that the county conducts a program of family reunification and family maintenance services for families receiving these services pursuant to Sections 300, 301, 360, and 364, and as permitted by the department, children subject to Sections 601, 602, 726, and 727 of this code, and Section 7572.5 of the Government Code.
(h) In order to maintain federal funding and meet federal requirements, the State Department of Social Services and the Office of Child Abuse Prevention shall provide administrative oversight, monitoring, and consultation to ensure both of the following:
(1) Each county includes in its county plan information that details what services are to be funded under this section and who will be served, and how the services are coordinated with the array of services available in the county. In order to maintain federal funding to meet federal requirements, the State Department of Social Services shall review these plans and provide technical assistance as needed, as provided in Section 10601.2. In order to meet federal requirements, the Office of Child Abuse Prevention shall require counties to submit annual reports, as part of the current reporting process, on program services and children and families served. The annual reporting process shall be developed jointly by the department and county agencies for the purpose of meeting federal reporting requirements.
(2) In order to maximize federal financial participation for the federal Promoting Safe and Stable Families grant, funds expended from this program are in compliance with data-reporting requirements in order to meet federal nonsupplantation requirements in accordance with Section 1357.32(f) of Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations, and the 25 percent state match requirement in accordance with Section 1357.32(d) of Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(i) Beginning in the 2011–12 fiscal year, and for each fiscal year thereafter, funding and expenditures for programs and activities under this section shall be made with moneys allocated pursuant to Section 30025 of the Government Code.
(j) As used in this section, “homeless” has the same meaning as that term is defined in Section 103 of the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 11302).

SEC. 9.

 Section 16517 of the Welfare and Institutions Code is amended to read:

16517.
 (a) (1) It is the intent of the Legislature to accomplish all of the following:
(A) To prevent the unnecessary separation of children from their families because of homelessness or the lack of shelter.
(B) To assist in the reunification of foster children and their families when housing remains a problem.
(C) To assist parents in securing appropriate housing and supportive services in order to reduce foster children’s length of stay in out-of-home care and hasten reunification for foster children and their families when a lack of housing is the sole impediment to reunification.
(2) Through the Section 8 housing certificate program created by Section 553 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (Public Law 101-625), housing assistance may be made available to families eligible for assistance under this program.
(b) (1) For the purposes of the Section 8 housing certificate program created by Section 553 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (Public Law 101-625), the county department of social services is designated “the public child welfare agency.”
(2) If a county chooses to participate in the Section 8 housing certificate program, all of the following shall occur:
(A) The county department of social services shall make the determination, pursuant to Section 553 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (Public Law 101-625), that an eligible child is at imminent risk of placement in out-of-home care or that an eligible child in out-of-home care under its supervision may be returned to his or her family.
(B) The county department of social services shall certify an eligible family as one for which the lack of adequate housing is a primary factor in the imminent placement of the family’s child or children in out-of-home care or in the delayed discharge of a child or children to the family from out-of-home care.
(C) The county department of social services shall transmit, in writing, its certification pursuant to subparagraph (B) to the local public housing agency responsible, pursuant to Section 34327.3 of the Health and Safety Code, for administering assistance under the Section 8 housing certificate program.
(c) As used in this section, “Section 8” means Section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. Sec. 1437 et seq.).
(d) The State Department of Social Services may, upon the request of a local public entity, provide technical assistance for the purpose of developing applications and plans from the local public entity for federal funding under the Section 8 housing certificate program created by Section 553 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (Public Law 101-625).
(e) The State Department of Social Services is authorized to adopt emergency regulations in accordance with Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 11340) of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code in order to implement the purposes of this section.
(f) In addition to any available county funds, through Title IV-E of the Social Security Act, any other available waiver funds may be used by participating counties to assist parents in securing appropriate housing and supportive services, in order to reduce a foster child’s length of stay in out-of-home care and hasten reunification for foster children and their families when a lack of housing is the sole impediment to reunification.

SEC. 10.

 To the extent that this act has an overall effect of increasing the costs already borne by a local agency for programs or levels of service mandated by the 2011 Realignment Legislation within the meaning of Section 36 of Article XIII of the California Constitution, it shall apply to local agencies only to the extent that the state provides annual funding for the cost increase. Any new program or higher level of service provided by a local agency pursuant to this act above the level for which funding has been provided shall not require a subvention of funds by the state nor otherwise be subject to Section 6 of Article XIII B of the California Constitution.